#Evidence of H1N1pdm09 #influenza exposure in #dogs and #cats, #Thailand: A serological survey (Zoonoses Public Health, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Zoonoses Public Health. 2018 Dec 14. doi: 10.1111/zph.12551. [Epub ahead of print]

Evidence of pandemic H1N1 influenza exposure in dogs and cats, Thailand: A serological survey.

Tangwangvivat R1,2, Chanvatik S1,2, Charoenkul K1,2, Chaiyawong S1,2, Janethanakit T1,2, Tuanudom R1,3, Prakairungnamthip D1,3, Boonyapisitsopa S1,2, Bunpapong N1,2, Amonsin A1,2.

Author information: 1 Center of Excellences for Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases in Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand. 2 Department of Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand. 3 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

 

Abstract

Influenza A virus causes respiratory disease in both humans and animals. In this study, a survey of influenza A antibodies in domestic dogs and cats was conducted in 47 animal shelters in 19 provinces of Thailand from September 2011 to September 2014. One thousand and eleven serum samples were collected from 932 dogs and 79 cats. Serum samples were tested for influenza A antibodies using a multi-species competitive NP-ELISA and haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. The NP-ELISA results showed that 0.97% (9/932) of dogs were positive, but all cat samples were negative. The HI test against pandemic H1N1, human H3N2 and canine H3N2 showed that 0.64% (6/932) and 1.20% (1/79) of dogs and cats were positive, respectively. It is noted that all six serum samples (5 dogs and 1 cat) had antibodies against pandemic H1N1. In summary, a serological survey revealed the evidence of pandemic H1N1 influenza exposure in both dogs and cats in the shelters in Thailand.

KEYWORDS: Thailand; canine; influenza; serology

PMID: 30552750 DOI: 10.1111/zph.12551

Keywords: Influenza A; H1N1pdm09; Seroprevalence; Dogs; Cats; Thailand.

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#Klebsiella pneumoniae causing #UTIs in companion #animals and #humans: population structure, antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes (J Antimicrob Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Klebsiella pneumoniae causing urinary tract infections in companion animals and humans: population structure, antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes

Cátia Marques, Juliana Menezes, Adriana Belas, Catarina Aboim, Patrícia Cavaco-Silva, Graça Trigueiro, Luís Telo Gama, Constança Pomba

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, dky499, https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dky499

Published: 10 December 2018

 

Abstract

Objectives

To characterize the population structure, antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes of Klebsiella spp. isolated from dogs, cats and humans with urinary tract infections (UTIs).

Methods

Klebsiella spp. from companion animals (n = 27) and humans (n = 77) with UTI were tested by the disc diffusion method against 29 antimicrobials. Resistant/intermediate isolates were tested by PCR for 16 resistance genes. Seven virulence genes were screened for by PCR. All Klebsiella pneumoniae from companion animals and third-generation cephalosporin (3GC)-resistant isolates from humans were typed by MLST. All Klebsiella spp. were compared after PFGE XbaI macro-restriction using Dice/UPGMA with 1.5% tolerance.

Results

blaCTX-M-15 was detected in >80% of 3GC-resistant strains. K. pneumoniaehigh-risk clonal lineage ST15 predominated in companion animal isolates (60%, n = 15/25). Most companion animal ST15 K. pneumoniae belonged to two PFGE clusters (C4, C5) that also included human strains. Companion animal and human ST15-CTX-M-15 K. pneumoniae shared a fimH-1/mrkD/entB/ycfM/kfu virulence profile, with a few (n = 4) also harbouring the yersiniabactin siderophore-encoding genes. The hospital-adapted ST11 K. pneumoniae clonal lineage was detected in a cat (n = 1) and a human (n = 1); both were MDR, had 81.1% Dice/UPGMA similarity and shared several virulence and resistance genes. Two 3GC-resistant ST348 strains with 86.7% Dice/UPGMA similarity were isolated from a cat and a human.

Conclusions

Companion animals with UTI become infected with high-risk K. pneumoniaeclonal lineages harbouring resistance and virulence genes similar to those detected in strains from humans. The ST15-CTX-M-15 K. pneumoniae clonal lineage was disseminated in companion animals with UTI. Caution must be applied by companion animal caretakers to avoid the spread of K. pneumoniaehigh-risk clonal lineages.

Issue Section: ORIGINAL RESEARCH

© The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model)

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Cephalosporins; Klebsiella pneumoniae; Cats; Human.

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The #Cat’s #Meow: Using Novel #Serological Approaches to Identify Cat-to- #Human #Influenza A(#H7N2) Transmission (J Infect Dis., summary)

[Source: Journal of Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

The Cat’s Meow: Using Novel Serological Approaches to Identify Cat-to-Human Influenza A(H7N2) Transmission

Seema Jain, Erin L Murray

The Journal of Infectious Diseases, jiy596, https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiy596

Published: 03 November 2018

(See the major Article by Poirot et al on pages XX-XX)

“What greater gift than the love of a cat?”—Charles Dickens, Great Expectations

Avian influenza viruses have rarely been detected in cats and, until 2016, no cat had ever been documented to have an influenza A(H7N2) virus infection or to transmit the virus to a human. In December 2016, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (NYC DOHMH) was alerted about a cat admitted to a Manhattan animal shelter on 12 November 2016 that subsequently died and was confirmed positive for influenza A(H7N2) virus, a low-pathogenic avian influenza virus [1, 2].

(…)

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H7N2; Cats; Human; USA; NYC.

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Detection of #Avian #Influenza A(#H7N2) Virus #Infection Among #Animal #Shelter #Workers Using a Novel Serological Approach— #NYC, 2016–2017 (J Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

CORRECTED PROOF / EDITOR’S CHOICE

Detection of Avian Influenza A(H7N2) Virus Infection Among Animal Shelter Workers Using a Novel Serological Approach—New York City, 2016–2017

Eugenie Poirot, Min Z Levine, Kate Russell, Rebekah J Stewart, Justine M Pompey, Sophia Chiu, Alicia M Fry, Liaini Gross, Fiona P Havers, Zhu-Nan Li, Feng Liu, Aldo Crossa, Christopher T Lee, Vanessa Boshuizen, Jennifer L Rakeman, Sally Slavinski, Scott Harper, L Hannah Gould

The Journal of Infectious Diseases, jiy595, https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiy595

Published: 05 November 2018

 

Abstract

Background

In 2016, an influenza A(H7N2) virus outbreak occurred in cats in New York City’s municipal animal shelters. One human infection was initially detected.

Methods

We conducted a serological survey using a novel approach to rule out cross-reactive antibodies to other seasonal influenza viruses to determine whether additional A(H7N2) human infections had occurred and to assess exposure risk.

Results

Of 121 shelter workers, one had serological evidence of A(H7N2) infection, corresponding to a seroprevalence of 0.8% (95% confidence interval, .02%–4.5%). Five persons exhibited low positive titers to A(H7N2) virus, indicating possible infection; however, we could not exclude cross-reactive antibody responses to seasonal influenza viruses. The remaining 115 persons were seronegative. The seropositive person reported multiple direct cat exposures without using personal protective equipment and mild illness with subjective fever, runny nose, and sore throat.

Conclusions

We identified a second case of A(H7N2) infection from this outbreak, providing further evidence of cat-to-human transmission of A(H7N2) virus.

influenza, H7N2, outbreak, zoonotic, serology, human infection

Issue Section: Major Article

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H7N2; Cats; Human; USA; NYC.

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Highly Pathogenic #Avian #Influenza A(#H5N6) in Domestic #Cats, South #Korea (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 24, Number 12—December 2018 / Dispatch

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N6) in Domestic Cats, South Korea

KyungHyun Lee1, Eun-Kyoung Lee1, HyunKyoung Lee, Gyeong-Beom Heo, Yu-Na Lee, Ji-Youl Jung, You-chan Bae, ByungJae So, Youn-Jeong Lee  , and Eun-Jin Choi

Author affiliations: Author affiliation: Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Gimcheon, South Korea

 

Abstract

In December 2016, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) infection with systemic pathological lesions was found in cats in South Korea. Genetic analyses indicated that the feline isolates were similar to HPAI H5N6 viruses isolated in chicken farms nearby. This finding highlights the need for monitoring of domestic mammals during HPAI outbreaks.

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6; Poultry; Cats; South Korea.

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Reverse Genetics for Type I #Feline #Coronavirus Field Isolate To Study the Molecular #Pathogenesis of Feline Infectious #Peritonitis (mBio, abstract)

[Source: mBio, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Reverse Genetics for Type I Feline Coronavirus Field Isolate To Study the Molecular Pathogenesis of Feline Infectious Peritonitis

Rosina Ehmann a, Claudia Kristen-Burmann a, Barbara Bank-Wolf a, Matthias König a, Christiane Herden b, Torsten Hain c, Heinz-Jürgen Thiel a, John Ziebuhr d, Gergely Tekes a

a Institute of Virology, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany; b Institute of Veterinary Pathology, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany; c Institute of Medical Microbiology, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany; d Institute of Medical Virology, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany

Michael J. Buchmeier, Editor

Author Affiliations: University of California, Irvine

Address correspondence to Gergely Tekes, gergely.tekes@vetmed.uni-giessen.de.

 

ABSTRACT

Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), one of the most important lethal infections of cats, is caused by feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), the high-virulence biotype of feline coronaviruses (FCoVs). FIPVs are suggested to emerge from feline enteric coronaviruses (FECVs) by acquiring mutations in specific genes in the course of persistent infections. Although numerous studies identified mutations predicted to be responsible for the FECV-FIPV biotype switch, the presumed roles of specific genetic changes in FIP pathogenesis have not been confirmed experimentally. Reverse genetics systems established previously for serotype I and the less common serotype II FCoVs were based on cell culture-adapted FIPV strains which, however, were shown to be unsuitable for FIP pathogenesis studies in vivo. To date, systems to produce and manipulate recombinant serotype I field viruses have not been developed, mainly because these viruses cannot be grown in vitro. Here, we report the first reverse genetics system based on a serotype I FECV field isolate that is suitable to produce high-titer stocks of recombinant FECVs. We demonstrate that these recombinant viruses cause productive persistent infections in cats that are similar to what is observed in natural infections. The system provides an excellent tool for studying FCoVs that do not grow in standard cell culture systems and will greatly facilitate studies into the molecular pathogenesis of FIP. Importantly, the system could also be adapted for studies of other RNA viruses with large genomes whose production and characterization in vivo are currently hampered by the lack of in vitro propagation systems.

 

IMPORTANCE

The availability of recombinant serotype I FCoV field isolates that are amenable to genetic manipulation is key to studying the molecular pathogenesis of FIP, especially since previous studies using cell culture-adapted FIPVs had proven unsuccessful. To our knowledge, we report the first serotype I FECV field isolate-based reverse genetics system that allows the production of high-titer recombinant virus stocks that can be used for subsequent in vivo studies in cats. The system represents a milestone in FCoV research. It provides an essential tool for studying the molecular pathogenesis of FIP and, more specifically, the functions of specific gene products in causing a fundamentally different progression of disease following acquisition of specific mutations. The system developed in this study will also be useful for studying other coronaviruses or more distantly related RNA viruses with large genomes for which suitable in vitroculture systems are not available.

KEYWORDS: feline coronavirus field isolates –  feline infectious peritonitis –  reverse genetics

 

FOOTNOTES

Citation Ehmann R, Kristen-Burmann C, Bank-Wolf B, König M, Herden C, Hain T, Thiel H-J, Ziebuhr J, Tekes G. 2018. Reverse genetics for type I feline coronavirus field isolate to study the molecular pathogenesis of feline infectious peritonitis. mBio 9:e01422-18. https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01422-18.

Received 28 June 2018  – Accepted 3 July 2018  – Published 31 July 2018

Copyright © 2018 Ehmann et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.

Keywords: Coronavirus; Feline Coronavirus; Cats.

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Novel #Orthopoxvirus and Lethal #Disease in #Cat, #Italy (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention  (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 24, Number 9—September 2018 / Research

Novel Orthopoxvirus and Lethal Disease in Cat, Italy

Gianvito Lanave, Giulia Dowgier, Nicola Decaro  , Francesco Albanese, Elisa Brogi, Antonio Parisi, Michele Losurdo, Antonio Lavazza, Vito Martella, Canio Buonavoglia, and Gabriella Elia

Author affiliations: University of Bari, Valenzano, Italy (G. Lanave, G. Dowgier, N. Decaro, M. Losurdo, V. Martella, C. Buonavoglia, G. Elia); La Vallonea Veterinary Laboratory, Milan, Italy (F. Albanese); Centro Veterinario Montarioso, Siena, Italy (E. Brogi); Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale di Puglia e Basilicata, Putignano, Italy (A. Parisi); Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale di Lombardia ed Emilia Romagna, Brescia, Italy (A. Lavazza)

 

Abstract

We report detection and full-genome characterization of a novel orthopoxivirus (OPXV) responsible for a fatal infection in a cat. The virus induced skin lesions histologically characterized by leukocyte infiltration and eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions. Different PCR approaches were unable to assign the virus to a defined OPXV species. Large amounts of typical brick-shaped virions, morphologically related to OPXV, were observed by electron microscopy. This OPXV strain (Italy_09/17) was isolated on cell cultures and embryonated eggs. Phylogenetic analysis of 9 concatenated genes showed that this virus was distantly related to cowpox virus, more closely related to to ectromelia virus, and belonged to the same cluster of an OPXV recently isolated from captive macaques in Italy. Extensive epidemiologic surveillance in cats and rodents will assess whether cats are incidental hosts and rodents are the main reservoir of the virus. The zoonotic potential of this novel virus also deserves further investigation.

Keywords: Orthopoxvirus; Cats; Italy; Ectromelia virus; Cowpox virus.

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