#ESBL-producing #Escherichia coli in #human-derived and #foodchain-derived #samples from #England, #Wales, and #Scotland: an epidemiological surveillance and typing study (Lancet Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in human-derived and foodchain-derived samples from England, Wales, and Scotland: an epidemiological surveillance and typing study

Michaela J Day, PhD, Katie L Hopkins, PhD, David W Wareham, PhD, Mark A Toleman, PhD, Nicola Elviss, PhD, Luke Randall, PhD, Christopher Teale, MSc, Paul Cleary, MSc, Camilla Wiuff, PhD *, Michel Doumith, PhD †, Matthew J Ellington, PhD, Neil Woodford, PhD, Prof David M Livermore, PhD

Open Access / Published: October 22, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(19)30273-7

 

Summary

Background

Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolates (ESBL-E coli) cause more than 5000 cases of bacteraemias annually in the UK. The contribution of the food chain to these infections is debated. We aimed to identify the most important reservoirs of ESBL-E coli that colonise and infect humans to identify strategic intervention points.

Methods

Sampling for ESBL-E coli was done between Aug 1, 2013, and Dec 15, 2014. We used selective media to seek ESBL-E coli in routinely submitted samples from human faeces, and prospectively collected samples from sewage, farm slurry, and retail foodstuffs in London, East Anglia, northwest England, Scotland, and Wales. We sequenced recovered isolates and compared these isolates with 293 bloodstream and 83 veterinary surveillance ESBL-E coli isolates from the same regions.

Findings

2157 (11%) of 20 243 human faeces samples contained ESBL-E coli, including 678 (17%) of 3995 in London. ESBL-E coli also were frequent in sewage and retail chicken (104 [65%] of 159 meat samples), but were rare in other meats and absent from plant-based foods (0 of 400 fruit and vegetable samples). Sequence type (ST) 131 dominated among ESBL-E coli from human blood (188 [64%] of 293 isolates), faeces (128 [36%] of 360), and sewage (14 [22%] of 65) with STs 38 and 648 also widespread; CTX-M-15 was the predominant ESBL in these lineages (319 [77%] of 416). By contrast, STs 602, 23, and 117—mostly with CTX-M-1 ESBL—dominated among food and veterinary isolates (68 [31%] of 218), with only two ST131 organisms recovered. ST10 occurred in both animals and humans, being frequent in surveillance bovines (11 [22%] of 51 cattle) and representing 15 (4%) of 360 human faecal isolates (but only three [1%] of 293 from bacteraemias); however, both human and animal ST10 isolates were diverse in serotype.

Interpretation

Most human bacteraemias with ESBL-E coli in the UK involve internationally prevalent human-associated STs, particularly ST131; non-human reservoirs made little contribution to invasive human disease. Any interventions that seek to target food or livestock can affect the numbers of human infections caused by ESBL-E coli; prevention of the spread of resistant lineages among humans is more vital.

Funding

NIHR Policy Research.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Beta-lactams; Food Safety; UK.

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From #farm to #fork: identical #clones and Tn6674-like elements in #linezolid-resistant #Enterococcus faecalis from #food-producing #animals and #retail meat (J Antimicrob Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

From farm to fork: identical clones and Tn6674-like elements in linezolid-resistant Enterococcus faecalis from food-producing animals and retail meat

Houyem Elghaieb, Ana P Tedim, Mohamed S Abbassi, Carla Novais, Bárbara Duarte, Abdennaceur Hassen, Luísa Peixe, Ana R Freitas

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, dkz419, https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz419

Published: 11 October 2019

 

Abstract

Objectives

Increasing numbers of linezolid-resistant Enterococcus carrying optrA are being reported across different niches worldwide. We aimed to characterize the first optrA-carrying Enterococcus faecalis obtained from food-producing animals and retail meat samples in Tunisia.

Methods

Seven optrA-carrying E. faecalis obtained from chicken faeces (n = 3, August 2017) and retail chicken meat (n = 4, August 2017) in Tunisia were analysed. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by disc diffusion, broth microdilution and Etest against 13 antibiotics, linezolid and tedizolid, respectively (EUCAST/CLSI). optrA stability (∼600 bacterial generations), transfer (filter mating) and location (S1-PFGE/hybridization) were characterized. WGS (Illumina-HiSeq) was done for four representatives that were analysed through in silico and genomic mapping tools.

Results

Four MDR clones carrying different virulence genes were identified in chicken faeces (ST476) and retail meat (the same ST476 clone plus ST21 and ST859) samples. MICs of linezolid and tedizolid were stably maintained at 8 and 1–2 mg/L, respectively. optrA was located in the same transferable chromosomal Tn6674-like element in ST476 and ST21 clones, similar to isolates from pigs in Malaysia and humans in China. ST859 carried a non-conjugative plasmid of ∼40 kb with an impB-fexA-optrA segment, similar to plasmids from pigs and humans in China.

Conclusions

The same chromosomal and transferable Tn6674-like element was identified in different E. faecalis clones from humans and animals. The finding of retail meat contaminated with the same linezolid-resistant E. faecalis strain obtained from a food-producing animal highlights the potential role of the food chain in the worrisome dissemination of optrA that can be stably maintained without selective pressure over generations.

Topic: antibiotics – enterococcus – plasmids – diffusion – chickens – china – chromosomes – clone cells – electrophoresis, gel, pulsed-field – enterococcus faecalis – feces – food – food chain – genes – genome – malaysia – meat – suidae – tunisia – virulence – linezolid – antimicrobial susceptibility – transfer technique – filters – mating – tedizolid – malnutrition-inflammation-cachexia syndrome – whole genome sequencing

Issue Section: ORIGINAL RESEARCH

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model)

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Linezolid; Enterococci; Pigs; Poultry; Food Safety; Plasmids.

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#Antibiotic #resistance in #Salmonella enterica isolated from #dairy #calves in #Uruguay (Braz J Microbiol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Braz J Microbiol. 2019 Oct 12. doi: 10.1007/s42770-019-00151-w. [Epub ahead of print]

Antibiotic resistance in Salmonella enterica isolated from dairy calves in Uruguay.

Casaux ML1, Caffarena RD1,2, Schild CO1,2, Giannitti F1, Riet-Correa F1, Fraga M3.

Author information: 1 Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agropecuaria (INIA), Plataforma de Investigación en Salud Animal, Estación Experimental INIA La Estanzuela, Ruta 50, km 11.5, 70006, Colonia, Uruguay. 2 Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay. 3 Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agropecuaria (INIA), Plataforma de Investigación en Salud Animal, Estación Experimental INIA La Estanzuela, Ruta 50, km 11.5, 70006, Colonia, Uruguay. mfraga@inia.org.uy.

 

Abstract

Salmonella enterica is an important animal and human pathogen that can cause enteritis and septicaemia in calves. Generally, antibiotics are prescribed for the treatment of salmonellosis in dairy calves. Here, we report the isolation of antibiotic resistant S. enterica serotypes from calves, including multidrug-resistant isolates. A total of 544 faecal samples from live healthy and diarrheic dairy calves from 29 commercial dairy farms and organ samples from 19 deceased calves that succumbed to salmonellosis in 12 commercial dairy farms in Uruguay were processed for selective S. enterica culture. In total, 41 isolates were serotyped, and susceptibility to 14 antibiotics, from 9 classes of compounds, was evaluated by disk-diffusion test. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by microdilution. Salmonella Typhimurium was the most frequent serotype, followed by S. Dublin and S. Anatum. Whether determined by diffusion assay or microdilution, resistance to tetracycline, streptomycin and ampicillin were the most frequently pattern found. Based on MIC, 5 isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, 21 were resistant to 2 antibiotics, and 14 were multidrug-resistant (resistant to at least one antibiotic in 3 different categories of antibiotics). Eleven different resistance patterns were found. Multidrug resistance in S. enterica is a concern for animal and public health not only because of its zoonotic potential but also due to the possibility of transfer resistance determinants to other bacterial genera. This represents the first report of the antibiotic resistance in S. enterica in dairy farms in Uruguay.

KEYWORDS: Antibiotic resistance; Dairy calves; Salmonella Anatum; Salmonella Dublin; Salmonella Typhimurium

PMID: 31606855 DOI: 10.1007/s42770-019-00151-w

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Salmonella Typhimurium; Cattle; Salmonellosis; Food Safety; Uruguay.

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#Sugar-Sweetened #Beverage Health #Warnings and #Purchases: A #RCT (Am J Prev Med., abstract)

[Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Health Warnings and Purchases: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Anna H. Grummon, PhD1,2, Lindsey S. Taillie, PhD2,3, Shelley D. Golden, PhD1,4, Marissa G. Hall, PhD1,4, Leah M. Ranney, PhD5, Noel T. Brewer, PhD1,4

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2019.06.019

Published online: October 02, 2019

 

Abstract

Introduction

Five U.S. states have proposed policies to require health warnings on sugar-sweetened beverages, but warnings’ effects on actual purchase behavior remain uncertain. This study evaluated the impact of sugar-sweetened beverage health warnings on sugar-sweetened beverage purchases.

Study design

Participants completed one study visit to a life-sized replica of a convenience store in North Carolina. Participants chose six items (two beverages, two foods, and two household products). One item was randomly selected for them to purchase and take home. Participants also completed a questionnaire. Researchers collected data in 2018 and conducted analyses in 2019.

Setting/participants

Participants were a demographically diverse convenience sample of 400 adult sugar-sweetened beverage consumers (usual consumption ≥12 ounces/week).

Intervention

Research staff randomly assigned participants to a health warning arm (sugar-sweetened beverages in the store displayed a front-of-package health warning) or a control arm (sugar-sweetened beverages displayed a control label).

Main outcome measures

The primary trial outcome was sugar-sweetened beverage calories purchased. Secondary outcomes included reactions to trial labels (e.g., negative emotions) and sugar-sweetened beverage perceptions and attitudes (e.g., healthfulness).

Results

All 400 participants completed the trial and were included in analyses. Health warning arm participants were less likely to be Hispanic and to have overweight/obesity than control arm participants. In intent-to-treat analyses adjusting for Hispanic ethnicity and overweight/obesity, health warnings led to lower sugar-sweetened beverage purchases (adjusted difference, −31.4 calories; 95% CI= −57.9, −5.0). Unadjusted analyses yielded similar results (difference, −32.9 calories; 95% CI= −58.9, −7.0). Compared with the control label, sugar-sweetened beverage health warnings also led to higher intentions to limit sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and elicited more attention, negative emotions, thinking about the harms of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, and anticipated social interactions. Trial arms did not differ on perceptions of sugar-sweetened beverages’ added sugar content, healthfulness, appeal/coolness, or disease risk.

Conclusions

Brief exposure to health warnings reduced sugar-sweetened beverage purchases in this naturalistic RCT. Sugar-sweetened beverage health warning policies could discourage sugar-sweetened beverage consumption.

Trial registration

This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT03511937.

© 2019 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Food Safety; Society; Public Health.

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Cost #Effectiveness of #Nutrition #Policies on Processed #Meat: Implications for #Cancer Burden in the #US (Am J Prev Med., abstract)

[Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Cost Effectiveness of Nutrition Policies on Processed Meat: Implications for Cancer Burden in the U.S.

David D. Kim, PhD1, Parke E. Wilde, PhD2, Dominique S. Michaud, ScD3, Junxiu Liu, PhD2, Lauren Lizewski, MPH2, Jennifer Onopa, MS, RDN2, Dariush Mozaffarian, MD, DrPH2, Fang Fang Zhang, MD, PhD2, John B. Wong, MD4

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2019.02.023

Published online: September 26, 2019

 

Abstract

Introduction

Processed meats are associated with increased risk of colorectal and stomach cancers, but health and economic impacts of policies to discourage processed meats are not well established. This paper aims to evaluate the cost effectiveness of implementing tax and warning labels on processed meats.

Methods

A probabilistic cohort-state transition model was developed in 2018, including lifetime and short-term horizons, healthcare, and societal perspectives, and 3% discount rates for costs and health outcomes. The model simulated 32 subgroups by age, gender, and race/ethnicity from the U.S. adult population and integrated nationally representative 2011–2014 data on processed meat consumption, with etiologic effects of processed meat consumption on cancer incidence, medical and indirect societal costs, and policy costs.

Results

Over a lifetime, the 10% excise tax would prevent 77,000 cases of colorectal cancer (95% uncertainty interval=56,800, 107,000) and 12,500 cases of stomach cancer (95% uncertainty interval=6,880, 23,900), add 593,000 quality-adjusted life years (95% uncertainty interval=419,000, 827,000), and generate net savings of $2.7 billion from a societal perspective, including $1.1 billion healthcare costs saved. The warning label policy would avert 85,400 cases of colorectal cancer (95% uncertainty interval=56,600, 141,000) and 15,000 cases of stomach cancer (95% uncertainty interval=6,860, 34,500), and add 660,000 quality-adjusted life years (95% uncertainty interval=418,000, 1,070,000), with net savings of $4.5 billion from a societal perspective, including $1.3 billion healthcare costs saved. In subgroup analyses, greater health and economic benefits accrued to (1) younger subpopulations, (2) subpopulations with greater cancer risk, and (3) those with higher baseline processed meat consumption.

Conclusions

The model shows that implementing tax or warning labels on processed meats would be a cost-saving strategy with substantial health and economic benefits. The findings should encourage policy makers to consider nutrition-related policies to reduce cancer burden.

© 2019 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Cancer; Food safety; USA.

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Molecular #Detection of #Toxoplasma gondii in the #Slaughter #Sheep and #Goats from #Shandong Province, Eastern #China (Vector Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Molecular Detection of Toxoplasma gondii in the Slaughter Sheep and Goats from Shandong Province, Eastern China

Kang Ai, Cui-Qin Huang, Jing-Jing Guo, Hua Cong, Shen-Yi He, Chun-Xue Zhou, and Wei Cong

Published Online: 23 Sep 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2019.2488

 

Abstract

It is generally recognized that sheep are susceptible to Toxoplasma gondii and play a very important role in the transmission of toxoplasmosis to humans. In China, sheep toxoplasmosis has been reported in some regions based on serological investigations. However, little is known about sheep toxoplasmosis in Shandong province, eastern China. Thus, this study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of T. gondii infection in the slaughter sheep and goats from three cities (Weihai, Yantai, and Rizhao) of Shandong province, eastern China. From November 2016 to March 2018, a total of 692 meat samples (438 sheep and 254 goats) were collected and detected by a seminested PCR-targeted T. gondii B1 gene. The overall prevalence of T. gondii in sheep and goats were 9.84% and 10.73%, respectively. Meat collected from rural markets (16.04%) had a significantly higher T. gondii prevalence than those collected from supermarkets (6.84%) (p < 0.001). Moreover, sheep and goats raised in backyard were more easily to be infected by T. gondii compared with those raised in farms (p < 0.001). This is the first report of the molecular prevalence of T. gondii infection in sheep and goats in Shandong province, eastern China, which would provide effective data for prevention and control of sheep and human toxoplasmosis in China.

Keywords: Toxoplasmosis; Food Safety; Goats; Sheeps; Shandong; China.

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#Molecular #epidemiology of #antibiotic- #resistant #Enterococcus spp. from the #farm – to – #fork continuum in intensive #poultry #production in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa [#ZA] (Sci Total Environ., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Sci Total Environ. 2019 Nov 20;692:868-878. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.07.324. Epub 2019 Jul 21.

Molecular epidemiology of antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus spp. from the farm-to-fork continuum in intensive poultry production in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

Molechan C1, Amoako DG2, Abia ALK3, Somboro AM2, Bester LA4, Essack SY1.

Author information: 1 Antimicrobial Research Unit, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa. 2 Antimicrobial Research Unit, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; Biomedical Resource Unit, School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa. 3 Antimicrobial Research Unit, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa. Electronic address: lutherkinga@yahoo.fr. 4 Biomedical Resource Unit, School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

 

Abstract

The poultry industry is among the main protein suppliers worldwide. Thus, this study determined the antibiotic resistance and virulence profiles of Enterococcus spp. along the farm-to-fork production chain of an intensive poultry system in the uMgungundlovu District, Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. Overall, 162 samples along the continuum (growth phase, transport and post-slaughter) were evaluated for the presence of Enterococcus spp. using selective media, biochemical tests and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Resistance profiles were assessed by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method following the WHO-AGISAR recommended antibiotics panel for Enterococcus spp. Antibiotic resistance and virulence genes were detected using real-time PCR. Clonal relatedness was evaluated by REP-PCR. Overall, 131 isolates were recovered across the continuum, (34% E. faecalis, 32% E. faecium, 2% E. gallinarum and 32% other Enterococcus spp.). Resistance to tetracycline (79%), erythromycin (70%), nitrofurantoin (18%), ampicillin (15%), streptomycin (15%), chloramphenicol (10%), ciprofloxacin (4%), tigecycline (4%), gentamicin (4%), teicoplanin (3%) was observed among all Enterococcus spp.; no vancomycin resistance (0%) was recorded. Also, 24% of E. faecium were resistant to quinupristin-dalfopristin. Twenty-four multidrug resistance (MDR) antibiograms were observed across all species; E. faecium (43%) showed the highest frequency of MDR. The most frequently observed antibiotic resistomes were tetM (76%) and ermB (66%) while smaller percentages were noted for aph(3′)-IIIa (12%) and vanC1 (1%). Virulence genes efaAFs (100%), cpd (96%) and gelE (80%) were more prevalent in E. faecalis. Clonality revealed that isolates along the continuum were highly diverse with major REP-types consisting of isolates from the same sampling point. This study highlights the diversity of MDR Enterococcus in the food chain with isolates harbouring resistance and virulence genes. These could be reservoirs for the potential transfer of pathogenic enterococci carrying these genes from poultry to humans through the food chain continuum, thus, underscoring the need for routine antibiotic resistance surveillance in food animals.

Copyright © 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Antibiotic resistance; Enterococcus spp.; Farm-to-fork continuum; Intensive poultry farming; Multidrug resistance; South Africa

PMID: 31539992 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.07.324

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Enterococcus spp.; Poultry; Food Safety; South Africa.

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