#Lions, #Tigers and #Kittens too: #ACE2 and susceptibility to #CoVID19 (Evol Med Pub Health, abstract)

[Source: Evolution, Medicine and Public Health, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Lions, Tigers and Kittens too: ACE2 and susceptibility to CoVID-19

Sabateeshan Mathavarajah, Graham Dellaire

Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health, eoaa021, https://doi.org/10.1093/emph/eoaa021

Published: 03 July 2020

 

Abstract

SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2) has been reported to infect domesticated animals in a species-specific manner, where cats were susceptible but not dogs. Using the recently published crystal structure of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein complexed with the human host cell receptor ACE2, we characterized the structure and evolution of ACE2 in several of these species and identify a single interacting amino acid residue conserved between human and Felidae ACE2 but not in Canidae that correlates with virus susceptibility. Using computational analyses we describe how this site likely affects ACE2 targeting by the virus. Thus, we highlight how evolution-based approaches can be used to form hypotheses and study animal transmission of such viruses in the future.

Lay summary:

Recently, the virus that causes COVID-19 was shown to transmit to companion animals. A single genetic change in the host receptor for the virus inherited in cats, but not dogs, correlates with feline susceptibility. With human-to-cat transmission of COVID-19 confirmed, such information can inform public health policy regarding companion animals.

Coronavirus, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, Molecular evolution, ACE2, Host-pathogen

Subject Public Health and EpidemiologyEvolutionary Biology

Issue Section: Brevia

This content is only available as a PDF.

© The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Foundation for Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Evolution; Cats; Dogs.

——-

First Reported Cases of #SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Companion #Animals — #NY, March–April 2020 (MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

First Reported Cases of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Companion Animals — New York, March–April 2020

Early Release / June 8, 2020 / 69

Alexandra Newman, DVM1; David Smith, DVM2; Ria R. Ghai, PhD3,4; Ryan M. Wallace, DVM3,4; Mia Kim Torchetti, DVM, PhD5; Christina Loiacono, DVM, PhD5; Laura S. Murrell, MA3,4; Ann Carpenter, DVM3,4; Scott Moroff, VMD6; Jane A. Rooney, DVM7; Casey Barton Behravesh, DVM, DrPH3,4

Corresponding author: Casey Barton Behravesh, CBartonbehravesh@cdc.gov, 404-639-0367.

1 New York State Department of Public Health; 2 New York State Department of Agriculture and Markets; 3 COVID-19 One Health Working Group, CDC; 4 National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, CDC; 5 National Veterinary Services Laboratories, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA); 6 Antech Diagnostics; 7 One Health Coordination, APHIS, USDA.

All authors have completed and submitted the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors form for disclosure of potential conflicts of interest. David Smith reports grants and nonfinancial support from the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Veterinary Services, during the conduct of the study. No other potential conflicts of interest were disclosed.

Suggested citation for this article: Newman A, Smith D, Ghai RR, et al. First Reported Cases of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Companion Animals — New York, March–April 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. ePub: 8 June 2020. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6923e3

 

Summary

  • What is already known about this topic?
    • A small number of companion animals worldwide have been naturally infected with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.
  • What is added by this report?
    • Two domestic cats with respiratory illnesses lasting 8 and 10 days are the first reported companion animals with SARS-CoV-2 infection in the United States. Both cats were owned by persons with suspected or confirmed COVID-19, and both cats fully recovered.
  • What are the implications for public health practice?
    • Human-to-animal transmission of SARS-CoV-2 can occasionally occur. Animals are not known to play a substantial role in spreading COVID-19, but persons with COVID-19 should avoid contact with animals. Companion animals that test positive for SARS-CoV-2 should be monitored and separated from persons and other animals until they recover.

 

Abstract

On April 22, CDC and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) reported cases of two domestic cats with confirmed infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). These are the first reported companion animals (including pets and service animals) with SARS-CoV-2 infection in the United States, and among the first findings of SARS-CoV-2 symptomatic companion animals reported worldwide. These feline cases originated from separate households and were epidemiologically linked to suspected or confirmed human COVID-19 cases in their respective households. Notification of presumptive positive animal test results triggered a One Health* investigation by state and federal partners, who determined that no further transmission events to other animals or persons had occurred. Both cats fully recovered. Although there is currently no evidence that animals play a substantial role in spreading COVID-19, CDC advises persons with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 to restrict contact with animals during their illness and to monitor any animals with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and separate them from other persons and animals at home (1).

(…)

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; USA; New York; Cats.

—–

Susceptibility of #ferrets, #cats, #dogs, and other domesticated #animals to #SARS–coronavirus 2 (Science, abstract)

[Source: Science, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Susceptibility of ferrets, cats, dogs, and other domesticated animals to SARS–coronavirus 2

Jianzhong Shi1,*, Zhiyuan Wen1,*, Gongxun Zhong1,*, Huanliang Yang1,*, Chong Wang1,*, Baoying Huang2,*, Renqiang Liu1, Xijun He3, Lei Shuai1, Ziruo Sun1, Yubo Zhao1, Peipei Liu2, Libin Liang1, Pengfei Cui1, Jinliang Wang1, Xianfeng Zhang3, Yuntao Guan3, Wenjie Tan2, Guizhen Wu2,†, Hualan Chen1,†, Zhigao Bu1,3,†

Science  29 May 2020: Vol. 368, Issue 6494, pp. 1016-1020 | DOI: 10.1126/science.abb7015

 

Alternative hosts and model animals

The severe acute respiratory syndrome–coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic may have originated in bats, but how it made its way into humans is unknown. Because of its zoonotic origins, SARS-CoV-2 is unlikely to exclusively infect humans, so it would be valuable to have an animal model for drug and vaccine development. Shi et al. tested ferrets, as well as livestock and companion animals of humans, for their susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 (see the Perspective by Lakdawala and Menachery). The authors found that SARS-CoV-2 infects the upper respiratory tracts of ferrets but is poorly transmissible between individuals. In cats, the virus replicated in the nose and throat and caused inflammatory pathology deeper in the respiratory tract, and airborne transmission did occur between pairs of cats. Dogs appeared not to support viral replication well and had low susceptibility to the virus, and pigs, chickens, and ducks were not susceptible to SARS-CoV-2.

Science, this issue p. 1016; see also p. 942

 

Abstract

Severe acute respiratory syndrome–coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes the infectious disease COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019), which was first reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Despite extensive efforts to control the disease, COVID-19 has now spread to more than 100 countries and caused a global pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 is thought to have originated in bats; however, the intermediate animal sources of the virus are unknown. In this study, we investigated the susceptibility of ferrets and animals in close contact with humans to SARS-CoV-2. We found that SARS-CoV-2 replicates poorly in dogs, pigs, chickens, and ducks, but ferrets and cats are permissive to infection. Additionally, cats are susceptible to airborne transmission. Our study provides insights into the animal models for SARS-CoV-2 and animal management for COVID-19 control.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Ferrets; Cats; Dogs; Pigs; Poultry.

——

#Comparison of #SARS-CoV-2 #spike protein binding to #ACE2 #receptors from #human, #pets, farm #animals, and putative intermediate hosts (J Virol., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Comparison of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein binding to ACE2 receptors from human, pets, farm animals, and putative intermediate hosts

Xiaofeng Zhai, Jiumeng Sun, Ziqing Yan, Jie Zhang, Jin Zhao, Zongzheng Zhao, Qi Gao, Wan-Ting He, Michael Veit, Shuo Su

DOI: 10.1128/JVI.00831-20

 

ABSTRACT

The emergence of a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, resulted in a pandemic. Here, we used X-ray structures of human ACE2 bound to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein (S) from SARS-CoV-2 to predict its binding to ACE2 proteins from different animals, including pets, farm animals, and putative intermediate hosts of SARS-CoV-2. Comparing the interaction sites of ACE2 proteins known to serve or not serve as receptor allows to define residues important for binding. From the 20 amino acids in ACE2 that contact S up to seven can be replaced and ACE2 can still function as the SARS-CoV-2 receptor. These variable amino acids are clustered at certain positions, mostly at the periphery of the binding site, while changes of the invariable residues prevent S-binding or infection of the respective animal. Some ACE2 proteins even tolerate the loss or the acquisition of N-glycosylation sites located near the S-interface. Of note, Pigs and dogs, which are not or not effectively infected and have only a few changes in the binding site, exhibit relatively low levels of ACE2 in the respiratory tract. Comparison of the RBD of S of SARS-CoV-2 with viruses from Bat-CoV-RaTG13 and Pangolin-CoV revealed that the latter contains only one substitution, whereas the Bat-CoV-RaTG13 exhibits five. However, ACE2 of pangolin exhibit seven changes relative to human ACE2, a similar number of substitutions is present in ACE2 of bats, raccoon, and civet suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 may not especially adapted to ACE2 of any of its putative intermediate hosts. These analyses provide new insight into the receptor usage and animal source/origin of SARS-CoV-2.

 

IMPORTANCE

SARS-CoV-2 is threatening people worldwide and there are no drugs or vaccines available to mitigate its spread. The origin of the virus is still unclear and whether pets and livestock can be infected and transmit SARS-CoV-2 are important and unknown scientific questions. Effective binding to the host receptor ACE2 is the first prerequisite for infection of cells and determines the host range. Our analysis provides a framework for the prediction of potential hosts of SARS-CoV-2. We found that ACE2 from species known to support SARS-CoV-2 infection tolerate many amino acid changes indicating that the species barrier might be low. An exception are dogs and especially pigs, which, however, revealed relatively low ACE2 expression levels in the respiratory tract. Monitoring of animals is necessary to prevent the generation of a new coronavirus reservoir. Finally, our analysis also showed that SARS-CoV-2 may not be specifically adapted to any of its putative intermediate hosts.

Copyright © 2020 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted noncommercial re-use and secondary analysis in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the World Health Organization (WHO) declaration of COVID-19 as a global pandemic.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Dogs; Cats; Wildlife.

——

Comparison of #SARS-CoV-2 #spike protein #binding to #ACE2 #receptors from #human, #pets, #farm #animals, and putative intermediate #hosts (J Virol., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Comparison of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein binding to ACE2 receptors from human, pets, farm animals, and putative intermediate hosts

Xiaofeng Zhai, Jiumeng Sun, Ziqing Yan, Jie Zhang, Jin Zhao, Zongzheng Zhao, Qi Gao, Wan-Ting He, Michael Veit, Shuo Su

DOI: 10.1128/JVI.00831-20

 

ABSTRACT

The emergence of a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, resulted in a pandemic. Here, we used X-ray structures of human ACE2 bound to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein (S) from SARS-CoV-2 to predict its binding to ACE2 proteins from different animals, including pets, farm animals, and putative intermediate hosts of SARS-CoV-2. Comparing the interaction sites of ACE2 proteins known to serve or not serve as receptor allows to define residues important for binding. From the 20 amino acids in ACE2 that contact S up to seven can be replaced and ACE2 can still function as the SARS-CoV-2 receptor. These variable amino acids are clustered at certain positions, mostly at the periphery of the binding site, while changes of the invariable residues prevent S-binding or infection of the respective animal. Some ACE2 proteins even tolerate the loss or the acquisition of N-glycosylation sites located near the S-interface. Of note, Pigs and dogs, which are not or not effectively infected and have only a few changes in the binding site, exhibit relatively low levels of ACE2 in the respiratory tract. Comparison of the RBD of S of SARS-CoV-2 with viruses from Bat-CoV-RaTG13 and Pangolin-CoV revealed that the latter contains only one substitution, whereas the Bat-CoV-RaTG13 exhibits five. However, ACE2 of pangolin exhibit seven changes relative to human ACE2, a similar number of substitutions is present in ACE2 of bats, raccoon, and civet suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 may not especially adapted to ACE2 of any of its putative intermediate hosts. These analyses provide new insight into the receptor usage and animal source/origin of SARS-CoV-2.

 

IMPORTANCE

SARS-CoV-2 is threatening people worldwide and there are no drugs or vaccines available to mitigate its spread. The origin of the virus is still unclear and whether pets and livestock can be infected and transmit SARS-CoV-2 are important and unknown scientific questions. Effective binding to the host receptor ACE2 is the first prerequisite for infection of cells and determines the host range. Our analysis provides a framework for the prediction of potential hosts of SARS-CoV-2. We found that ACE2 from species known to support SARS-CoV-2 infection tolerate many amino acid changes indicating that the species barrier might be low. An exception are dogs and especially pigs, which, however, revealed relatively low ACE2 expression levels in the respiratory tract. Monitoring of animals is necessary to prevent the generation of a new coronavirus reservoir. Finally, our analysis also showed that SARS-CoV-2 may not be specifically adapted to any of its putative intermediate hosts.

Copyright © 2020 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Cats; Dogs; Pigs.

—–

#Transmission of #SARS-CoV-2 in Domestic #Cats (N Engl J Med., summary)

[Source: The New England Journal of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in Domestic Cats

___

TO THE EDITOR: Reports of human-to-feline transmission of severe acute respiratory  syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)1 and of limited airborne transmission among  cats2 prompted us to evaluate nasal shedding of SARS-CoV-2 from inoculated cats and  the subsequent transmission of the virus by direct contact between virus-inoculated cats  and cats with no previous infection with the virus. Three domestic cats were inoculated  with SARS-CoV-2 on day 0. One day after inoculation, a cat with no previous SARS-CoV-2  infection was cohoused with each of the inoculated cats to assess whether transmission  of the virus by direct contact would occur between the cats in each of the three pairs  (Table S1 in the Supplementary Appendix, available with the full text of this letter at  NEJM.org). Nasal and rectal swab specimens were obtained daily and immediately  assessed for infectious virus on VeroE6/TMPRSS2 cells.3

(…)

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Cats.

—–

A Critical #Needs #Assessment for #Research in #Companion #Animals and #Livestock Following the #Pandemic of #COVID19 in #Humans (Vector Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

A Critical Needs Assessment for Research in Companion Animals and Livestock Following the Pandemic of COVID-19 in Humans

Tracey McNamara, Juergen A. Richt, and Larry Glickman

Published Online: 5 May 2020 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2020.2650

 

Abstract

Problem:

The emergence of novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in Wuhan, China, in November 2019 and a growing body of information compel inquiry regarding the transmissibility of infection between humans and certain animal species. Although there are a number of issues to be considered, the following points are most urgent:

  • The potential for domesticated (companion) animals to serve as a reservoir of infection contributing to continued human-to-human disease, infectivity, and community spread.
  • The ramifications to food security, economy, and trade issues should coronavirus establish itself within livestock and poultry.
  • The disruption to national security if SARS-CoV-2 and its fairly well-established effects on smell (hyposmia/anosmia) to critical military service animals including explosive detector dog, narcotics detector dog, specialized search dog, combat tracker dog, mine detection dog, tactical explosive detector dog, improvised explosive device detector dog, patrol explosive detector dog, and patrol narcotics detector dog, as well as multipurpose canines used by special operations such as used by the U.S. customs and border protection agency (e.g., Beagle Brigade).

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Dogs; Cats; Livestock.

——

#SARS‐CoV‐2 and the Hidden #Carriers – #Sewage, #Feline, and #Blood #Transfusion (J Med Virol., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Medical Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

SARS‐CoV‐2 and the Hidden Carriers – Sewage, Feline, and Blood Transfusion

Muhammad Ali,  Muhammad Zaid,  Muhammad Arif Nadeem Saqib,  Haroon Ahmed, Muhammad Sohail Afzal

First published: 28 April 2020 | DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25956

This article has been accepted for publication and undergone full peer review but has not been through the copyediting, typesetting, pagination and proofreading process, which may lead to differences between this version and the Version of Record. Please cite this article as doi: 10.1002/jmv.25956

 

Abstract

We have read with great interests a recent article showing SARS‐CoV‐2 viral RNA in feces of children during their recovery period from the disease.1 The study showed that even though no viral nucleic acid was detected in the throat swab specimens, the virus was identified in their feces samples. More recently, Li et al2 and Liu et al.3 detected the virus nucleic acid in the feces and sputum of discharged patients of the disease following quarantine protocol in their homes.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Cats; Blood safety.

——

#Susceptibility of #ferrets, #cats, #dogs, and other domesticated #animals to #SARS–coronavirus 2 (Science, abstract)

[Source: Science, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Susceptibility of ferrets, cats, dogs, and other domesticated animals to SARS–coronavirus 2

Jianzhong Shi1,*, Zhiyuan Wen1,*, Gongxun Zhong1,*, Huanliang Yang1,*, Chong Wang1,*, Baoying Huang2,*, Renqiang Liu1, Xijun He3, Lei Shuai1, Ziruo Sun1, Yubo Zhao1, Peipei Liu2, Libin Liang1, Pengfei Cui1, Jinliang Wang1, Xianfeng Zhang3, Yuntao Guan3, Wenjie Tan2, Guizhen Wu2,†, Hualan Chen1,†, Zhigao Bu1,3,†

1 State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin 150069, People’s Republic of China. 2 National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China CDC, Beijing 102206, People’s Republic of China. 3 National High Containment Laboratory for Animal Diseases Control and Prevention, Harbin 150069, People’s Republic of China.

†Corresponding author. Email: buzhigao@caas.cn (Z.B.); chenhualan@caas.cn (H.C.); wugz@ivdc.chinacdc.cn (G.W.)

* These authors contributed equally to this work.

Science  08 Apr 2020: eabb7015 | DOI: 10.1126/science.abb7015

 

Abstract

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes the infectious disease COVID-19, which was first reported in Wuhan, China in December, 2019. Despite the tremendous efforts to control the disease, COVID-19 has now spread to over 100 countries and caused a global pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 is thought to have originated in bats; however, the intermediate animal sources of the virus are completely unknown. Here, we investigated the susceptibility of ferrets and animals in close contact with humans to SARS-CoV-2. We found that SARS-CoV-2 replicates poorly in dogs, pigs, chickens, and ducks, but ferrets and cats are permissive to infection. We found experimentally that cats are susceptible to airborne infection. Our study provides important insights into the animal models for SARS-CoV-2 and animal management for COVID-19 control.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Cats; Dogs; Ferrets; Pigs; Poultry.

——

#NDM-β-Lactamase-5–Producing #Escherichia coli in Companion #Animals, #USA (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 26, Number 2—February 2020 / Research Letter

New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase-5–Producing Escherichia coli in Companion Animals, United States

Stephen D. Cole, Laura Peak, Gregory H. Tyson, Renate Reimschuessel, Olgica Ceric, and Shelley C. Rankin

Author affiliations: University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA (S.D. Cole, S.C. Rankin); Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana USA (L. Peak); US Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA (G.H. Tyson, R. Reimscheussel, O. Ceric)

 

Abstract

We report isolation of a New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-5–producing carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli sequence type 167 from companion animals in the United States. Reports of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in companion animals are rare. We describe a unique cluster of blaNDM-5–producing E. coli in a veterinary hospital.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Carbapenem; Beta-lactams; NDM1; USA.

——