Detection of #plasmid-mediated #tigecycline-resistant gene tet(X4) in #Escherichia coli from #pork, #Sichuan and #Shandong Provinces, #China, February 2019 (Euro Surveill., abstract)

[Source: Eurosurveillance, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Detection of plasmid-mediated tigecycline-resistant gene tet(X4) in Escherichia coli from pork, Sichuan and Shandong Provinces, China, February 2019

Li Bai1,2,3, Pengcheng Du3,4, Yinju Du5, Honghu Sun1,2,6, Pei Zhang1,2, Yuping Wan6, Qi Lin6, Séamus Fanning1,2,7, Shenghui Cui8, Yongning Wu1,2

Affiliations: 1 Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, National Health Commission of the People’s Republic of China, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2 Food Safety Research Unit of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3 These authors contributed equally to this work; 4 Institute of Infectious Diseases, Beijing Ditan Hospital, Capital Medical University, and Beijing Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 5 Center for disease control and prevention of Liaocheng city, Liaocheng, People’s Republic of China; 6 Chengdu institute for Food and Drug Control, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China; 7 UCD-Centre for Food Safety, School of Public Health, Physiotherapy and Sports Science, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin, Ireland; 8 Department of Food Science, National Institutes for Food and Drug Control, Beijing, People’s Republic of China

Correspondence:  Yongning Wu

Citation style for this article: Bai Li, Du Pengcheng, Du Yinju, Sun Honghu, Zhang Pei, Wan Yuping, Lin Qi, Fanning Séamus, Cui Shenghui, Wu Yongning. Detection of plasmid-mediated tigecycline-resistant gene tet(X4) in Escherichia coli from pork, Sichuan and Shandong Provinces, China, February 2019. Euro Surveill.2019;24(25):pii=1900340. https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.25.1900340

Received: 29 May 2019;   Accepted: 20 Jun 2019

 

Abstract

The plasmid-mediated high-level tigecycline resistance gene, tet(X4), was detected in seven Escherichia coli isolates from pork in two Chinese provinces. Two isolates belonged to the epidemic spreading sequence type ST101. Tet(X4) was adjacent to ISVsa3 and concurrent with floR in all seven isolates. In addition to IncFIB, the replicon IncFII was found to be linked to tet(X4). This report follows a recent detection of tet(X3)/(X4) in E. coli from animals and humans in China.

©  This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Tigecycline; Plasmids; Pigs; E. Coli; Food Safety; China; Sichuan; Shandong.

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#Rapid increase in #carbapenemase-producing #Enterobacteriaceae in retail #meat driven by the spread of the #blaNDM-5/IncX3 #plasmid, in #China, 2016–2018 (Antimicrob Agents Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Rapid increase in carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in retail meat driven by the spread of the blaNDM-5/IncX3 plasmid, in China, 2016–2018

Qianhui Zhang, Luchao Lv, Xiuyu Huang, Ying Huang, Zilin Zhuang, Jiaxun Lu, Enyu Liu, Miao Wan, Haoliang Xun, Zhiwei Zhang, Jin Huang, Qianhua Song, Chao Zhuo, Jian-Hua Liu

DOI: 10.1128/AAC.00573-19

 

ABSTRACT

The presence and molecular characteristics of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae(CPE) among meat products in China were investigated. A total of 110 CRE isolates, including 94 Escherichia coli and 10 Klebsiella pneumoniae, were identified from 105 (13.2%) out of 794 samples. The positive rates markedly increased from 2016 (9.4%) to 2018 (22.2%). Only blaNDM genes were detected, 79.1% blaNDM genes were carried by IncX3 plasmids. Routine monitoring of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in animal-food supply is highly recommended.

Copyright © 2019 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Carbapenem; Enterobacteriaceae; Food safety; China.

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An #international #outbreak of #Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis linked to #eggs from #Poland: a microbiological and epidemiological study (Lancet Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

An international outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis linked to eggs from Poland: a microbiological and epidemiological study

Roan Pijnacker, MSc  *, Timothy J Dallman, PhD *, Aloys S L Tijsma, PhD, Gillian Hawkins, MBChB, Lesley Larkin, BVSc, Saara M Kotila, MSc, Giusi Amore, PhD, Ettore Amato, PhD, Pamina M Suzuki, MSc, Sarah Denayer, PhD, Sofieke Klamer, MSc, Judit Pászti, Jacquelyn McCormick, MPH, Hassan Hartman, PhD, Gareth J Hughes, PhD, Lin C T Brandal, PhD, Derek Brown, MSc, Joël Mossong, PhD, Cecilia Jernberg, PhD, Luise Müller, MSc, Daniel Palm, PhD, Ettore Severi, MSc, Joannna Gołębiowska, DVM, Blaženka Hunjak, PhD, Slawomir Owczarek, MSc, Simon Le Hello, PhD, Patricia Garvey, PhD, Kirsten Mooijman, MSc, Ingrid H M Friesema, PhD, Coen van der Weijden, BSc, Menno van der Voort, PhD, Valentina Rizzi, PhD, Eelco Franz, PhD on behalf of theInternational Outbreak Investigation Team †

Published: May 24, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(19)30047-7

 

Summary

Background

Salmonella spp are a major cause of food-borne outbreaks in Europe. We investigated a large multi-country outbreak ofSalmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis in the EU and European Economic Area (EEA).

Methods

A confirmed case was defined as a laboratory-confirmed infection with the outbreak strains of S Enteritidis based on whole-genome sequencing (WGS), occurring between May 1, 2015, and Oct 31, 2018. A probable case was defined as laboratory-confirmed infection withS Enteritidis with the multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis outbreak profile. Multi-country epidemiological, trace-back, trace-forward, and environmental investigations were done. We did a case-control study including confirmed and probable cases and controls randomly sampled from the population registry (frequency matched by age, sex, and postal code). Odds ratios (ORs) for exposure rates between cases and controls were calculated with unmatched univariable and multivariable logistic regression.

Findings

18 EU and EEA countries reported 838 confirmed and 371 probable cases. 509 (42%) cases were reported in 2016, after which the number of cases steadily increased. The case-control study results showed that cases more often ate in food establishments than did controls (OR 3·4 [95% CI 1·6–7·3]), but no specific food item was identified. Recipe-based food trace-back investigations among cases who ate in food establishments identified eggs from Poland as the vehicle of infection in October, 2016. Phylogenetic analysis identified two strains of S Enteritidis in human cases that were subsequently identified in salmonella-positive eggs and primary production premises in Poland, confirming the source of the outbreak. After control measures were implemented, the number of cases decreased, but increased again in March, 2017, and the increase continued into 2018.

Interpretation

This outbreak highlights the public health value of multi-country sharing of epidemiological, trace-back, and microbiological data. The re-emergence of cases suggests that outbreak strains have continued to enter the food chain, although changes in strain population dynamics and fewer cases indicate that control measures had some effect. Routine use of WGS in salmonella surveillance and outbreak response promises to identify and stop outbreaks in the future.

Funding

European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control; Directorate General for Health and Food Safety, European Commission; and National Public Health and Food Safety Institutes of the authors’ countries (see Acknowledgments for full list).

Keywords: Food Safety; EU; European Region; Samonella spp.

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Detection of the phenicol–oxazolidinone– #tetracycline #resistance gene poxtA in #Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis of #food-producing #animal origin in #China (J Antimicrob Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Detection of the phenicol–oxazolidinone–tetracycline resistance gene poxtA in Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis of food-producing animal origin in China

Chang-Wei Lei, Zhuang-Zhuang Kang, Shun-Kang Wu, Yan-Peng Chen, Ling-Han Kong, Hong-Ning Wang

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, dkz198, https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz198

Published: 18 May 2019

Issue Section: Research letter

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Sir,

Oxazolidinones, including linezolid and tedizolid, are effective antimicrobial agents for treating infections caused by MDR Gram-positive bacteria, including VRE.1,2Linezolid is the first commercially available oxazolidinone that can inhibit protein synthesis by binding to the peptidyltransferase centre of the bacterial 23S rRNA. After introduction of linezolid, the resistance mechanism that emerged rapidly was related to mutations in genes coding for the 23S rRNA. The transferable oxazolidinone resistance determinants, cfr and optrA, have been reported in enterococci in several regions worldwide.3–6 Very recently, another transferable oxazolidinone resistance gene, poxtA, was reported in an MRSA of clinical origin…

(…)

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© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model)

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Linezolid; Enterococcus spp.; Food Safety; China.

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#Trends and correlates of #antimicrobial use in #broiler and turkey #farms: a #poultry company registry-based study in #Italy (J Antimicrob Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Trends and correlates of antimicrobial use in broiler and turkey farms: a poultry company registry-based study in Italy

Claudia Caucci, Guido Di Martino, Alessandro Dalla Costa, Manuel Santagiuliana, Monica Lorenzetto, Katia Capello, Lapo Mughini-Gras, Luigi Gavazzi, Lebana Bonfanti

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, dkz212, https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz212

Published: 18 May 2019

 

Abstract

Background

Antimicrobial usage (AMU) in livestock plays a key role in the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. Analysis of AMU data in livestock is therefore relevant for both animal and public health.

Objectives

To assess AMU in 470 broiler and 252 turkey farms of one of Italy’s largest poultry companies, accounting for around 30% of national poultry production, to identify trends and risk factors for AMU.

Methods

Antimicrobial treatments administered to 5827 broiler and 1264 turkey grow-out cycles in 2015–17 were expressed as DDDs for animals per population correction unit (DDDvet/PCU). A retrospective analysis was conducted to examine the effect of geographical area, season and prescribing veterinarian on AMU. Management and structural interventions implemented by the company were also assessed.

Results

AMU showed a 71% reduction in broilers (from 14 to 4 DDDvet/PCU) and a 56% reduction in turkeys (from 41 to 18 DDDvet/PCU) during the study period. Quinolones, macrolides and polymyxins decreased from 33% to 6% of total AMU in broilers, and from 56% to 32% in turkeys. Broiler cycles during spring and winter showed significantly higher AMU, as well as those in densely populated poultry areas. Different antimicrobial prescribing behaviour was identified among veterinarians.

Conclusions

This study evidenced a decreasing trend in AMU and identified several correlates of AMU in broilers and turkeys. These factors will inform the design of interventions to further reduce AMU and therefore counteract antimicrobial resistance in these poultry sectors.

Issue Section: ORIGINAL RESEARCH

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model)

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Poultry; Food Safety; Italy.

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Presence of #NDM in non-E. coli #Enterobacteriaceae in the #poultry #production #environment (J Antimicrob Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Presence of NDM in non-E. coli Enterobacteriaceae in the poultry production environment

Rongmin Zhang, Jiyun Li, Yang Wang, Jianzhong Shen, Zhangqi Shen, Shaolin Wang

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, dkz193, https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz193

Published: 18 May 2019

 

Abstract

Objectives

Characterization of non-Escherichia coli NDM-carrying Enterobacteriaceae in the poultry production environment.

Methods

A total of 36 NDM-positive Enterobacteriaceae (22 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 13 Enterobacter cloacae and 1 Salmonella enterica) were isolated from a chicken farm and WGS was conducted using Illumina Hiseq2500. The genomic characterization of the isolates acquired through WGS analysis included the genomic context-flanking blaNDM genes, MLST, the antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and replicon types of plasmids. WGS information for another 73 K. pneumoniae isolates from different sources was retrieved from GenBank and then combined with isolates in this study for comparative genomic and phylogenetic analysis.

Results

Three types of genetic environment carrying blaNDM were identified in 36 non-E. coli Enterobacteriaceae isolates. Sequence comparison analysis indicated these genetic environments were completely identical to our previous findings. WGS further revealed three major types of plasmids (IncFIB, IncX3 and IncFII) from these isolates and the phylogenetic analysis suggested several K. pneumoniae isolates with ST11, ST37 and ST147 from the commercial chicken farm that were closely related to isolates of human origin.

Conclusions

The blaNDM-harbouring genetic contexts were identified not only in E. coli, but also in K. pneumoniae, E. cloacae and S. enterica, which may indicate that blaNDM has been widely disseminated to non-E. coli Enterobacteriaceae species in animal farms. The close relationship of K. pneumoniae isolates from different origins suggests they could serve as a key vehicle for the transfer of ARGs between humans and food animal production environments.

Issue Section: ORIGINAL RESEARCH

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model)

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Enterobacteriaceae; NDM; Poultry; Food Safety.

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The use of #aminoglycosides in #animals within the #EU: development of #resistance in animals and possible #impact on #human and animal #health: a review (J Antimicrob Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

The use of aminoglycosides in animals within the EU: development of resistance in animals and possible impact on human and animal health: a review

Engeline van Duijkeren, Christine Schwarz, Damien Bouchard, Boudewijn Catry, Constança Pomba, Keith Edward Baptiste, Miguel A Moreno, Merja Rantala, Modestas Ružauskas, Pascal Sanders, Christopher Teale, Astrid L Wester, Kristine Ignate, Zoltan Kunsagi, Helen Jukes

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, dkz161, https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz161

Published: 19 April 2019

 

Abstract

Aminoglycosides (AGs) are important antibacterial agents for the treatment of various infections in humans and animals. Following extensive use of AGs in humans, food-producing animals and companion animals, acquired resistance among human and animal pathogens and commensal bacteria has emerged. Acquired resistance occurs through several mechanisms, but enzymatic inactivation of AGs is the most common one. Resistance genes are often located on mobile genetic elements, facilitating their spread between different bacterial species and between animals and humans. AG resistance has been found in many different bacterial species, including those with zoonotic potential such as Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and livestock-associated MRSA. The highest risk is anticipated from transfer of resistant enterococci or coliforms (Escherichia coli) since infections with these pathogens in humans would potentially be treated with AGs. There is evidence that the use of AGs in human and veterinary medicine is associated with the increased prevalence of resistance. The same resistance genes have been found in isolates from humans and animals. Evaluation of risk factors indicates that the probability of transmission of AG resistance from animals to humans through transfer of zoonotic or commensal foodborne bacteria and/or their mobile genetic elements can be regarded as high, although there are no quantitative data on the actual contribution of animals to AG resistance in human pathogens. Responsible use of AGs is of great importance in order to safeguard their clinical efficacy for human and veterinary medicine.

Issue Section: Review

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model)

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Aminoglycosides; Food safety.

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