Emergence and dominance of #E coli ST131 CTX-M-27 in a community #paediatric cohort study: independent host factors and #bacterial genetic determinants (Antimicrob Agents Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Emergence and dominance of E. coli ST131 CTX-M-27 in a community paediatric cohort study: independent host factors and bacterial genetic determinants

André Birgy, Corinne Levy, Marie-Hélène Nicolas-Chanoine, Aurélie Cointe, Claire A. Hobson, Mélanie Magnan, Stéphane Bechet, Philippe Bidet, Robert Cohen, Stéphane Bonacorsi

DOI: 10.1128/AAC.00382-19

 

ABSTRACT

The recent emergence and diffusion in the community of Escherichia coli isolates belonging to the multidrug-resistant and CTX-M-27-producing ST131 C1-M27 cluster, makes this cluster potentially as epidemic as the worldwide E coli ST131 subclade C2 composed of multidrug resistant isolates producing CTX-M-15. Thirty-five extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing ST131 isolates were identified in a cohort of 1,885 French children over a 5 year-period. They were sequenced to characterize the ST131 E. coli isolates producing CTX-M-27 recently emerging in France. ST131 isolates producing CTX-M-27 (n=17), and particularly those belonging to the C1-M27 cluster (n=14), carried many resistance-encoding genes and predominantly a F1:A2:B20 plasmid type. In multivariate analysis, having been hospitalized since birth (OR=10.9; 95%CI=2.4;48.8; p=0.002) and being cared for in a day-care center (OR=9.4;95%; CI=1.5;59.0; p=0.017) were independent risk factors for ST131 CTX-M-27 fecal carriage compared with ESBL-producing non-ST131 isolates. No independent risk factor was found when comparing CTX-M-15 (n=11) and CTX-M-1/14 (n=7)-producing ST131 isolates with ESBL-producing non-ST131 isolates or with non-ESBL-producing isolates. Several factors may contribute to the increase in fecal carriage of CTX-M-27-producing E. coli isolates: resistance to multiple antibiotics, capacity of the CTX-M-27 enzyme to hydrolyze both cefotaxime and ceftazidime, carriage of a peculiar F-type plasmid, and/or capacity to colonize children who have been hospitalized since birth or who attend day-care centers.

Copyright © 2019 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; E. Coli; Pediatrics; Cefotaxime; Ceftazidime.

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The first #isolation of #Clostridium difficile RT078/ST11 from #pigs in #China (PLoS One, abstract)

[Source: PLoS One, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

The first isolation of Clostridium difficile RT078/ST11 from pigs in China

Li-Juan Zhang, Ling Yang, Xi-Xi Gu, Pin-Xian Chen, Jia-Li Fu, Hong-Xia Jiang

Published: February 26, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0212965

 

Abstract

We investigated the molecular characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium difficile isolated from animals in China. We obtained 538 rectal swabs from pigs, chickens and ducks in 5 provinces during 2015 and 2016. C. difficile isolates were characterized by detection of toxin genes, multilocus sequence typing and ribotyping. And antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the agar dilution method. Out of 538 samples, 44 (8.2%) were C. difficile positive with high prevalence in pigs (n = 31). Among these, 39 (88.6%) were toxigenic including 14 (31.8%) that were A+B+CDT+ and 13 (29.5%) A+B+. The remaining 12 (27.3%) were A-B+. We identified 7 ST types and 6 PCR ribotypes. The most predominant type was ST11/RT078 with toxin profile A+B+CDT+ and all were isolated from piglets with diarrhea. ST109 isolates possessed two different toxigenic profiles (A-B-CDT- and A-B+CDT-) and although it was not the most prevalent sequence type, but it was widely distributed between chickens, ducks and pigs in the 5 provinces. All C. difficile isolates were fully susceptible to vancomycin, metronidazole, fidaxomicin, amoxicillin/clavulanate and meropenem but retained resistance to 4 or 5 of the remaining antibiotics, especially cefotaxime, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, cefoxitin. The RT078/ST11 isolates were simultaneously resistant to cefotaxime, tetracycline, cefoxitin, ciprofloxacin and imipenem. This is the first report of the molecular epidemiology of C. difficile isolated from food animals in China. We identified the epidemic strain RT078/ST11 as the predominate isolate among the animals we screened in our study.

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Citation: Zhang L-J, Yang L, Gu X-X, Chen P-X, Fu J-L, Jiang H-X (2019) The first isolation of Clostridium difficile RT078/ST11 from pigs in China. PLoS ONE 14(2): e0212965. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0212965

Editor: Pradeep Dudeja, University of Illinois at Chicago, UNITED STATES

Received: November 2, 2018; Accepted: February 12, 2019; Published: February 26, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Zhang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper.

Funding: This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31272602) (H-XJ) and Graduate Student Oversea Study Program of South China Agriculture University (2017LHPY029) (LY). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Clostridium difficile; Pigs; China.

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#WGS #analysis of #MDR #serotype 15A #Streptococcus pneumoniae in #Japan and the emergence of a highly resistant serotype 15A-ST9084 clone (Antimicrob Agents Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Whole-genome sequencing analysis of multidrug-resistant serotype 15A Streptococcus pneumoniae in Japan and the emergence of a highly resistant serotype 15A-ST9084 clone

Satoshi Nakano, Takao Fujisawa, Yutaka Ito, Bin Chang, Yasufumi Matsumura, Masaki Yamamoto, Shigeru Suga, Makoto Ohnishi, Miki Nagao

DOI: 10.1128/AAC.02579-18

 

ABSTRACT

Since the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, an increase in the incidence of disease attributable to serotype 15A-ST63 pneumococci has been observed in many regions worldwide. We conducted a nationwide pediatric pneumococcal infection surveillance study between 2012 and 2014 in Japan. In the surveillance study, we detected multidrug-resistant serotype 15A-CC63 strains (resistant to macrolides, penicillin, cefotaxime and meropenem); in this study, we analyzed these resistant isolates to determine the dynamics and mechanism of resistance using whole-genome sequencing. In most of the penicillin-, cefotaxime- and meropenem-resistant strains, recombination occurred in the pbp2x region resulting in the acquisition of additional cefotaxime resistance to penicillin and meropenem. In the multidrug-resistant serotype 15A-CC63 strains, we identified a specific clone with ST9084, and all of the isolates were recovered from Yamaguchi prefecture in Japan. All of the serotype 15A-ST9084 isolates had a novel pbp2x-43 that was inserted by recombination events. The conserved amino acid motif profiles of pbp1a, pbp2b and pbp2x of the strains were identical to those in serotype 19A-ST320. A Bayesian analysis-based date estimation suggested that this clone emerged in approximately 2002 before the introduction of PCV in Japan. This clone should be monitored because serotype 15A is not contained in the currently used PCV13 and it was resistance to beta-lactams, which are often use in a clinical setting.

Copyright © 2019 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Beta-lactams; Penicillin; Cefotaxime; Meropenem; S. pneumoniae; Japan.

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#Identification and #Characterization of #Cefotaxime Resistant #Bacteria in #Beef #Cattle (PLoS One, abstract)

[Source: PLoS One, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS / PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Identification and Characterization of Cefotaxime Resistant Bacteria in Beef Cattle

Raies A. Mir, Thomas A. Weppelmann, Judith A. Johnson, Douglas Archer, J. Glenn Morris Jr, KwangCheol Casey Jeong

Published: September 19, 2016 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0163279

 

Abstract

Third-generation cephalosporins are an important class of antibiotics that are widely used in treatment of serious Gram-negative bacterial infections. In this study, we report the isolation of bacteria resistant to the third-generation cephalosporin cefotaxime from cattle with no previous cefotaxime antibiotic exposure. The prevalence of cefotaxime-resistant bacteria was examined by a combination of culture based and molecular typing methods in beef cattle (n = 1341) from 8 herds located in North Central Florida. The overall prevalence of cefotaxime-resistant bacteria was 15.8% (95% CI: 13.9, 17.8), varied between farms, and ranged from 5.2% to 100%. A subset of isolates (n = 23) was further characterized for the cefotaxime minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and antibiotic susceptibility against 10 different antibiotics, sequencing of nine β- lactamase genes, and species identification by 16S rRNA sequencing. Most of the bacterial isolates were resistant to cefotaxime (concentrations, > 64 μg/mL) and showed high levels of multi-drug resistance. Full length 16S rRNA sequences (~1300 bp) revealed that most of the isolates were not primary human or animal pathogens; rather were more typical of commensal, soil, or other environmental origin. Six extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes identical to those in clinical human isolates were identified. Our study highlights the potential for carriage of cefotaxime resistance (including “human” ESBL genes) by the bacterial flora of food animals with no history of cefotaxime antibiotic exposure. A better understanding of the origin and transmission of resistance genes in these pre-harvest settings will be critical to development of strategies to prevent the spread of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms to hospitals and communities.

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Citation: Mir RA, Weppelmann TA, Johnson JA, Archer D, Morris JG Jr, Jeong KC (2016) Identification and Characterization of Cefotaxime Resistant Bacteria in Beef Cattle. PLoS ONE 11(9): e0163279. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0163279

Editor: Yung-Fu Chang, Cornell University, UNITED STATES

Received: April 11, 2016; Accepted: September 5, 2016; Published: September 19, 2016

Copyright: © 2016 Mir et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper.

Funding: This material is based upon work that is supported by the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, U.S. Department of Agriculture, under the award number 2015-68003-22971 to KCJ. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Cefotaxime; Cattle; Food Safety.

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