Can #Bats Serve as #Reservoirs for #Arboviruses (Viruses, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Viruses. 2019 Mar 3;11(3). pii: E215. doi: 10.3390/v11030215.

Can Bats Serve as Reservoirs for Arboviruses?

Fagre AC1, Kading RC2.

Author information: 1 Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. anna.fagre@colostate.edu. 2 Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. rebekah.kading@colostate.edu.

 

Abstract

Bats are known to harbor and transmit many emerging and re-emerging viruses, many of which are extremely pathogenic in humans but do not cause overt pathology in their bat reservoir hosts: henipaviruses (Nipah and Hendra), filoviruses (Ebola and Marburg), and coronaviruses (SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV). Direct transmission cycles are often implicated in these outbreaks, with virus shed in bat feces, urine, and saliva. An additional mode of virus transmission between bats and humans requiring further exploration is the spread of disease via arthropod vectors. Despite the shared ecological niches that bats fill with many hematophagous arthropods (e.g. mosquitoes, ticks, biting midges, etc.) known to play a role in the transmission of medically important arboviruses, knowledge surrounding the potential for bats to act as reservoirs for arboviruses is limited. To this end, a comprehensive literature review was undertaken examining the current understanding and potential for bats to act as reservoirs for viruses transmitted by blood-feeding arthropods. Serosurveillance and viral isolation from either free-ranging or captive bats are described in relation to four arboviral groups (Bunyavirales, Flaviviridae, Reoviridae, Togaviridae). Further, ecological associations between bats and hematophagous viral vectors are characterized (e.g. bat bloodmeals in mosquitoes, ingestion of mosquitoes by bats, etc). Lastly, knowledge gaps related to hematophagous ectoparasites (bat bugs and bed bugs (Cimicidae) and bat flies (Nycteribiidae and Streblidae)), in addition to future directions for characterization of bat-vector-virus relationships are described.

KEYWORDS: arboviruses; bats; reservoir; wildlife; zoonoses

PMID: 30832426 DOI: 10.3390/v11030215

Keywords: Arbovirus; Bats; Zoonoses.

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#Zoonotic #diseases from #birds to #humans in #Vietnam: possible diseases and their associated #risk factors (Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2019 Feb 26. doi: 10.1007/s10096-019-03505-2. [Epub ahead of print]

Zoonotic diseases from birds to humans in Vietnam: possible diseases and their associated risk factors.

Nga VT1, Ngoc TU2, Minh LB3, Ngoc VTN4, Pham VH5, Nghia LL4, Son NLH6, Van Pham TH7, Bac ND8, Tien TV9, Tuan NNM10, Tao Y11, Show PL12, Chu DT13,14.

Author information: 1 Institute for Research and Development, Duy Tan University, 03 QuangTrung, Danang, Vietnam. 2 Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Nong Lam University, Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam. 3 NTT Hi-tech Institute, Nguyen Tat Thanh University, 300A Nguyen Tat Thanh St., Ward 13, District 4, Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam. 4 School of Odonto Stomatology, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam. 5 AI Lab, Faculty of Information Technology, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. phamvanhuy@tdt.edu.vn. 6 Faculty of Biology, Hanoi National University of Education, Hanoi, Vietnam. 7 Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Vietnam National University of Forestry, Hanoi, Vietnam. 8 Vietnam Military Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam. 9 103 Military Hospital, Vietnam Military Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam. 10 Hung Vuong University, Viet Tri, Phu Tho, Vietnam. 11 College of Food Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China. 12 Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, JalanBroga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. 13 School of Odonto Stomatology, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam. chudinhtoi.hnue@gmail.com. 14 Faculty of Biology, Hanoi National University of Education, Hanoi, Vietnam. chudinhtoi.hnue@gmail.com.

 

Abstract

In recent decades, exceeding 60% of infectious cases in human beings are originated from pathogenic agents related to feral or companion animals. This figure continues to swiftly increase due to excessive exposure between human and contaminated hosts by means of applying unhygienic farming practices throughout society. In Asia countries-renowned for lax regulation towards animal-trading markets-have experienced tremendous outbreaks of zoonotic diseases every year. Meanwhile, various epidemic surges were first reported in the residential area of China-one of the largest distributor of all animal products on the planet. Some noticeable illnesses comprising of A/H5N1 or H7N9-known as avian influenza which transmitted from poultry and also wild birds-have caused inevitable disquiet among inhabitants. Indeed, poultry farming industry in China has witnessed dynamic evolution for the past two decades, both in quantity and degree of output per individual. Together with this pervasive expansion, zoonotic diseases from poultry have incessantly emerged as a latent threat to the surrounding residents in entire Asia and also European countries. Without strict exporting legislation, Vietnam is now facing the serious problem in terms of poultry distribution between the two countries’ border. Even though several disease investigations have been conducted by many researchers, the disease epidemiology or transmission methods among people remained blurred and need to be further elucidated. In this paper, our aim is to provide a laconic review of common zoonotic diseases spread in Vietnam, outstanding cases and several factors predisposing to this alarming situation.

KEYWORDS: Birds; Human; Review; Risk factors; Vietnam; Zoonotic diseases

PMID: 30806904 DOI: 10.1007/s10096-019-03505-2

Keywords: Infectious Diseases; Avian Influenza; Zoonoses; Poultry; Vietnam.

——

#OneHealth #insights to prevent the next #HxNy viral #outbreak: learning from the #epidemiology of #H7N9 (BMC Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

BMC Infect Dis. 2019 Feb 11;19(1):138. doi: 10.1186/s12879-019-3752-6.

One health insights to prevent the next HxNy viral outbreak: learning from the epidemiology of H7N9.

Zheng Z1, Lu Y2, Short KR3,4, Lu J5,6,7.

Author information: 1 School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Zhongshan 2nd Road, Guangzhou, 510080, Guangdong, China. 2 Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, 1 University Place, Rensselaer, NY, 12144, USA. 3 School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, The University of Queensland, QLD, St Lucia, 4072, Australia. 4 Australian Infectious Diseases Research Centre, The University of Queensland, QLD, St Lucia, 4072, Australia. 5 School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Zhongshan 2nd Road, Guangzhou, 510080, Guangdong, China. lujiahai@mail.sysu.edu.cn. 6 Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Control, Sun Yat-sen University, Zhongshan 2nd Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China. lujiahai@mail.sysu.edu.cn. 7 One Health Center of Excellence for Research &Training, Zhongshan 2nd Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China. lujiahai@mail.sysu.edu.cn.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

With an increased incidence of viral zoonoses, there is an impetus to strengthen collaborations between public health, agricultural and environmental departments. This interdisciplinary cooperation, also known as the ‘One Health’ approach, has received significant support from various stakeholders. However, current efforts and policies still fall short of those needed for an effective One Health approach towards disease control and prevention. The avian-origin H7N9 influenza A virus outbreak in China serves as an ideal case study to emphasise this point.

DISCUSSION:

Here, we present the features and epidemiology of human infections with H7N9 influenza virus. At the early stages of the H7N9 epidemic, there was limited virus surveillance and limited prevention measures implemented in live poultry markets. As a result, zoonotic infections with H7N9 influenza viruses continued to enlarge in both numbers and geographic distribution. It was only after the number of human infections with H7N9 influenza virus spiked in the 5th wave of the epidemic that inter-departmental alliances were formed. This resulted in the rapid control of the number of human infections. We therefore further discuss the barriers that prevented the implementation of an effective One Health approach in China and what this means for other emerging, zoonotic viral diseases. Effective implementation of evidence-based disease management approaches in China will result in substantial health and economic gains. The continual threat of avian influenza, as well as other emerging zoonotic viral infections, emphasizes the need to remove the barriers that prevent the effective implementation of One Health policies in disease management.

KEYWORDS: Disease management; H7N9; Influenza virus; One health; Zoonosis

PMID: 30744562 PMCID: PMC6371560 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-019-3752-6 Free PMC Article

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H7N9; Infectious Diseases; Emerging Diseases; Zoonoses.

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#Human #Seroprevalence to 11 #Zoonotic #Pathogens in the #US #Arctic, #Alaska (Vector Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Human Seroprevalence to 11 Zoonotic Pathogens in the U.S. Arctic, Alaska

Karen M. Miernyk, Dana Bruden, Alan J. Parkinson, Debby Hurlburt, Joseph Klejka, James Berner, Robyn A. Stoddard, Sukwan Handali, Patricia P. Wilkins, Gilbert J. Kersh, Kelly Fitzpatrick, Mike A. Drebot, Jeffrey W. Priest, Ryan Pappert, Jeannine M. Petersen, Eyasu Teshale, Thomas W. Hennessy, and Michael G. Bruce

Published Online: 21 Feb 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2018.2390

 

Abstract

Background:

Due to their close relationship with the environment, Alaskans are at risk for zoonotic pathogen infection. One way to assess a population’s disease burden is to determine the seroprevalence of pathogens of interest. The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of 11 zoonotic pathogens in people living in Alaska.

Methods:

In a 2007 avian influenza exposure study, we recruited persons with varying wild bird exposures. Using sera from this study, we tested for antibodies to Cryptosporidium spp., Echinococcus spp., Giardia intestinalis, Toxoplasma gondii, Trichinella spp., Brucella spp., Coxiella burnetii, Francisella tularensis, California serogroup bunyaviruses, and hepatitis E virus (HEV).

Results:

Eight hundred eighty-seven persons had sera tested, including 454 subsistence bird hunters and family members, 160 sport bird hunters, 77 avian wildlife biologists, and 196 persons with no wild bird exposure. A subset (n = 481) of sera was tested for California serogroup bunyaviruses. We detected antibodies to 10/11 pathogens. Seropositivity to Cryptosporidium spp. (29%), California serotype bunyaviruses (27%), and G. intestinalis (19%) was the most common; 63% (301/481) of sera had antibodies to at least one pathogen. Using a multivariable logistic regression model, Cryptosporidiumspp. seropositivity was higher in females (35.7% vs. 25.0%; p = 0.01) and G. intestinalis seropositivity was higher in males (21.8% vs. 15.5%; p = 0.02). Alaska Native persons were more likely than non-Native persons to be seropositive to C. burnetii(11.7% vs. 3.8%; p = 0.005) and less likely to be seropositive to HEV (0.4% vs. 4.1%; p = 0.01). Seropositivity to Cryptosporidium spp., C. burnetii, HEV, and Echinococcus granulosus was associated with increasing age (p ≤ 0.01 for all) as was seropositivity to ≥1 pathogen (p < 0.0001).

Conclusion:

Seropositivity to zoonotic pathogens is common among Alaskans with the highest to Cryptosporidium spp., California serogroup bunyaviruses, and G. intestinalis. This study provides a baseline for use in assessing seroprevalence changes over time.

Keywords: Zoonoses; Seroprevalence; USA; Alaska.

——

#Orthobunyavirus spike architecture and recognition by neutralizing #antibodies (Nat Commun., abstract)

[Source: Nature Communications, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Article | OPEN | Published: 20 February 2019

Orthobunyavirus spike architecture and recognition by neutralizing antibodies

Jan Hellert, Andrea Aebischer, Kerstin Wernike, Ahmed Haouz, Emiliana Brocchi, Sven Reiche, Pablo Guardado-Calvo, Martin Beer & Félix A. Rey

Nature Communications, volume 10, Article number: 879 (2019)

 

Abstract

Orthobunyaviruses (OBVs) form a distinct genus of arthropod-borne bunyaviruses that can cause severe disease upon zoonotic transmission to humans. Antigenic drift or genome segment re-assortment have in the past resulted in new pathogenic OBVs, making them potential candidates for causing emerging zoonoses in the future. Low-resolution electron cryo-tomography studies have shown that OBV particles feature prominent trimeric spikes, but their molecular organization remained unknown. Here we report X-ray crystallography studies of four different OBVs showing that the spikes are formed by an N-terminal extension of the fusion glycoprotein Gc. Using Schmallenberg virus, a recently emerged OBV, we also show that the projecting spike is the major target of the neutralizing antibody response, and provide X-ray structures in complex with two protecting antibodies. We further show that immunization of mice with the spike domains elicits virtually sterilizing immunity, providing fundamental knowledge essential in the preparation for potential newly emerging OBV zoonoses.

Keywords: Orthobunyavirus; Zoonoses.

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Key #Viral #Adaptations Preceding the #AIDS #Pandemic (Cell Host Microbe, abstract)

[Source: Cell Host & Microbe, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Key Viral Adaptations Preceding the AIDS Pandemic

Daniel Sauter, Frank Kirchhoff

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2018.12.002

 

Summary

HIV, the causative agent of AIDS, has a complex evolutionary history involving several cross-species transmissions and recombination events as well as changes in the repertoire and function of its accessory genes. Understanding these events and the adaptations to new host species provides key insights into innate defense mechanisms, viral dependencies on cellular factors, and prerequisites for the emergence of the AIDS pandemic. In addition, understanding the factors and adaptations required for the spread of HIV in the human population helps to better assess the risk of future lentiviral zoonoses and provides clues to how improved control of viral replication can be achieved. Here, we summarize our current knowledge on viral features and adaptations preceding the AIDS pandemic. We aim at providing a viral point of view, focusing on known key hurdles of each cross-species transmission and the mechanisms that HIV and its simian precursors evolved to overcome them.

Keywords: HIV – AIDS – primate lentiviruses – adaptation – evolution – restriction factors – viral zoonoses – arms race

Keywords: HIV/AIDS; Lentivirus; Zoonoses.

——

#Metagenomic sequencing at the #epicenter of the #Nigeria 2018 #Lassa fever #outbreak (Science, abstract)

[Source: Science, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Metagenomic sequencing at the epicenter of the Nigeria 2018 Lassa fever outbreak

L. E. Kafetzopoulou1,2,3, S. T. Pullan1,2, P. Lemey4, M. A. Suchard5, D. U. Ehichioya3,6, M. Pahlmann3,6, A. Thielebein3,6, J. Hinzmann3,6, L. Oestereich3,6, D. M. Wozniak3,6, K. Efthymiadis7, D. Schachten3, F. Koenig3, J. Matjeschk3, S. Lorenzen3, S. Lumley1, Y. Ighodalo8, D. I. Adomeh8, T. Olokor8, E. Omomoh8, R. Omiunu8, J. Agbukor8, B. Ebo8, J. Aiyepada8, P. Ebhodaghe8, B. Osiemi8, S. Ehikhametalor8, P. Akhilomen8, M. Airende8, R. Esumeh8, E. Muoebonam8, R. Giwa8, A. Ekanem8, G. Igenegbale8, G. Odigie8, G. Okonofua8, R. Enigbe8, J. Oyakhilome8, E. O. Yerumoh8, I. Odia8, C. Aire8, M. Okonofua8, R. Atafo8, E. Tobin8, D. Asogun8,9, N. Akpede8, P. O. Okokhere8,9, M. O. Rafiu8, K. O. Iraoyah8, C. O. Iruolagbe8, P. Akhideno8, C. Erameh8, G. Akpede8,9, E. Isibor8, D. Naidoo10, R. Hewson1,2,11,12, J. A. Hiscox2,13,14, R. Vipond1,2, M. W. Carroll1,2, C. Ihekweazu15, P. Formenty10, S. Okogbenin8,9, E. Ogbaini-Emovon8,*, S. Günther3,6,*,†, S. Duraffour3,6,*

1 Public Health England, National Infection Service, Porton Down, UK. 2 National Institute of Health Research (NIHR), Health Protection Research Unit in Emerging and Zoonotic Infections, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK. 3 Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Hamburg, Germany. 4 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rega Institute, KU Leuven – University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. 5 Departments of Biomathematics, Biostatistics, and Human Genetics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. 6 German Center for Infection Research (DZIF), partner site Hamburg, Germany. 7 Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium. 8 Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua, Nigeria. 9 Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria. 10 World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. 11 Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Department of Pathogen Molecular Biology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK. 12 Faculty of Clinical Sciences and International Public Health, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK. 13 Singapore Immunology Network, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore. 14 Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK. 15 Nigeria Centre for Disease Control, Abuja, Nigeria.

†Corresponding author. Email: guenther@bni.uni-hamburg.de

* These authors contributed equally to this work.

Science  04 Jan 2019: Vol. 363, Issue 6422, pp. 74-77 / DOI: 10.1126/science.aau9343

 

Mobile detection of Lassa virus

Lassa fever is a hemorrhagic viral disease endemic to West Africa. Usually, each year sees only a smattering of cases reported, but hospitalized patients risk a 15% chance of death. Responding to fears that a 10-fold surge in cases in Nigeria in 2018 signaled an incipient outbreak, Kafetzopoulou et al. performed metagenomic nanopore sequencing directly from samples from 120 patients (see the Perspective by Bhadelia). Results showed no strong evidence of a new strain emerging nor of person-to-person transmission; rather, rodent contamination was the main source. To prevent future escalation of this disease, we need to understand what triggers the irruption of rodents into human dwellings.

Science, this issue p. 74; see also p. 30

 

Abstract

The 2018 Nigerian Lassa fever season saw the largest ever recorded upsurge of cases, raising concerns over the emergence of a strain with increased transmission rate. To understand the molecular epidemiology of this upsurge, we performed, for the first time at the epicenter of an unfolding outbreak, metagenomic nanopore sequencing directly from patient samples, an approach dictated by the highly variable genome of the target pathogen. Genomic data and phylogenetic reconstructions were communicated immediately to Nigerian authorities and the World Health Organization to inform the public health response. Real-time analysis of 36 genomes and subsequent confirmation using all 120 samples sequenced in the country of origin revealed extensive diversity and phylogenetic intermingling with strains from previous years, suggesting independent zoonotic transmission events and thus allaying concerns of an emergent strain or extensive human-to-human transmission.

Keywords: Lassa Fever; Nigeria.

——

#Vaccinia Virus among Domestic #Dogs and Wild Coatis, #Brazil, 2013–2015 (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 24, Number 12—December 2018 / Dispatch

Vaccinia Virus among Domestic Dogs and Wild Coatis, Brazil, 2013–2015

Galileu Barbosa Costa  , Lara Ribeiro de Almeida, Aline Gabriele Ribeiro Cerqueira, Wander Ulisses Mesquita, Jaqueline Silva de Oliveira, Júlia Bahia Miranda, Ana Teresa Saraiva-Silva, Jônatas Santos Abrahão, Betânia Paiva Drumond, Erna Geessien Kroon, Pedro Lúcio Lithg Pereira, Danielle Ferreira de Magalhães Soares, and Giliane de Souza Trindade

Author affiliations: Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil (G.B. Costa, L.R. de Almeida, A.G.R. Cerqueira, J.S. de Oliveira, J.B. Miranda, A.T. Saraiva-Silva, J.S. Abrahão, B.P. Drumond, E.G. Kroon, P.L.L. Pereira, D.F. de Magalhães Soares, G. de Souza Trindade); Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Ouro Preto, Brazil (W.U. Mesquita)

 

Abstract

To determine their potential role as a source of human infection, we tested domestic dogs (urban) and wild coatis (rural) in Brazil for vaccinia virus. Our findings of positive neutralizing antibodies and quantitative PCR results for 35/184 dogs and 13/90 coatis highlight a potential public health risk.

Keywords: Poxvirus; Orthopoxvirus; Vaccinia Virus; Dogs; Brazil.

——

Potent neutralizing #antibodies in #humans infected with #zoonotic #SFV target conserved epitopes located in the dimorphic domain of the surface envelope protein (PLoS Pathogens, abstract)

[Source: PLoS Pathogens, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Potent neutralizing antibodies in humans infected with zoonotic simian foamy viruses target conserved epitopes located in the dimorphic domain of the surface envelope protein

Caroline Lambert, Mathilde Couteaudier, Julie Gouzil, Léa Richard, Thomas Montange, Edouard Betsem, Réjane Rua, Joelle Tobaly-Tapiero, Dirk Lindemann, Richard Njouom, Augustin Mouinga-Ondémé, Antoine Gessain, Florence Buseyne

Published: October 8, 2018 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007293 / This is an uncorrected proof.

 

Abstract

Human diseases of zoonotic origin are a major public health problem. Simian foamy viruses (SFVs) are complex retroviruses which are currently spilling over to humans. Replication-competent SFVs persist over the lifetime of their human hosts, without spreading to secondary hosts, suggesting the presence of efficient immune control. Accordingly, we aimed to perform an in-depth characterization of neutralizing antibodies raised by humans infected with a zoonotic SFV. We quantified the neutralizing capacity of plasma samples from 58 SFV-infected hunters against primary zoonotic gorilla and chimpanzee SFV strains, and laboratory-adapted chimpanzee SFV. The genotype of the strain infecting each hunter was identified by direct sequencing of the env gene amplified from the buffy coat with genotype-specific primers. Foamy virus vector particles (FVV) enveloped by wild-type and chimeric gorilla SFV were used to map the envelope region targeted by antibodies. Here, we showed high titers of neutralizing antibodies in the plasma of most SFV-infected individuals. Neutralizing antibodies target the dimorphic portion of the envelope protein surface domain. Epitopes recognized by neutralizing antibodies have been conserved during the cospeciation of SFV with their nonhuman primate host. Greater neutralization breadth in plasma samples of SFV-infected humans was statistically associated with smaller SFV-related hematological changes. The neutralization patterns provide evidence for persistent expression of viral proteins and a high prevalence of coinfection. In conclusion, neutralizing antibodies raised against zoonotic SFV target immunodominant and conserved epitopes located in the receptor binding domain. These properties support their potential role in restricting the spread of SFV in the human population.

 

Author summary

Foamy viruses are the oldest known retroviruses and have been mostly described to be nonpathogenic in their natural animal hosts. Simian foamy viruses (SFVs) can be transmitted to humans, in whom they establish persistent infection, as have the simian lenti- and deltaviruses that led to the emergence of two major human pathogens, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). Such cross-species transmission of SFV is ongoing in many parts of the world where humans have contact with nonhuman primates. We present the first comprehensive study of neutralizing antibodies in SFV-infected humans. We showed high titers of neutralizing antibodies in the plasma of most SFV-infected individuals. Neutralizing antibodies target the dimorphic portion of the envelope protein surface domain that overlap with the receptor binding domain. SFV-specific antibodies target epitopes conserved over 8 million years of co-speciation with their nonhuman primate host. Greater neutralization potency in infected individuals was statistically associated with smaller SFV-related hematological changes. In conclusion, our results suggest the protective action of neutralizing antibodies against SFV infection and spread in the human population.

___

Citation: Lambert C, Couteaudier M, Gouzil J, Richard L, Montange T, Betsem E, et al. (2018) Potent neutralizing antibodies in humans infected with zoonotic simian foamy viruses target conserved epitopes located in the dimorphic domain of the surface envelope protein. PLoS Pathog 14(10): e1007293. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007293

Editor: Katie J. Doores, King’s College London, UNITED KINGDOM

Received: April 11, 2018; Accepted: August 23, 2018; Published: October 8, 2018

Copyright: © 2018 Lambert et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: CL was personally supported by a doctoral grant from the French government program Investissement d’Avenir, Laboratory of Excellence, Integrative Biology of Emerging Infectious Diseases (LabEx IBEID, http://www.agence-nationale-recherche.fr/ProjetIA-10-LABX-0062). LR was personally supported by the Bourse de l’Ecole Normale Supérieure, Faculté Paris Diderot, http://www.ens.fr/. This work was supported by the Institut Pasteur in Paris, France, the Programme Transversal de Recherche from the Institut Pasteur [PTR#437], https://www.pasteur.fr/fr, and the Agence Nationale de la Recherche [grant ANR-10-LABX-62-IBEID; http://www.agence-nationale-recherche.fr/ProjetIA-10-LABX-0062; REEMFOAMY project, ANR 15-CE-15-0008-01; http://www.agence-nationale-recherche.fr/projet-anr/?tx_lwmsuivibilan_pi2%5BCODE%5D=ANR-15-CE15-0008]. The work in the laboratory of DL is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft [DFG, German Research Foundation grants LI 621/10-1, SPP1923 LI 621/11-1, http://www.dfg.de/]. The funding agencies had no role in the study design, generation of results, or writing of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Retrovirus; Human; Simian Foamy Virus; Neutralizing Antibodies.

——-

#MERS: Progress on the #global #response, remaining challenges and the way forward (Antiviral Res., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Antiviral Res. 2018 Sep 17. pii: S0166-3542(18)30530-8. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2018.09.002. [Epub ahead of print]

MERS: Progress on the global response, remaining challenges and the way forward.

Aguanno R1, ElIdrissi A1, Elkholy AA2, Ben Embarek P2, Gardner E1, Grant R3, Mahrous H1, Malik MR2, Pavade G4, VonDobschuetz S1, Wiersma L1, Van Kerkhove MD5.

Author information: 1 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Italy. 2 Health Emergencies Programme, World Health Organization, Switzerland. 3 Center for Global Health, Institut Pasteur, France. 4 World Organization for Animal Health, France. 5 Health Emergencies Programme, World Health Organization, Switzerland. Electronic address: vankerkhovem@who.int.

 

Abstract

This article summarizes progress in research on Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) since a FAO-OIE-WHO Global Technical Meeting held at WHO Headquarters in Geneva on 25-27 September 2017. The meeting reviewed the latest scientific findings and identified and prioritized the global activities necessary to prevent, manage and control the disease. Critical needs for research and technical guidance identified during the meeting have been used to update the WHO R&D MERS-CoV Roadmap for diagnostics, therapeutics and vaccines and a broader public health research agenda. Since the 2017 meeting, progress has been made on several key actions in animal populations, at the animal/human interface and in human populations. This report also summarizes the latest scientific studies on MERS since 2017, including data from more than 50 research studies examining the presence of MERS-CoV infection in dromedary camels.

KEYWORDS: Animal-human interface; Dromedary camels; MERS-CoV; Research; Vaccine; Zoonosis

PMID: 30236531 DOI: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2018.09.002

Keywords: MERS-CoV; Camels; Human; Zoonoses.

——