Occurrence and #antibiogram of #Listeria monocytogenes Isolates from Retail #Meat #Shops at #Erbil City, #Kurdistan Region, #Iraq (Ital J Food Saf., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Ital J Food Saf. 2019 Dec 5;8(4):8451. doi: 10.4081/ijfs.2019.8451. eCollection 2019 Dec 5.

Occurrence and antibiogram of Listeria monocytogenes Isolates from Retail Meat Shops at Erbil City, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

Al-Mashhadany DA1.

Author information: 1 Department of Pathological Analysis, College of Science, Knowledge University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

 

Abstract

Listeria monocytogenes is well-known globally as one of the most significant foodborne bacterial pathogens. Listeriosis may trigger life-threatening illness, such as severe sepsis, meningitis, sometimes resulting in lifelong harm and even death. This study aimed to determine the occurrence and antibiotic resistance pattern of L. monocytogenes in red meats sold at retail outlets in Erbil city, Kurdistan region, Iraq. Three hundred and seventy-five (375) samples were aseptically collected from retail meat shops between July and December 2018. For isolation of L. monocytogenes, samples were cultured on selective media and tested for their susceptibility to common antibiotics by disk diffusion assay. The results revealed that the overall occurrence of L. monocytogenes in red meat samples was 13.9%. Warm season was associated with increase in L. monocytogenes occurrence. The results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that 98.1%, 94.2%, and 82.7% of isolates were resistant to Streptomycin, Gentamicin, and Ampicillin respectively. This resistance pattern of L. monocytogenes is critically alarming owing to the aforementioned antibiotics are the drugs of choice of treatment of listeriosis. This level of resistance requires further investigations and effective countermeasures since it may pose a public health hazard.

©Copyright: the Author(s), 2019.

KEYWORDS: Antibiogram; Erbil City; Iraq; Kurdistan region; L. monocytogenes; Occurrence; Retail Meat

PMID: 31897400 PMCID: PMC6912135 DOI: 10.4081/ijfs.2019.8451

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Listeriosis; Food Safety; Iraq.

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Characterization of class 1 #integrons harboring #blaVEB-1 in #Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from ready-to-eat #foods in #China (Int J Food Microbiol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Int J Food Microbiol. 2019 Dec 9;318:108473. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2019.108473. [Epub ahead of print]

Characterization of class 1 integrons harboring blaVEB-1 in Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from ready-to-eat foods in China.

Lei T1, Zhang J1, Jiang F2, He M3, Zeng H1, Chen M1, Pang R1, Wu H1, Wu S1, Wang J4, Ding Y5, Wu Q6.

Author information: 1 Guangdong Institute of Microbiology, Guangdong Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province 510070, China; State Key Laboratory of Applied Microbiology Southern China, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Culture Collection and Application, Guangdong Open Laboratory of Applied Microbiology, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province 510070, China. 2 Guangdong Institute of Microbiology, Guangdong Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province 510070, China; State Key Laboratory of Applied Microbiology Southern China, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Culture Collection and Application, Guangdong Open Laboratory of Applied Microbiology, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province 510070, China; School of Food and Biological Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province 710021, China. 3 Guangdong Institute of Microbiology, Guangdong Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province 510070, China; School of Food and Biological Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province 710021, China; School of Bioscience and Bioengineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province 510006, China. 4 College of Food Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province 510642, China. 5 Department of Food Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province 510632, China. 6 Guangdong Institute of Microbiology, Guangdong Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province 510070, China; State Key Laboratory of Applied Microbiology Southern China, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Culture Collection and Application, Guangdong Open Laboratory of Applied Microbiology, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province 510070, China. Electronic address: wuqp203@163.com.

 

Abstract

The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of integrons and integron-associated antibiotic resistance in V. parahaemolyticus strains collected from RTE foods in China, and to carry out a comprehensive analysis on the molecular characterization of V. parahaemolyticus strains carrying blaVEB-1-positive class 1 integron. Of the 51 V. parahaemolyticus strains isolated from RTE food samples, none of the isolates was found to carry integrase genes intI2 and IntI3. However, all 51 strains were positive to integrase gene intI1, and only 2 of 51 (3.92%) intI1-positive isolates yielded polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of gene cassette amplification. Sequence data and BLAST analysis indicated the gene cassette arrays of class 1 integron in VP007 is dfrA14-blaVEB-1-aadB, while the gene cassette arrays of class 1 integron in V187 is blaVEB-1-aadB-arr2-cmlA-blaOXA-10-aadA1. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that the two V. parahaemolyticus isolates harboring class 1 integrons exhibited multi-drug resistance to various antibiotics. S1-PFGE and Southern blot analysis confirmed the class 1 integron harboring blaVEB-1 gene in V187 was located on the plasmid of ~175 kb and transferrable to the recipient strain by conjugation. This is the first detection of class 1 integrons harboring the ESBL gene blaVEB-1 in V. parahaemolyticus. To the best of our knowledge, this is also the first report of VEB-producing V. parahaemolyticus from RTE foods. Our findings revealed that class 1 integron on conjugative plasmid contributes significantly to the dissemination of VEB-producing V. parahaemolyticus, which warrants further investigation because of the public health threat it poses.

Copyright © 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Antibiotic resistance; Class 1 integron; RTE food; Vibrio parahaemolyticus; bla(VEB-1)

PMID: 31863965 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2019.108473

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Beta-lactams; Vibrio spp.; Food Safety; China.

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#Thermotolerant #Campylobacter spp. in #chicken and #bovine #meat in #Italy: Prevalence, level of contamination and molecular characterization of isolates (PLOS One, abstract)

[Source: PLOS One, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in chicken and bovine meat in Italy: Prevalence, level of contamination and molecular characterization of isolates

Elisabetta Di Giannatale, Paolo Calistri, Guido Di Donato , Lucia Decastelli, Elisa Goffredo, Daniela Adriano, Maria Emanuela Mancini, Annamaria Galleggiante, Diana Neri, Salvatore Antoci, Cristina Marfoglia, Francesca Marotta, Roberta Nuvoloni, Giacomo Migliorati

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Published: December 6, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0225957

 

Abstract

Campylobacter species are common foodborne pathogens associated with cases of human gastroenteritis worldwide. A detailed understanding of the prevalence, contamination levels and molecular characteristics of Campylobacter spp. in cattle and chicken, which are likely the most important sources of human contamination, is imperative. A collection of 1243 poultry meat samples (665 chicken breasts and 578 chicken thighs) and 1203 bovine meat samples (689 hamburgers and 514 knife-cut meat preparations) were collected at retail outlets, in randomly selected supermarkets located in different Italian regions during one year. Of these samples, 17.38% of the poultry meat and 0.58% of the bovine meat samples tested positive for Campylobacter, of which 131 were Campylobacter jejuni (57.96%) and 95 were Campylobacter coli (42.03%). Campylobacter isolates were genotyped with the aim of assessing the genetic diversity, population structure, source distribution and Campylobacter transmission route to humans. All isolates were molecularly characterized by pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and further genotyped using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and fla-SVR sequencing to gain better insight into the population structure. Antibiotic resistance was also investigate. The highest levels of resistance among chicken strains were observed for ciprofloxacin (88.25%), nalidixic acid (81.45%) and tetracycline (75.6%). PFGE analysis revealed 73 pulsotypes for C. jejuni and 54 pulsotypes for C. coli, demonstrating the existance of different and specific clones circulating in Italy. MLST of C.jejuni isolates mainly clustered in the CC353, CC354, CC21, CC206 and CC443; while C.coli isolates clustered only in CC828. The most common flaA alleles were 287 for C. jejuni and 66 for C. coli. Our study confirms that poultry meat is the main source of Campylobacteriosis, whereas red meat had a low level of contamination suggesting a minor role in transmission. The high presence of Campylobacter in retail chicken meat, paired with its increased resistance to antimicrobials with several multidrug resistance profiles detected, is alarming and represents a persistent threat to public health.

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Citation: Di Giannatale E, Calistri P, Di Donato G, Decastelli L, Goffredo E, Adriano D, et al. (2019) Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in chicken and bovine meat in Italy: Prevalence, level of contamination and molecular characterization of isolates. PLoS ONE 14(12): e0225957. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0225957

Editor: Anderson de Souza Sant’Ana, University of Campinas, BRAZIL

Received: July 26, 2019; Accepted: November 16, 2019; Published: December 6, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Di Giannatale et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: This work was supported by the Italian Ministry of Health [grant numbers: MSRCTE0115]. The funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Campylobacter spp.; Food Safety; Poultry; Cattle; Italy.

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Identification of #Coxiella burnetii in Tank Raw #Cow #Milk: First Findings from #Chile (Vector Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Identification of Coxiella burnetii in Tank Raw Cow Milk: First Findings from Chile

Javiera Cornejo, Pamela Araya, Daniel Ibáñez, Juan Carlos Hormazabal, Patricio Retamal, Marcela Fresno, and Lisette Lapierre

Published Online: 25 Nov 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2019.2535

 

Abstract

Coxiella burnetii causes Q fever, an important zoonotic disease, and exposure is mainly associated with inhalation of contaminated aerosols. In South America, no systematic studies have been carried out. In Chile, the only official record of Q fever has been an outbreak of occupational context occurring in 1998 with eight confirmed human cases, all workers in the Agriculture and Livestock Service. Recently, in 2017 a Q fever outbreak was reported from dairy farm workers in two regions in southern Chile. This study determined the presence of C. burnetii in bulk tank milk samples from dairy farms obtained during this outbreak. A duplex real time quantitative PCR assay with primers and probes targeting two different gene sequences, IS1111 and com1, was used for diagnosis. C. burnetii was detected in 2 of 105 samples analyzed (2.1%). These results pose a potential public health risk as the milk from these farms was sold to the local human population. This is the first report on detecting C. burnetii in raw tank milk samples in Chile.

Keywords: Coxiella burnetii; Q Fever; Cattle; Human; Food Safety; Chile.

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Do #vegetarians less frequently carry #ESBL/pAmpC-producing #Escherichia coli/Klebsiella pneumoniae compared with non-vegetarians? (J Antimicrob Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Do vegetarians less frequently carry ESBL/pAmpC-producing Escherichia coli/Klebsiella pneumoniae compared with non-vegetarians?

Anouk P Meijs, Esther F Gijsbers, Paul D Hengeveld, Christiaan Veenman, Annika M van Roon, Angela H A M van Hoek, Sabine C de Greeff, Engeline van Duijkeren, Cindy M Dierikx

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, dkz483, https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz483

Published: 25 November 2019

 

Abstract

Background

ESBL and plasmid-mediated AmpC (pAmpC)-producing Enterobacteriaceae are frequently found on meat products in Dutch retail, especially on poultry.

Objectives

We investigated whether vegetarians are at lower risk of carrying ESBL/pAmpC-producing Escherichia coli/Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-E/K) compared with persons who consume meat.

Methods

Vegetarians, pescatarians (vegetarians who eat fish) and non-vegetarians (persons who eat meat at least three times per week) were asked to send in a faecal sample and a questionnaire. ESBL-E/K were cultured and MLSTs were determined. ESBL/pAmpC genes were analysed using PCR and sequencing. The risk of ESBL-E/K carriage in the three study groups was analysed using multivariable logistic regression.

Results

Prevalence of ESBL-E/K carriage was 8.0% in vegetarians (63/785; 95% CI 6.3–10.1), 6.9% in pescatarians (27/392; 95% CI 4.8–9.8) and 3.8% in non-vegetarians (14/365; 95% CI 2.3–6.3). Multivariable analysis showed an OR for ESBL-E/K carriage of 2.2 for vegetarians (95% CI 1.2–4.0) and 1.6 for pescatarians (95% CI 0.8–3.2) compared with non-vegetarians. The predominant MLST was E. coli ST131 and the most common ESBL genes were blaCTX-M-15, blaCTX-M-27, blaCTX-M-14 and blaCTX-M-1 in all diet groups. Independent risk factors for ESBL-E/K carriage were travel to Africa/Latin America/Asia (OR 4.6; 95% CI 2.8–7.7) in the past 6 months and rarely/never washing hands before food preparation (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.2–5.0).

Conclusions

Vegetarians and pescatarians did not have a lower risk of ESBL-E/K carriage compared with non-vegetarians, indicating that eating meat is not an important risk factor for ESBL-E/K carriage.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Enterobacteriaceae; E. Coli; Klebsiella pneumoniae; Food Safety.

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#Antibiotics #resistance and #toxin profiles of #Bacillus cereus-group isolates from fresh #vegetables from #German retail #markets (BMC Microbiol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

BMC Microbiol. 2019 Nov 9;19(1):250. doi: 10.1186/s12866-019-1632-2.

Antibiotics resistance and toxin profiles of Bacillus cereus-group isolates from fresh vegetables from German retail markets.

Fiedler G1, Schneider C2, Igbinosa EO3,4, Kabisch J3, Brinks E3, Becker B2, Stoll DA2, Cho GS3, Huch M2, Franz CMAP3.

Author information: 1 Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Hermann-Weigmann-Straße 1, 24103, Kiel, Germany. gregor.fiedler@mri.bund.de. 2 Department of Safety and Quality of Fruit and Vegetables, Max Rubner-Institut, Federal Research Institute of Nutrition and Food, Haid-und-Neu-Straße 9, 76131, Karlsruhe, Germany. 3 Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Hermann-Weigmann-Straße 1, 24103, Kiel, Germany. 4 Present Address: Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Benin, Private Mail Bag 1154, Benin City, 30001, Nigeria.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

This study aimed to evaluate the safety of raw vegetable products present on the German market regarding toxin-producing Bacillus cereus sensu lato (s.l.) group bacteria.

RESULTS:

A total of 147 B. cereus s.l. group strains isolated from cucumbers, carrots, herbs, salad leaves and ready-to-eat mixed salad leaves were analyzed. Their toxinogenic potential was assessed by multiplex PCR targeting the hemolysin BL (hbl) component D (hblD), non-hemolytic enterotoxin (nhe) component A (nheA), cytotoxin K-2 (cytK-2) and the cereulide (ces) toxin genes. In addition, a serological test was used to detect Hbl and Nhe toxins. On the basis of PCR and serological results, none of the strains were positive for the cereulide protein/genes, while 91.2, 83.0 and 37.4% were positive for the Hbl, Nhe and CytK toxins or their genes, respectively. Numerous strains produced multiple toxins. Generally, strains showed resistance against the β-lactam antibiotics such as penicillin G and cefotaxim (100%), as well as amoxicillin/clavulanic acid combination and ampicillin (99.3%). Most strains were susceptible to ciprofloxacin (99.3%), chloramphenicol (98.6%), amikacin (98.0%), imipenem (93.9%), erythromycin (91.8%), gentamicin (88.4%), tetracycline (76.2%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole combination (52.4%). The genomes of eight selected strains were sequenced. The toxin gene profiles detected by PCR and serological test mostly agreed with those from whole-genome sequence data.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our study showed that B. cereus s.l. strains encoding toxin genes occur in products sold on the German market and that these may pose a health risk to the consumer if present at elevated levels. Furthermore, a small percentage of these strains harbor antibiotic resistance genes. The presence of these bacteria in fresh produce should, therefore, be monitored to guarantee their safety.

KEYWORDS: Antibiotic resistance; Bacillus cereus sensu lato; Food safety; Fresh produce; Toxins; Whole genome sequencing

PMID: 31706266 DOI: 10.1186/s12866-019-1632-2

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Bacillus cereus; Food Safety; Germany; Amoxicillin; Cefotaxim; Ampicillin.

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Characterization of #H7N9 #avian #influenza viruses isolated from #duck #meat products (Transbound Emerg Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Transbound Emerg Dis. 2019 Oct 25. doi: 10.1111/tbed.13398. [Epub ahead of print]

Characterization of H7N9 avian influenza viruses isolated from duck meat products.

Wu L1, Mitake H1, Kiso M1, Ito M1, Iwatsuki-Hirimoto K1, Yamayoshi S1, Lopes TJS1,2, Feng H1, Sumiyoshi R3, Shibata A3, Osaka H3, Imai M1, Watanabe T1, Kawaoka Y1,2,4.

Author information: 1 Division of Virology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan. 2 Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA. 3 Exotic Disease Inspection Division, Laboratory Department, Animal Quarantine Service, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Aichi, Japan. 4 Department of Special Pathogens, International Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

 

Abstract

Avian influenza H7N9 viruses have caused five epidemic waves of human infections since the first human cases were reported in 2013. In 2016, the initial low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H7N9 viruses became highly pathogenic, acquiring multi-basic amino acids at the hemagglutinin cleavage site. This highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N9 viruses have been detected in poultry and humans in China, causing concerns of a serious threat to global public health. In Japan, both HPAI and LPAI H7N9 viruses were isolated from duck meat products carried illegally and relinquished voluntarily at the border by passengers on flights from China to Japan between 2016 and 2017. Some of the LPAI and HPAI H7N9 viruses detected at the border in Japan were characterized previously in chickens and ducks; however, their pathogenicity and replicative ability in mammals remain unknown. In this study, we assessed the biological features of two HPAI H7N9 virus isolates [A/duck/Japan/AQ-HE29-22/2017 (HE29-22) and A/duck/Japan/AQ-HE29-52/2017 (HE29-52); both of these viruses were isolated from duck meat at the border)] and an LPAI H7N9 virus isolate [A/duck/Japan/AQ-HE28-3/2016 (HE28-3)] in mice and ferrets. In mice, HE29-52 was more pathogenic than HE29-22 and HE28-3. In ferrets, the two HPAI virus isolates replicated more efficiently in the lower respiratory tract of the animals than did the LPAI virus isolate. Our results indicate that HPAI H7N9 viruses with potential to cause severe diseases in mammals have been illegally introduced to Japan.

© 2019 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

KEYWORDS: H7N9; Highly pathogenic avian influenza; pathogenicity in mammals

PMID: 31650680 DOI: 10.1111/tbed.13398

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H7N9; Food safety.

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