#Serological #evidence of #Ebola virus #exposure in #dogs from affected communities in #Liberia: A preliminary report (PLoS Negl Trop Dis., abstract)

[Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]


Serological evidence of Ebola virus exposure in dogs from affected communities in Liberia: A preliminary report

Brien K. Haun, Varney Kamara, Abigail S. Dweh , Kianalei Garalde-Machida , Saymajunkon S. E. Forkay , Melissa Takaaze , Madhuri Namekar, Teri Ann S. Wong, Ayesha E. R. Bell-Gam Woto, Peter Humphreys, Ophelia I. Weeks, Mosoka P. Fallah, John M. Berestecky, Vivek R. Nerurkar, Axel T. Lehrer

Published: July 22, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007614 / This is an uncorrected proof.



Filoviruses such as Ebola virus (EBOV) cause outbreaks of viral hemorrhagic fevers for which no FDA-approved vaccines or drugs are available. The 2014–2016 EBOV outbreak in West Africa infected approximately 30,000 people, killing more than 11,000 and affecting thousands more in areas still suffering from the effects of civil wars. Sierra Leone and Liberia reported EBOV cases in every county demonstrating the efficient spread of this highly contagious virus in the well-connected societies of West Africa. In communities, canines are often in contact with people while scavenging for food, which may include sickly bush animals or, as reported from the outbreak, EBOV infected human bodies and excrement. Therefore, dogs may serve as sentinel animals for seroprevalence studies of emerging infectious viruses. Further, due to their proximity to humans, they may have important One Health implications while offering specimens, which may be easier to obtain than human serum samples. Previous reports on detecting EBOV exposure in canines have been limited. Herein we describe a pilot project to detect IgG-responses directed against multiple filovirus and Lassa virus (LASV) antigens in dogs from EBOV affected communities in Liberia. We used a multiplex Luminex-based microsphere immunoassay (MIA) to detect dog IgG binding to recombinant filovirus antigens or LASV glycoprotein (GP) in serum from dogs that were old enough to be present during the EBOV outbreak. We identified 47 (73%) of 64 dog serum samples as potentially exposed to filoviruses and up to 100% of the dogs from some communities were found to have elevated levels of EBOV antigen-binding IgG titers. The multiplex MIA described in this study provides evidence for EBOV IgG antibodies present in dogs potentially exposed to the virus during the 2014–16 outbreak in Liberia. These data support the feasibility of canines as EBOV sentinels and provides evidence that seroprevalence studies in dogs can be conducted using suitable assays even under challenging field conditions. Further studies are warranted to collect data and to define the role canines may play in transmission or detection of emerging infectious diseases.


Author summary

Ebola Virus (EBOV) and its related species cause hemorrhagic fevers for which there are no FDA- approved treatments. The 2014–2016 EBOV outbreak in West Africa infected over 30,000 people, killing more than 11,000. This was the largest outbreak to date and Liberia was the unfortunate epicenter. In Liberia, EBOV cases were reported in every county. While preventative and therapeutic agent developments have received much attention, prophylactic measures involving Liberian communities have seen much less attention. In Liberia, dogs may warrant surveillance as they routinely interact with animals of the forest and people within communities. Despite scavenging the excrements and even bodies of infected individuals during the outbreak, dogs reportedly remained asymptomatic for EBOV. In collaboration with the University of Liberia and the Leon Quist Ledlum Central Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory of Liberia, our team used a multiplex Luminex-based assay to detect dog antibodies (IgG) binding recombinant filovirus antigens or LASV glycoprotein in samples from animals that were present during the EBOV outbreak. We identified several communities in which 100% of dogs showed IgG responses reactive to one or more filovirus antigens. This preliminary report establishes the feasibility of conducting EBOV seroprevalence studies in resource poor outbreak sites in Africa using modern and economical serological assay techniques.


Citation: Haun BK, Kamara V, Dweh AS, Garalde-Machida K, Forkay SSE, Takaaze M, et al. (2019) Serological evidence of Ebola virus exposure in dogs from affected communities in Liberia: A preliminary report. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(7): e0007614. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007614

Editor: Anne W. Rimoin, University of California, Los Angeles, UNITED STATES

Received: January 24, 2019; Accepted: July 8, 2019; Published: July 22, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Haun et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript.

Funding: This research was supported by institutional funds and research grants (R01AI119185 and R01AI132323) to ATL, infrastructure support by grant (P30GM114737) from the Centers of Biomedical Research Excellence, National Institute of General Medical Sciences to ATL and VRN, and grant (D71TW010434) to OIW and VRN from the Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health (NIH). KGM and MT were supported by the Minority Health International Research Training (MHIRT) program grant (T37MD008636) from the National Institute of Minority Health and Health Disparities, NIH. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Ebola; Filovirus; Serology; Seroprevalence; Dogs; Liberia.



#Canine #infectious #respiratory disease: New insights into the #etiology and #epidemiology of associated pathogens (PLoS One, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

PLoS One. 2019 Apr 25;14(4):e0215817. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0215817. eCollection 2019.

Canine infectious respiratory disease: New insights into the etiology and epidemiology of associated pathogens.

Maboni G1, Seguel M2, Lorton A1, Berghaus R3, Sanchez S1,4.

Author information: 1 Athens Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, United States of America. 2 Odum School of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, United States of America. 3 Department of Population Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, United States of America. 4 Department of Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, United States of America.



Canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD) is a syndrome where multiple viral and bacterial pathogens are involved sequentially or synergistically to cause illness. There is limited information regarding the prevalence of pathogens related to CIRD in the United States as well as the role of co-infections in the pathogenesis of the syndrome. We aimed to conduct a comprehensive etiologic and epidemiologic study of multiple CIRD agents in a diverse dog population using molecular methods and statistical modeling analyses. In addition, a novel probe-based multiplex real-time PCR was developed to simultaneously detect and differentiate two species of Mycoplasma (M. canis and M. cynos). Canine adenovirus, canine distemper virus, canine parainfluenza virus, coronavirus, influenza A virus (H3N2 and H3N8), Bordetella bronchiseptica, M. canis, M. cynos and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus were investigated in specimens from clinically ill and asymptomatic dogs received at the Athens Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory. Results showed low occurrence of classical CIRD agents such as B. bronchiseptica, canine adenovirus and distemper virus, while highlighting the potential role of emerging bacteria such as M. canis and M. cynos. Statistical modeling analyses of CIRD pathogens emphasized the impact of co-infections on the severity of clinical presentation, and showed that host factors, such as animal age, are the most important predictors of disease severity. This study provides new insights into the current understanding of the prevalence and role of co-infections with selected viruses and bacteria in the etiology of CIRD, while underscoring the importance of molecular diagnosis and vaccination against this disease.

PMID: 31022218 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0215817

Keywords: Dogs; Canine Avian Influenza; H3N2; H3N8; Mycoplasma canis; Bordetella bronchiseptica; Canine adenovirus.


Emergence and #adaptation of #H3N2 #canine #influenza virus from #avian influenza virus: An overlooked role of #dogs in #interspecies transmission (Transbound Emerg Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Transbound Emerg Dis. 2019 Mar;66(2):842-851. doi: 10.1111/tbed.13093. Epub 2019 Jan 5.

Emergence and adaptation of H3N2 canine influenza virus from avian influenza virus: An overlooked role of dogs in interspecies transmission.

He W1, Li G1, Zhu H2, Shi W3, Wang R1, Zhang C1, Bi Y4,5, Lai A6, Gao GF4,5, Su S1.

Author information: 1 MOE Joint International Research Laboratory of Animal Health and Food Safety, Engineering Laboratory of Animal Immunity of Jiangsu Province, College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China. 2 MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, Glasgow, UK. 3 Institute of Pathogen Biology, Taishan Medical College, Taian, China. 4 Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC), National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China. 5 CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. 6 College of Natural, Applied, and Health Sciences, Kentucky State University, Frankfort, Kentucky, USA.



H3N2 canine influenza virus (CIV) originated from avian species and emerged in dogs in Asia around 2005 where it became enzootic before reaching the USA in 2015. To investigate the key aspects of the evolution of H3N2 CIV regarding its emergence and adaptation in the canine host, we conducted an extensive analysis of all publicly available H3N2 CIV sequences spanning a 10-year period. We believe that H3N2 AIVs transferred to canines around 2002-2004. Furthermore, H3N2 CIVs could be divided into seven major clades with strong geographic clustering and some changed sites evidence of adaptive evolution. Most notably, the dN/dS of each H3N2 CIVs segment was higher than the correspondent of H3N2 AIVs and the U content of HA and NA was increasing over time, suggesting the idea that this avian-origin virus may be gradually adapting to the host. Our results provide a framework to elucidate a general mechanism for emergence of novel influenza viruses.

© 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

KEYWORDS: H3N2 canine influenza virus; evolution; virus host-adaptation

PMID: 30520554 DOI: 10.1111/tbed.13093 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Avian Influenza; Canine Avian Influenza; H3N2; Dogs.


#Transmission #ecology of #canine #parvovirus in a multi-host, multi-pathogen system (Proc Roy Soc B., abstract)

[Source: Proceedings of the Royal Society Biological Sciences, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Transmission ecology of canine parvovirus in a multi-host, multi-pathogen system

Abdelkader Behdenna, Tiziana Lembo, Olga Calatayud, Sarah Cleaveland,Jo E. B. Halliday, Craig Packer, Felix Lankester, Katie Hampson, Meggan E. Craft,Anna Czupryna, Andrew P. Dobson, Edward J. Dubovi, Eblate Ernest, Robert Fyumagwa, J. Grant C. Hopcraft, Christine Mentzel, Imam Mzimbiri, David Sutton, Brian Willett, Daniel T. Haydon and Mafalda Viana

Published: 27 March 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2018.2772



Understanding multi-host pathogen maintenance and transmission dynamics is critical for disease control. However, transmission dynamics remain enigmatic largely because they are difficult to observe directly, particularly in wildlife. Here, we investigate the transmission dynamics of canine parvovirus (CPV) using state–space modelling of 20 years of CPV serology data from domestic dogs and African lions in the Serengeti ecosystem. We show that, although vaccination reduces the probability of infection in dogs, and despite indirect enhancement of population seropositivity as a result of vaccine shedding, the vaccination coverage achieved has been insufficient to prevent CPV from becoming widespread. CPV is maintained by the dog population and has become endemic with approximately 3.5-year cycles and prevalence reaching approximately 80%. While the estimated prevalence in lions is lower, peaks of infection consistently follow those in dogs. Dogs exposed to CPV are also more likely to become infected with a second multi-host pathogen, canine distemper virus. However, vaccination can weaken this coupling, raising questions about the value of monovalent versus polyvalent vaccines against these two pathogens. Our findings highlight the need to consider both pathogen- and host-level community interactions when seeking to understand the dynamics of multi-host pathogens and their implications for conservation, disease surveillance and control programmes.

Keywords: Parvovirus; Canine Parvovirus; Dogs; Lions; Wildlife; Vaccines.


#Pneumonic #Plague in a #Dog and Widespread Potential #Human #Exposure in a #Veterinary Hospital, #USA (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 4—April 2019 / Dispatch

Pneumonic Plague in a Dog and Widespread Potential Human Exposure in a Veterinary Hospital, United States

Paula A. Schaffer1, Stephanie A. Brault1, Connor Hershkowitz1, Lauren Harris, Kristy Dowers, Jennifer House, Tawfik A. Aboellail, Paul S. Morley, and Joshua B. Daniels

Author affiliations: Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA (P.A. Schaffer, S.A. Brault, C. Hershkowitz, L. Harris, K. Dowers, T.A. Aboellail, P.S. Morley, J.B. Daniels); Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver, Colorado, USA (J. House)



In December 2017, a dog that had pneumonic plague was brought to a veterinary teaching hospital in northern Colorado, USA. Several factors, including signalment, season, imaging, and laboratory findings, contributed to delayed diagnosis and resulted in potential exposure of >116 persons and 46 concurrently hospitalized animals to Yersinia pestis.

Keywords: Yersinia pestis; Plague; Pneumonic plague; Dogs; USA; Colorado.


#Evidence of H1N1pdm09 #influenza exposure in #dogs and #cats, #Thailand: A serological survey (Zoonoses Public Health, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Zoonoses Public Health. 2018 Dec 14. doi: 10.1111/zph.12551. [Epub ahead of print]

Evidence of pandemic H1N1 influenza exposure in dogs and cats, Thailand: A serological survey.

Tangwangvivat R1,2, Chanvatik S1,2, Charoenkul K1,2, Chaiyawong S1,2, Janethanakit T1,2, Tuanudom R1,3, Prakairungnamthip D1,3, Boonyapisitsopa S1,2, Bunpapong N1,2, Amonsin A1,2.

Author information: 1 Center of Excellences for Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases in Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand. 2 Department of Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand. 3 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.



Influenza A virus causes respiratory disease in both humans and animals. In this study, a survey of influenza A antibodies in domestic dogs and cats was conducted in 47 animal shelters in 19 provinces of Thailand from September 2011 to September 2014. One thousand and eleven serum samples were collected from 932 dogs and 79 cats. Serum samples were tested for influenza A antibodies using a multi-species competitive NP-ELISA and haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. The NP-ELISA results showed that 0.97% (9/932) of dogs were positive, but all cat samples were negative. The HI test against pandemic H1N1, human H3N2 and canine H3N2 showed that 0.64% (6/932) and 1.20% (1/79) of dogs and cats were positive, respectively. It is noted that all six serum samples (5 dogs and 1 cat) had antibodies against pandemic H1N1. In summary, a serological survey revealed the evidence of pandemic H1N1 influenza exposure in both dogs and cats in the shelters in Thailand.

KEYWORDS: Thailand; canine; influenza; serology

PMID: 30552750 DOI: 10.1111/zph.12551

Keywords: Influenza A; H1N1pdm09; Seroprevalence; Dogs; Cats; Thailand.


The potential effect of improved provision of #rabies #PEP in #Gavi-eligible countries: a modelling study (Lancet Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

The potential effect of improved provision of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis in Gavi-eligible countries: a modelling study

WHO Rabies Modelling Consortium †

Open Access / Published: November 21, 2018 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30512-7




Tens of thousands of people die from dog-mediated rabies annually. Deaths can be prevented through post-exposure prophylaxis for people who have been bitten, and the disease eliminated through dog vaccination. Current post-exposure prophylaxis use saves many lives, but availability remains poor in many rabies-endemic countries due to high costs, poor access, and supply.


We developed epidemiological and economic models to investigate the effect of an investment in post-exposure prophylaxis by Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. We modelled post-exposure prophylaxis use according to the status quo, with improved access using WHO-recommended intradermal vaccination, with and without rabies immunoglobulin, and with and without dog vaccination. We took the health provider perspective, including only direct costs.


We predict more than 1 million deaths will occur in the 67 rabies-endemic countries considered from 2020 to 2035, under the status quo. Current post-exposure prophylaxis use prevents approximately 56 000 deaths annually. Expanded access to, and free provision of, post-exposure prophylaxis would prevent an additional 489 000 deaths between 2020 and 2035. Under this switch to efficient intradermal post-exposure prophylaxis regimens, total projected vaccine needs remain similar (about 73 million vials) yet 17·4 million more people are vaccinated, making this an extremely cost-effective method, with costs of US$635 per death averted and $33 per disability-adjusted life-years averted. Scaling up dog vaccination programmes could eliminate dog-mediated rabies over this time period; improved post-exposure prophylaxis access remains cost-effective under this scenario, especially in combination with patient risk assessments to reduce unnecessary post-exposure prophylaxis use.


Investing in post-exposure vaccines would be an extremely cost-effective intervention that could substantially reduce disease burden and catalyse dog vaccination efforts to eliminate dog-mediated rabies.


World Health Organization.

Keywords: Rabies; Dogs; Human; Vaccines.