[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2019 Sep 30;374(1782):20180339. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2018.0339. Epub 2019 Aug 12.
Long-term wildlife mortality surveillance in northern Congo: a model for the detection of Ebola virus disease epizootics.
Kuisma E1, Olson SH2, Cameron KN2, Reed PE2, Karesh WB3, Ondzie AI1, Akongo MJ1, Kaba SD1, Fischer RJ4, Seifert SN4, Muñoz-Fontela C5, Becker-Ziaja B6, Escudero-Pérez B5, Goma-Nkoua C7, Munster VJ4, Mombouli JV7.
Author information: 1 Wildlife Conservation Society, Wildlife Health Program, 151 Avenue du General de Gaulle, BP14537 Brazzaville, Republic of Congo. 2 Wildlife Conservation Society, Wildlife Health Program, 2300 Southern Boulevard, Bronx, New York, NY 10460, USA. 3 Health and Policy, EcoHealth Alliance, 460 West 34th Street, New York, NY 10001, USA. 4 Laboratory of Virology, Virus Ecology Unit, Division of Intramural Research, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, 903s 4th street, Hamilton, MT, USA. 5 Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine and German Center for Infection Research DZIF, Bernhard Nocht Strasse 74, 20359 Hamburg, Germany. 6 Robert Koch-Institut, Seestraße 10, 13353 Berlin, Germany. 7 Service d’Epidémiologie Moléculaire, Laboratoire National de Santé Publique, Avenue du General de Gaulle, BP120 Brazzaville, Republic of Congo.
Ebolavirus (EBOV) has caused disease outbreaks taking thousands of lives, costing billions of dollars in control efforts and threatening great ape populations. EBOV ecology is not fully understood but infected wildlife and consumption of animal carcasses have been linked to human outbreaks, especially in the Congo Basin. Partnering with the Congolese Ministry of Health, we conducted wildlife mortality surveillance and educational outreach in the northern Republic of Congo (RoC). Designed for EBOV detection and to alert public health authorities, we established a low-cost wildlife mortality reporting network covering 50 000 km2. Simultaneously, we delivered educational outreach promoting behavioural change to over 6600 people in rural northern RoC. We achieved specimen collection by training project staff on a safe sampling protocol and equipping geographically distributed bases with sampling kits. We established in-country diagnostics for EBOV testing, reducing diagnostic turnaround time to 3 days and demonstrated the absence of EBOV in 58 carcasses. Central Africa remains a high-risk EBOV region, but RoC, home to the largest remaining populations of great apes, has not had an epidemic since 2005. This effort continues to function as an untested early warning system in RoC, where people and great apes have died from past Ebola virus disease outbreaks. This article is part of the theme issue ‘Dynamic and integrative approaches to understanding pathogen spillover’.
KEYWORDS: Ebola spillover; One Health; carcass; community outreach; great ape; surveillance
PMID: 31401969 DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2018.0339
Keywords: Ebolavirus; Wildlife: Rep. of Congo.