#Antibiotics #resistance and #toxin profiles of #Bacillus cereus-group isolates from fresh #vegetables from #German retail #markets (BMC Microbiol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

BMC Microbiol. 2019 Nov 9;19(1):250. doi: 10.1186/s12866-019-1632-2.

Antibiotics resistance and toxin profiles of Bacillus cereus-group isolates from fresh vegetables from German retail markets.

Fiedler G1, Schneider C2, Igbinosa EO3,4, Kabisch J3, Brinks E3, Becker B2, Stoll DA2, Cho GS3, Huch M2, Franz CMAP3.

Author information: 1 Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Hermann-Weigmann-Straße 1, 24103, Kiel, Germany. gregor.fiedler@mri.bund.de. 2 Department of Safety and Quality of Fruit and Vegetables, Max Rubner-Institut, Federal Research Institute of Nutrition and Food, Haid-und-Neu-Straße 9, 76131, Karlsruhe, Germany. 3 Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Hermann-Weigmann-Straße 1, 24103, Kiel, Germany. 4 Present Address: Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Benin, Private Mail Bag 1154, Benin City, 30001, Nigeria.




This study aimed to evaluate the safety of raw vegetable products present on the German market regarding toxin-producing Bacillus cereus sensu lato (s.l.) group bacteria.


A total of 147 B. cereus s.l. group strains isolated from cucumbers, carrots, herbs, salad leaves and ready-to-eat mixed salad leaves were analyzed. Their toxinogenic potential was assessed by multiplex PCR targeting the hemolysin BL (hbl) component D (hblD), non-hemolytic enterotoxin (nhe) component A (nheA), cytotoxin K-2 (cytK-2) and the cereulide (ces) toxin genes. In addition, a serological test was used to detect Hbl and Nhe toxins. On the basis of PCR and serological results, none of the strains were positive for the cereulide protein/genes, while 91.2, 83.0 and 37.4% were positive for the Hbl, Nhe and CytK toxins or their genes, respectively. Numerous strains produced multiple toxins. Generally, strains showed resistance against the β-lactam antibiotics such as penicillin G and cefotaxim (100%), as well as amoxicillin/clavulanic acid combination and ampicillin (99.3%). Most strains were susceptible to ciprofloxacin (99.3%), chloramphenicol (98.6%), amikacin (98.0%), imipenem (93.9%), erythromycin (91.8%), gentamicin (88.4%), tetracycline (76.2%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole combination (52.4%). The genomes of eight selected strains were sequenced. The toxin gene profiles detected by PCR and serological test mostly agreed with those from whole-genome sequence data.


Our study showed that B. cereus s.l. strains encoding toxin genes occur in products sold on the German market and that these may pose a health risk to the consumer if present at elevated levels. Furthermore, a small percentage of these strains harbor antibiotic resistance genes. The presence of these bacteria in fresh produce should, therefore, be monitored to guarantee their safety.

KEYWORDS: Antibiotic resistance; Bacillus cereus sensu lato; Food safety; Fresh produce; Toxins; Whole genome sequencing

PMID: 31706266 DOI: 10.1186/s12866-019-1632-2

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Bacillus cereus; Food Safety; Germany; Amoxicillin; Cefotaxim; Ampicillin.


Characterization of #H7N9 #avian #influenza viruses isolated from #duck #meat products (Transbound Emerg Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Transbound Emerg Dis. 2019 Oct 25. doi: 10.1111/tbed.13398. [Epub ahead of print]

Characterization of H7N9 avian influenza viruses isolated from duck meat products.

Wu L1, Mitake H1, Kiso M1, Ito M1, Iwatsuki-Hirimoto K1, Yamayoshi S1, Lopes TJS1,2, Feng H1, Sumiyoshi R3, Shibata A3, Osaka H3, Imai M1, Watanabe T1, Kawaoka Y1,2,4.

Author information: 1 Division of Virology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan. 2 Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA. 3 Exotic Disease Inspection Division, Laboratory Department, Animal Quarantine Service, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Aichi, Japan. 4 Department of Special Pathogens, International Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.



Avian influenza H7N9 viruses have caused five epidemic waves of human infections since the first human cases were reported in 2013. In 2016, the initial low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H7N9 viruses became highly pathogenic, acquiring multi-basic amino acids at the hemagglutinin cleavage site. This highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N9 viruses have been detected in poultry and humans in China, causing concerns of a serious threat to global public health. In Japan, both HPAI and LPAI H7N9 viruses were isolated from duck meat products carried illegally and relinquished voluntarily at the border by passengers on flights from China to Japan between 2016 and 2017. Some of the LPAI and HPAI H7N9 viruses detected at the border in Japan were characterized previously in chickens and ducks; however, their pathogenicity and replicative ability in mammals remain unknown. In this study, we assessed the biological features of two HPAI H7N9 virus isolates [A/duck/Japan/AQ-HE29-22/2017 (HE29-22) and A/duck/Japan/AQ-HE29-52/2017 (HE29-52); both of these viruses were isolated from duck meat at the border)] and an LPAI H7N9 virus isolate [A/duck/Japan/AQ-HE28-3/2016 (HE28-3)] in mice and ferrets. In mice, HE29-52 was more pathogenic than HE29-22 and HE28-3. In ferrets, the two HPAI virus isolates replicated more efficiently in the lower respiratory tract of the animals than did the LPAI virus isolate. Our results indicate that HPAI H7N9 viruses with potential to cause severe diseases in mammals have been illegally introduced to Japan.

© 2019 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

KEYWORDS: H7N9; Highly pathogenic avian influenza; pathogenicity in mammals

PMID: 31650680 DOI: 10.1111/tbed.13398

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H7N9; Food safety.


#ESBL-producing #Escherichia coli in #human-derived and #foodchain-derived #samples from #England, #Wales, and #Scotland: an epidemiological surveillance and typing study (Lancet Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in human-derived and foodchain-derived samples from England, Wales, and Scotland: an epidemiological surveillance and typing study

Michaela J Day, PhD, Katie L Hopkins, PhD, David W Wareham, PhD, Mark A Toleman, PhD, Nicola Elviss, PhD, Luke Randall, PhD, Christopher Teale, MSc, Paul Cleary, MSc, Camilla Wiuff, PhD *, Michel Doumith, PhD †, Matthew J Ellington, PhD, Neil Woodford, PhD, Prof David M Livermore, PhD

Open Access / Published: October 22, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(19)30273-7




Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolates (ESBL-E coli) cause more than 5000 cases of bacteraemias annually in the UK. The contribution of the food chain to these infections is debated. We aimed to identify the most important reservoirs of ESBL-E coli that colonise and infect humans to identify strategic intervention points.


Sampling for ESBL-E coli was done between Aug 1, 2013, and Dec 15, 2014. We used selective media to seek ESBL-E coli in routinely submitted samples from human faeces, and prospectively collected samples from sewage, farm slurry, and retail foodstuffs in London, East Anglia, northwest England, Scotland, and Wales. We sequenced recovered isolates and compared these isolates with 293 bloodstream and 83 veterinary surveillance ESBL-E coli isolates from the same regions.


2157 (11%) of 20 243 human faeces samples contained ESBL-E coli, including 678 (17%) of 3995 in London. ESBL-E coli also were frequent in sewage and retail chicken (104 [65%] of 159 meat samples), but were rare in other meats and absent from plant-based foods (0 of 400 fruit and vegetable samples). Sequence type (ST) 131 dominated among ESBL-E coli from human blood (188 [64%] of 293 isolates), faeces (128 [36%] of 360), and sewage (14 [22%] of 65) with STs 38 and 648 also widespread; CTX-M-15 was the predominant ESBL in these lineages (319 [77%] of 416). By contrast, STs 602, 23, and 117—mostly with CTX-M-1 ESBL—dominated among food and veterinary isolates (68 [31%] of 218), with only two ST131 organisms recovered. ST10 occurred in both animals and humans, being frequent in surveillance bovines (11 [22%] of 51 cattle) and representing 15 (4%) of 360 human faecal isolates (but only three [1%] of 293 from bacteraemias); however, both human and animal ST10 isolates were diverse in serotype.


Most human bacteraemias with ESBL-E coli in the UK involve internationally prevalent human-associated STs, particularly ST131; non-human reservoirs made little contribution to invasive human disease. Any interventions that seek to target food or livestock can affect the numbers of human infections caused by ESBL-E coli; prevention of the spread of resistant lineages among humans is more vital.


NIHR Policy Research.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Beta-lactams; Food Safety; UK.


From #farm to #fork: identical #clones and Tn6674-like elements in #linezolid-resistant #Enterococcus faecalis from #food-producing #animals and #retail meat (J Antimicrob Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

From farm to fork: identical clones and Tn6674-like elements in linezolid-resistant Enterococcus faecalis from food-producing animals and retail meat

Houyem Elghaieb, Ana P Tedim, Mohamed S Abbassi, Carla Novais, Bárbara Duarte, Abdennaceur Hassen, Luísa Peixe, Ana R Freitas

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, dkz419, https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz419

Published: 11 October 2019




Increasing numbers of linezolid-resistant Enterococcus carrying optrA are being reported across different niches worldwide. We aimed to characterize the first optrA-carrying Enterococcus faecalis obtained from food-producing animals and retail meat samples in Tunisia.


Seven optrA-carrying E. faecalis obtained from chicken faeces (n = 3, August 2017) and retail chicken meat (n = 4, August 2017) in Tunisia were analysed. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by disc diffusion, broth microdilution and Etest against 13 antibiotics, linezolid and tedizolid, respectively (EUCAST/CLSI). optrA stability (∼600 bacterial generations), transfer (filter mating) and location (S1-PFGE/hybridization) were characterized. WGS (Illumina-HiSeq) was done for four representatives that were analysed through in silico and genomic mapping tools.


Four MDR clones carrying different virulence genes were identified in chicken faeces (ST476) and retail meat (the same ST476 clone plus ST21 and ST859) samples. MICs of linezolid and tedizolid were stably maintained at 8 and 1–2 mg/L, respectively. optrA was located in the same transferable chromosomal Tn6674-like element in ST476 and ST21 clones, similar to isolates from pigs in Malaysia and humans in China. ST859 carried a non-conjugative plasmid of ∼40 kb with an impB-fexA-optrA segment, similar to plasmids from pigs and humans in China.


The same chromosomal and transferable Tn6674-like element was identified in different E. faecalis clones from humans and animals. The finding of retail meat contaminated with the same linezolid-resistant E. faecalis strain obtained from a food-producing animal highlights the potential role of the food chain in the worrisome dissemination of optrA that can be stably maintained without selective pressure over generations.

Topic: antibiotics – enterococcus – plasmids – diffusion – chickens – china – chromosomes – clone cells – electrophoresis, gel, pulsed-field – enterococcus faecalis – feces – food – food chain – genes – genome – malaysia – meat – suidae – tunisia – virulence – linezolid – antimicrobial susceptibility – transfer technique – filters – mating – tedizolid – malnutrition-inflammation-cachexia syndrome – whole genome sequencing


© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model)

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Linezolid; Enterococci; Pigs; Poultry; Food Safety; Plasmids.


#Antibiotic #resistance in #Salmonella enterica isolated from #dairy #calves in #Uruguay (Braz J Microbiol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Braz J Microbiol. 2019 Oct 12. doi: 10.1007/s42770-019-00151-w. [Epub ahead of print]

Antibiotic resistance in Salmonella enterica isolated from dairy calves in Uruguay.

Casaux ML1, Caffarena RD1,2, Schild CO1,2, Giannitti F1, Riet-Correa F1, Fraga M3.

Author information: 1 Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agropecuaria (INIA), Plataforma de Investigación en Salud Animal, Estación Experimental INIA La Estanzuela, Ruta 50, km 11.5, 70006, Colonia, Uruguay. 2 Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay. 3 Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agropecuaria (INIA), Plataforma de Investigación en Salud Animal, Estación Experimental INIA La Estanzuela, Ruta 50, km 11.5, 70006, Colonia, Uruguay. mfraga@inia.org.uy.



Salmonella enterica is an important animal and human pathogen that can cause enteritis and septicaemia in calves. Generally, antibiotics are prescribed for the treatment of salmonellosis in dairy calves. Here, we report the isolation of antibiotic resistant S. enterica serotypes from calves, including multidrug-resistant isolates. A total of 544 faecal samples from live healthy and diarrheic dairy calves from 29 commercial dairy farms and organ samples from 19 deceased calves that succumbed to salmonellosis in 12 commercial dairy farms in Uruguay were processed for selective S. enterica culture. In total, 41 isolates were serotyped, and susceptibility to 14 antibiotics, from 9 classes of compounds, was evaluated by disk-diffusion test. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by microdilution. Salmonella Typhimurium was the most frequent serotype, followed by S. Dublin and S. Anatum. Whether determined by diffusion assay or microdilution, resistance to tetracycline, streptomycin and ampicillin were the most frequently pattern found. Based on MIC, 5 isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, 21 were resistant to 2 antibiotics, and 14 were multidrug-resistant (resistant to at least one antibiotic in 3 different categories of antibiotics). Eleven different resistance patterns were found. Multidrug resistance in S. enterica is a concern for animal and public health not only because of its zoonotic potential but also due to the possibility of transfer resistance determinants to other bacterial genera. This represents the first report of the antibiotic resistance in S. enterica in dairy farms in Uruguay.

KEYWORDS: Antibiotic resistance; Dairy calves; Salmonella Anatum; Salmonella Dublin; Salmonella Typhimurium

PMID: 31606855 DOI: 10.1007/s42770-019-00151-w

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Salmonella Typhimurium; Cattle; Salmonellosis; Food Safety; Uruguay.


#Sugar-Sweetened #Beverage Health #Warnings and #Purchases: A #RCT (Am J Prev Med., abstract)

[Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Health Warnings and Purchases: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Anna H. Grummon, PhD1,2, Lindsey S. Taillie, PhD2,3, Shelley D. Golden, PhD1,4, Marissa G. Hall, PhD1,4, Leah M. Ranney, PhD5, Noel T. Brewer, PhD1,4

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2019.06.019

Published online: October 02, 2019




Five U.S. states have proposed policies to require health warnings on sugar-sweetened beverages, but warnings’ effects on actual purchase behavior remain uncertain. This study evaluated the impact of sugar-sweetened beverage health warnings on sugar-sweetened beverage purchases.

Study design

Participants completed one study visit to a life-sized replica of a convenience store in North Carolina. Participants chose six items (two beverages, two foods, and two household products). One item was randomly selected for them to purchase and take home. Participants also completed a questionnaire. Researchers collected data in 2018 and conducted analyses in 2019.


Participants were a demographically diverse convenience sample of 400 adult sugar-sweetened beverage consumers (usual consumption ≥12 ounces/week).


Research staff randomly assigned participants to a health warning arm (sugar-sweetened beverages in the store displayed a front-of-package health warning) or a control arm (sugar-sweetened beverages displayed a control label).

Main outcome measures

The primary trial outcome was sugar-sweetened beverage calories purchased. Secondary outcomes included reactions to trial labels (e.g., negative emotions) and sugar-sweetened beverage perceptions and attitudes (e.g., healthfulness).


All 400 participants completed the trial and were included in analyses. Health warning arm participants were less likely to be Hispanic and to have overweight/obesity than control arm participants. In intent-to-treat analyses adjusting for Hispanic ethnicity and overweight/obesity, health warnings led to lower sugar-sweetened beverage purchases (adjusted difference, −31.4 calories; 95% CI= −57.9, −5.0). Unadjusted analyses yielded similar results (difference, −32.9 calories; 95% CI= −58.9, −7.0). Compared with the control label, sugar-sweetened beverage health warnings also led to higher intentions to limit sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and elicited more attention, negative emotions, thinking about the harms of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, and anticipated social interactions. Trial arms did not differ on perceptions of sugar-sweetened beverages’ added sugar content, healthfulness, appeal/coolness, or disease risk.


Brief exposure to health warnings reduced sugar-sweetened beverage purchases in this naturalistic RCT. Sugar-sweetened beverage health warning policies could discourage sugar-sweetened beverage consumption.

Trial registration

This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT03511937.

© 2019 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Food Safety; Society; Public Health.


Cost #Effectiveness of #Nutrition #Policies on Processed #Meat: Implications for #Cancer Burden in the #US (Am J Prev Med., abstract)

[Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Cost Effectiveness of Nutrition Policies on Processed Meat: Implications for Cancer Burden in the U.S.

David D. Kim, PhD1, Parke E. Wilde, PhD2, Dominique S. Michaud, ScD3, Junxiu Liu, PhD2, Lauren Lizewski, MPH2, Jennifer Onopa, MS, RDN2, Dariush Mozaffarian, MD, DrPH2, Fang Fang Zhang, MD, PhD2, John B. Wong, MD4

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2019.02.023

Published online: September 26, 2019




Processed meats are associated with increased risk of colorectal and stomach cancers, but health and economic impacts of policies to discourage processed meats are not well established. This paper aims to evaluate the cost effectiveness of implementing tax and warning labels on processed meats.


A probabilistic cohort-state transition model was developed in 2018, including lifetime and short-term horizons, healthcare, and societal perspectives, and 3% discount rates for costs and health outcomes. The model simulated 32 subgroups by age, gender, and race/ethnicity from the U.S. adult population and integrated nationally representative 2011–2014 data on processed meat consumption, with etiologic effects of processed meat consumption on cancer incidence, medical and indirect societal costs, and policy costs.


Over a lifetime, the 10% excise tax would prevent 77,000 cases of colorectal cancer (95% uncertainty interval=56,800, 107,000) and 12,500 cases of stomach cancer (95% uncertainty interval=6,880, 23,900), add 593,000 quality-adjusted life years (95% uncertainty interval=419,000, 827,000), and generate net savings of $2.7 billion from a societal perspective, including $1.1 billion healthcare costs saved. The warning label policy would avert 85,400 cases of colorectal cancer (95% uncertainty interval=56,600, 141,000) and 15,000 cases of stomach cancer (95% uncertainty interval=6,860, 34,500), and add 660,000 quality-adjusted life years (95% uncertainty interval=418,000, 1,070,000), with net savings of $4.5 billion from a societal perspective, including $1.3 billion healthcare costs saved. In subgroup analyses, greater health and economic benefits accrued to (1) younger subpopulations, (2) subpopulations with greater cancer risk, and (3) those with higher baseline processed meat consumption.


The model shows that implementing tax or warning labels on processed meats would be a cost-saving strategy with substantial health and economic benefits. The findings should encourage policy makers to consider nutrition-related policies to reduce cancer burden.

© 2019 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Cancer; Food safety; USA.