#Adaptation of #H3N2 #canine #influenza virus to #feline cell culture

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

PLoS One. 2019 Oct 10;14(10):e0223507. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0223507. eCollection 2019.

Adaptation of H3N2 canine influenza virus to feline cell culture.

Kamiki H1, Matsugo H1, Ishida H1, Kobayashi-Kitamura T1, Sekine W1, Takenaka-Uema A1, Murakami S1, Horimoto T1.

Author information: 1 Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

 

Abstract

H3N2 canine influenza viruses are prevalent in Asian and North American countries. During circulation of the viruses in dogs, these viruses are occasionally transmitted to cats. If this canine virus causes an epidemic in cats too, sporadic infections may occur in humans because of the close contact between these companion animals and humans, possibly triggering an emergence of mutant viruses with a pandemic potential. In this study, we aimed to gain an insight into the mutations responsible for inter-species transmission of H3N2 virus from dogs to cats. We found that feline CRFK cell-adapted viruses acquired several mutations in multiple genome segments. Among them, HA1-K299R, HA2-T107I, NA-L35R, and M2-W41C mutations individually increased virus growth in CRFK cells. With a combination of these mutations, virus growth further increased not only in CRFK cells but also in other feline fcwf-4 cells. Both HA1-K299R and HA2-T107I mutations increased thermal resistance of the viruses. In addition, HA2-T107I increased the pH requirement for membrane fusion. These findings suggest that the mutations, especially the two HA mutations, identified in this study, might be responsible for adaptation of H3N2 canine influenza viruses in cats.

PMID: 31600274 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0223507

Keywords: Canine Avian Influenza; H3N2; Cats; Dogs.

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#Shedding of #OXA-181 #carbapenemase-producing #Escherichia coli from companion #animals after #hospitalisation in #Switzerland: an outbreak in 2018 (Euro Surveill., abstract)

[Source: Eurosurveillance, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Shedding of OXA-181 carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli from companion animals after hospitalisation in Switzerland: an outbreak in 2018

Aurélien Nigg1, Michael Brilhante1,2, Valentina Dazio3, Mathieu Clément2,5, Alexandra Collaud1, Stefanie Gobeli Brawand1, Barbara Willi4, Andrea Endimiani5, Simone Schuller3, Vincent Perreten1

Affiliations: 1 Institute of Veterinary Bacteriology, Bern, University of Bern; 2 Graduate School of Cellular and Biomedical Sciences, Bern, University of Bern; 3 Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Bern, University of Bern; 4 Clinic for Small Animal Internal Medicine, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 5 Institute for Infectious Diseases, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland

Correspondence: Vincent Perretenvincent.perretenvetsuisse.unibe.ch

Citation style for this article: Nigg Aurélien, Brilhante Michael, Dazio Valentina, Clément Mathieu, Collaud Alexandra, Gobeli Brawand Stefanie, Willi Barbara, Endimiani Andrea, Schuller Simone, Perreten Vincent. Shedding of OXA-181 carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli from companion animals after hospitalisation in Switzerland: an outbreak in 2018. Euro Surveill. 2019;24(39):pii=1900071. https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.39.1900071

Received: 22 Jan 2019;   Accepted: 19 May 2019

 

Abstract

Background

Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae pose a serious threat to public health worldwide, and the role of companion animals as a reservoir is still unclear.

Aims

This 4-month prospective observational study evaluated carriage of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae at admission and after hospitalisation in a large referral hospital for companion animals in Switzerland.

Methods

Rectal swabs of dogs and cats expected to be hospitalised for at least 48 h were taken from May to August 2018 and analysed for the presence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae using selective agar plates. Resistant isolates were further characterised analysing whole genome sequences for resistance gene and plasmid identification, and ad hoc core genome multilocus sequence typing.

Results

This study revealed nosocomial acquisition of Escherichia coli harbouring the carbapenemase gene blaOXA-181, the pAmpC cephalosporinase gene blaCMY-42 as well as quinolone resistance associated with qnrS1 and mutations in the topoisomerases II (GyrA) and IV (ParC). The blaOXA-181 and qnrS1 genes were identified on a 51 kb IncX3 plasmid and blaCMY-42 on a 47 kb IncI1 plasmid. All isolates belonged to sequence type ST410 and were genetically highly related. This E. coli clone was detected in 17 of 100 dogs and four of 34 cats after hospitalisation (21.6%), only one of the tested animals having tested positive at admission (0.75%). Two positive animals were still carriers 4 months after hospital discharge, but were negative after 6 months.

Conclusions

Companion animals may acquire carbapenemase-producing E. coli during hospitalisation, posing the risk of further dissemination to the animal and human population and to the environment.

© This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Carbapenem; E. Coli; Cats; Dogs; Switzerland.

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Linked seasonal #outbreaks of #Salmonella Typhimurium among #passerine #birds, domestic #cats and #humans, #Sweden, 2009 to 2016 (Euro Surveill., abstract)

[Source: Eurosurveillance, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Linked seasonal outbreaks of Salmonella Typhimurium among passerine birds, domestic cats and humans, Sweden, 2009 to 2016

Robert Söderlund 1, Cecilia Jernberg 2, Linda Trönnberg 2, Anna Pääjärvi 2, Erik Ågren 1, Elina Lahti 1

Affiliations: 1 National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden; 2 Public Health Agency of Sweden, Solna, Sweden

Correspondence:  Robert Söderlund

Citation style for this article: Söderlund Robert, Jernberg Cecilia, Trönnberg Linda, Pääjärvi Anna, Ågren Erik, Lahti Elina. Linked seasonal outbreaks of Salmonella Typhimurium among passerine birds, domestic cats and humans, Sweden, 2009 to 2016. Euro Surveill. 2019;24(34):pii=1900074. https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.34.1900074

Received: 24 Jan 2019;   Accepted: 29 Apr 2019

 

Abstract

In 2016, an outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium (STm) with multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) profiles historically associated with passerine birds (2-[11-15]-[3-4]-NA-212) occurred among passerines, cats and humans in Sweden. Our retrospective observational study investigated the outbreak and revisited historical data from 2009–16 to identify seasonality, phylogeography and other characteristics of this STm variant. Outbreak isolates were analysed by whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing. The number of notified cases of passerine-associated STm among passerines, cats and humans per month and county, and their MLVA profiles, were compared to birdwatchers’ counts of passerines. Seasonal trend decomposition and correlation analysis was performed. Outbreak isolates did not cluster by host on SNP level. Passerine-associated STm was seasonal for birds, cats and humans, with a peak in March. Cases and counts of passerines at bird feeders varied between years. The incidence of passerine-associated STm infections in humans was higher in the boreal north compared with the southern and capital regions, consistent with passerine population densities. Seasonal mass migration of passerines appears to cause STm outbreaks among cats certain years in Sweden, most likely via predation on weakened birds. Outbreaks among humans can follow, presumably caused by contact with cats or environmental contamination.

© This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Keywords: Wild Birds; Salmonellosis; Cats; Human; Sweden.

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#Evidence of H1N1pdm09 #influenza exposure in #dogs and #cats, #Thailand: A serological survey (Zoonoses Public Health, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Zoonoses Public Health. 2018 Dec 14. doi: 10.1111/zph.12551. [Epub ahead of print]

Evidence of pandemic H1N1 influenza exposure in dogs and cats, Thailand: A serological survey.

Tangwangvivat R1,2, Chanvatik S1,2, Charoenkul K1,2, Chaiyawong S1,2, Janethanakit T1,2, Tuanudom R1,3, Prakairungnamthip D1,3, Boonyapisitsopa S1,2, Bunpapong N1,2, Amonsin A1,2.

Author information: 1 Center of Excellences for Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases in Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand. 2 Department of Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand. 3 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

 

Abstract

Influenza A virus causes respiratory disease in both humans and animals. In this study, a survey of influenza A antibodies in domestic dogs and cats was conducted in 47 animal shelters in 19 provinces of Thailand from September 2011 to September 2014. One thousand and eleven serum samples were collected from 932 dogs and 79 cats. Serum samples were tested for influenza A antibodies using a multi-species competitive NP-ELISA and haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. The NP-ELISA results showed that 0.97% (9/932) of dogs were positive, but all cat samples were negative. The HI test against pandemic H1N1, human H3N2 and canine H3N2 showed that 0.64% (6/932) and 1.20% (1/79) of dogs and cats were positive, respectively. It is noted that all six serum samples (5 dogs and 1 cat) had antibodies against pandemic H1N1. In summary, a serological survey revealed the evidence of pandemic H1N1 influenza exposure in both dogs and cats in the shelters in Thailand.

KEYWORDS: Thailand; canine; influenza; serology

PMID: 30552750 DOI: 10.1111/zph.12551

Keywords: Influenza A; H1N1pdm09; Seroprevalence; Dogs; Cats; Thailand.

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#Klebsiella pneumoniae causing #UTIs in companion #animals and #humans: population structure, antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes (J Antimicrob Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Klebsiella pneumoniae causing urinary tract infections in companion animals and humans: population structure, antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes

Cátia Marques, Juliana Menezes, Adriana Belas, Catarina Aboim, Patrícia Cavaco-Silva, Graça Trigueiro, Luís Telo Gama, Constança Pomba

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, dky499, https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dky499

Published: 10 December 2018

 

Abstract

Objectives

To characterize the population structure, antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes of Klebsiella spp. isolated from dogs, cats and humans with urinary tract infections (UTIs).

Methods

Klebsiella spp. from companion animals (n = 27) and humans (n = 77) with UTI were tested by the disc diffusion method against 29 antimicrobials. Resistant/intermediate isolates were tested by PCR for 16 resistance genes. Seven virulence genes were screened for by PCR. All Klebsiella pneumoniae from companion animals and third-generation cephalosporin (3GC)-resistant isolates from humans were typed by MLST. All Klebsiella spp. were compared after PFGE XbaI macro-restriction using Dice/UPGMA with 1.5% tolerance.

Results

blaCTX-M-15 was detected in >80% of 3GC-resistant strains. K. pneumoniaehigh-risk clonal lineage ST15 predominated in companion animal isolates (60%, n = 15/25). Most companion animal ST15 K. pneumoniae belonged to two PFGE clusters (C4, C5) that also included human strains. Companion animal and human ST15-CTX-M-15 K. pneumoniae shared a fimH-1/mrkD/entB/ycfM/kfu virulence profile, with a few (n = 4) also harbouring the yersiniabactin siderophore-encoding genes. The hospital-adapted ST11 K. pneumoniae clonal lineage was detected in a cat (n = 1) and a human (n = 1); both were MDR, had 81.1% Dice/UPGMA similarity and shared several virulence and resistance genes. Two 3GC-resistant ST348 strains with 86.7% Dice/UPGMA similarity were isolated from a cat and a human.

Conclusions

Companion animals with UTI become infected with high-risk K. pneumoniaeclonal lineages harbouring resistance and virulence genes similar to those detected in strains from humans. The ST15-CTX-M-15 K. pneumoniae clonal lineage was disseminated in companion animals with UTI. Caution must be applied by companion animal caretakers to avoid the spread of K. pneumoniaehigh-risk clonal lineages.

Issue Section: ORIGINAL RESEARCH

© The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model)

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Cephalosporins; Klebsiella pneumoniae; Cats; Human.

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The #Cat’s #Meow: Using Novel #Serological Approaches to Identify Cat-to- #Human #Influenza A(#H7N2) Transmission (J Infect Dis., summary)

[Source: Journal of Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

The Cat’s Meow: Using Novel Serological Approaches to Identify Cat-to-Human Influenza A(H7N2) Transmission

Seema Jain, Erin L Murray

The Journal of Infectious Diseases, jiy596, https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiy596

Published: 03 November 2018

(See the major Article by Poirot et al on pages XX-XX)

“What greater gift than the love of a cat?”—Charles Dickens, Great Expectations

Avian influenza viruses have rarely been detected in cats and, until 2016, no cat had ever been documented to have an influenza A(H7N2) virus infection or to transmit the virus to a human. In December 2016, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (NYC DOHMH) was alerted about a cat admitted to a Manhattan animal shelter on 12 November 2016 that subsequently died and was confirmed positive for influenza A(H7N2) virus, a low-pathogenic avian influenza virus [1, 2].

(…)

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H7N2; Cats; Human; USA; NYC.

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Detection of #Avian #Influenza A(#H7N2) Virus #Infection Among #Animal #Shelter #Workers Using a Novel Serological Approach— #NYC, 2016–2017 (J Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

CORRECTED PROOF / EDITOR’S CHOICE

Detection of Avian Influenza A(H7N2) Virus Infection Among Animal Shelter Workers Using a Novel Serological Approach—New York City, 2016–2017

Eugenie Poirot, Min Z Levine, Kate Russell, Rebekah J Stewart, Justine M Pompey, Sophia Chiu, Alicia M Fry, Liaini Gross, Fiona P Havers, Zhu-Nan Li, Feng Liu, Aldo Crossa, Christopher T Lee, Vanessa Boshuizen, Jennifer L Rakeman, Sally Slavinski, Scott Harper, L Hannah Gould

The Journal of Infectious Diseases, jiy595, https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiy595

Published: 05 November 2018

 

Abstract

Background

In 2016, an influenza A(H7N2) virus outbreak occurred in cats in New York City’s municipal animal shelters. One human infection was initially detected.

Methods

We conducted a serological survey using a novel approach to rule out cross-reactive antibodies to other seasonal influenza viruses to determine whether additional A(H7N2) human infections had occurred and to assess exposure risk.

Results

Of 121 shelter workers, one had serological evidence of A(H7N2) infection, corresponding to a seroprevalence of 0.8% (95% confidence interval, .02%–4.5%). Five persons exhibited low positive titers to A(H7N2) virus, indicating possible infection; however, we could not exclude cross-reactive antibody responses to seasonal influenza viruses. The remaining 115 persons were seronegative. The seropositive person reported multiple direct cat exposures without using personal protective equipment and mild illness with subjective fever, runny nose, and sore throat.

Conclusions

We identified a second case of A(H7N2) infection from this outbreak, providing further evidence of cat-to-human transmission of A(H7N2) virus.

influenza, H7N2, outbreak, zoonotic, serology, human infection

Issue Section: Major Article

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H7N2; Cats; Human; USA; NYC.

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