[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]
Infect Genet Evol. 2019 Sep 4:104020. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2019.104020. [Epub ahead of print]
Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance: Mechanisms, detection, and epidemiology in the Arab countries.
Yassine I1, Rafei R2, Osman M2, Mallat H2, Dabboussi F2, Hamze M1.
Author information: 1 Laboratoire Microbiologie Santé et Environnement (LMSE), Doctoral School of Sciences and Technology, Faculty of Public Health, Lebanese University, Tripoli, Lebanon. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org. 2 Laboratoire Microbiologie Santé et Environnement (LMSE), Doctoral School of Sciences and Technology, Faculty of Public Health, Lebanese University, Tripoli, Lebanon.
Quinolones are an important antimicrobial class used widely in the treatment of enterobacterial infections. Although there are multiple mechanisms of quinolone resistance, attention should be paid to plasmid-mediated genes due to their ability to facilitate the spread of quinolone resistance, the selection of mutants with a higher-level of quinolone resistance, and the promotion of treatment failure. Since their discovery in 1998, plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) mechanisms have been reported more frequently worldwide especially with the extensive use of quinolones in humans and animals. Nevertheless, data from the Arab countries are rare and often scattered. Understanding the prevalence and distribution of PMQR is essential to stop the irrational use of quinolone in these countries. This manuscript describes the quinolone resistance mechanisms and particularly PMQR among Enterobacteriaceae as well as their methods of detection. Then the available data on the epidemiology of PMQR in clinical and environmental isolates from the Arab countries are extensively reviewed along with the other associated resistance genes. These data shows a wide dissemination of PMQR genes among Enterobacteriaceae isolates from humans, animals, and environments in these countries with increasing rates over the years and a common association with other antibiotic resistance genes as blaCTX-M-15. The incontrovertible emergence of PMQR in the Arab countries highlights the pressing need for effective stewardship efforts to prevent the selection of a higher rate of quinolone resistance and to preserve these crucial antibiotics.
Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier B.V.
KEYWORDS: Arab countries; Detection; Epidemiology; Molecular mechanisms; Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR); Quinolones
PMID: 31493557 DOI: 10.1016/j.meegid.2019.104020
Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Quinolones; Enterobacteriaceae.