[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]
BMC Microbiol. 2019 Nov 9;19(1):250. doi: 10.1186/s12866-019-1632-2.
Antibiotics resistance and toxin profiles of Bacillus cereus-group isolates from fresh vegetables from German retail markets.
Fiedler G1, Schneider C2, Igbinosa EO3,4, Kabisch J3, Brinks E3, Becker B2, Stoll DA2, Cho GS3, Huch M2, Franz CMAP3.
Author information: 1 Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Hermann-Weigmann-Straße 1, 24103, Kiel, Germany. email@example.com. 2 Department of Safety and Quality of Fruit and Vegetables, Max Rubner-Institut, Federal Research Institute of Nutrition and Food, Haid-und-Neu-Straße 9, 76131, Karlsruhe, Germany. 3 Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Hermann-Weigmann-Straße 1, 24103, Kiel, Germany. 4 Present Address: Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Benin, Private Mail Bag 1154, Benin City, 30001, Nigeria.
This study aimed to evaluate the safety of raw vegetable products present on the German market regarding toxin-producing Bacillus cereus sensu lato (s.l.) group bacteria.
A total of 147 B. cereus s.l. group strains isolated from cucumbers, carrots, herbs, salad leaves and ready-to-eat mixed salad leaves were analyzed. Their toxinogenic potential was assessed by multiplex PCR targeting the hemolysin BL (hbl) component D (hblD), non-hemolytic enterotoxin (nhe) component A (nheA), cytotoxin K-2 (cytK-2) and the cereulide (ces) toxin genes. In addition, a serological test was used to detect Hbl and Nhe toxins. On the basis of PCR and serological results, none of the strains were positive for the cereulide protein/genes, while 91.2, 83.0 and 37.4% were positive for the Hbl, Nhe and CytK toxins or their genes, respectively. Numerous strains produced multiple toxins. Generally, strains showed resistance against the β-lactam antibiotics such as penicillin G and cefotaxim (100%), as well as amoxicillin/clavulanic acid combination and ampicillin (99.3%). Most strains were susceptible to ciprofloxacin (99.3%), chloramphenicol (98.6%), amikacin (98.0%), imipenem (93.9%), erythromycin (91.8%), gentamicin (88.4%), tetracycline (76.2%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole combination (52.4%). The genomes of eight selected strains were sequenced. The toxin gene profiles detected by PCR and serological test mostly agreed with those from whole-genome sequence data.
Our study showed that B. cereus s.l. strains encoding toxin genes occur in products sold on the German market and that these may pose a health risk to the consumer if present at elevated levels. Furthermore, a small percentage of these strains harbor antibiotic resistance genes. The presence of these bacteria in fresh produce should, therefore, be monitored to guarantee their safety.
KEYWORDS: Antibiotic resistance; Bacillus cereus sensu lato; Food safety; Fresh produce; Toxins; Whole genome sequencing
PMID: 31706266 DOI: 10.1186/s12866-019-1632-2
Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Bacillus cereus; Food Safety; Germany; Amoxicillin; Cefotaxim; Ampicillin.