#Epidemiology and #antimicrobial #resistance of #MRSA isolates colonizing #pigs with different exposure to #antibiotics (PLOS One, abstract)

[Source: PLoS One, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates colonizing pigs with different exposure to antibiotics

Elizeth Lopes, Teresa Conceição, Laurent Poirel, Hermínia de Lencastre, Marta Aires-de-Sousa

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Published: November 20, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0225497

 

Abstract

Background

In 2016, very high rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-ST398 (99%) were found in Portuguese pig farms that used colistin, amoxicillin, and zinc oxide as feed additives. Since then, farms A and B banned the use of colistin, and farm C banned the use of both antibiotics.

Objective

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of the ban of colistin and amoxicillin on pig MRSA carriage rates, clonal types and antimicrobial resistance, compared to the results obtained in 2016.

Methods

In 2018, 103 pigs (52 from farm B using amoxicillin only as a feed additive and 51 from farm C where no antibiotics were included in the feed regimen) were nasally swabbed for MRSA colonization. Isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, and characterised by spa typing, SCCmec typing and MLST. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) was performed for representative isolates.

Results

Overall, 96% of the pigs swabbed in 2018 carried MRSA, mostly ST398-SCCmec V-spa types t011/t108. MRSA from pigs not receiving antibiotics in the feed regimen showed susceptibility to a higher number of antibiotics, namely erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and chloramphenicol. Notably, most of these isolates (n = 52) presented an unusual erythromycin-susceptibility/clindamycin-resistance phenotype. WGS showed that these isolates lacked the erm and the lnu genes encoding resistance to macrolides and lincosamides, respectively, but carried the vgaALC gene encoding resistance to lincosamides, which is here firstly identified in S. aureus ST398.

Conclusion

After two years the ban of colistin and amoxicillin as feed additives had no significant impact on the MRSA nasal carriage rates. Nevertheless, the MRSA strains circulating in those farms showed resistance to a lower number of antibiotic classes.

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Citation: Lopes E, Conceição T, Poirel L, de Lencastre H, Aires-de-Sousa M (2019) Epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates colonizing pigs with different exposure to antibiotics. PLoS ONE 14(11): e0225497. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0225497

Editor: Tara C. Smith, Kent State University, UNITED STATES

Received: September 6, 2019; Accepted: November 6, 2019; Published: November 20, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Lopes et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: This work was partly supported by project PTDC/DTP-EPI/0842/2014 from Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT), Portugal, and Project LISBOA-01-0145-FEDER-007660 (Microbiologia Molecular, Estrutural e Celular) funded by FEDER funds through COMPETE2020 – Programa Operacional Competitividade e Internacionalização (POCI) and by national funds through FCT. This work was also partially supported by ONEIDA project (LISBOA-01-0145-FEDER-016417) co-funded by FEEI – “Fundos Europeus Estruturais e de Investimento” from “Programa Operacional Regional Lisboa 2020” and by national funds from FCT. Elizeth Lopes was supported by grant 03/BI/2017 from FCT, Portugal.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Amoxicillin; Colistin; Staphylococcus aureus; Pigs; MRSA; Portugal.

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#Antibiotic use in #mandarin #production (Citrus reticulata Blanco) in major mandarin-producing areas in #Thailand: A survey assessment (PLOS One, abstract)

[Source: PLOS One, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Antibiotic use in mandarin production (Citrus reticulata Blanco) in major mandarin-producing areas in Thailand: A survey assessment

Sunicha Chanvatik , Siriporn Donnua , Angkana Lekagul , Wanwisa Kaewkhankhaeng , Vuthiphan Vongmongkol , Pornpimon Athipunyakom , Saenchai Khamlar , Maitree Prommintara , Viroj Tangcharoensathien

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Published: November 13, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0225172

 

Abstract

Background

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR), one of the major global threats to human security, has serious negative consequences for both health and economies. Excessive and inappropriate uses of antibiotics are the main drivers of the emergence of resistant bacterial strains. In Thailand, antibiotics have been used in citrus production since 2012 to treat citrus greening disease or Huanglongbing disease, despite no antibiotics being registered for use in mandarin. This raises concerns about irrational use of antibiotics, which can cause AMR.

Objective

To assess the status of greening disease and the use of antibiotics in mandarin production.

Method

A face-to-face interview survey in 2017 with 221 mandarin growers in two major mandarin-producing areas.

Findings

Greening disease is one of the most serious diseases in mandarins and farmers in the two major mandarin-producing areas in Thailand used ampicillin, amoxicillin, tetracycline and penicillin to treat it. As no antibiotics are registered for use in plants, farmers used antibiotics (registered with the Thai Food and Drug Administration) for human use, either active pharmaceutical ingredients or finished products. They commonly purchased them from retail pharmacies or agrochemical suppliers. Farmers were influenced to use antibiotics by their orchard neighbours and advice from a few academics. The farmers injected antibiotics into the tree trunks approximately three to four times a year and stopped for more than two months before harvesting for in-season fruits.

Conclusion

Antibiotics registered for human use are being applied to control greening diseases. We recommend scaling up sustainable disease control measures and curtail the use of antibiotics through close and effective dialogue among ‘One Health’ partners.

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Citation: Chanvatik S, Donnua S, Lekagul A, Kaewkhankhaeng W, Vongmongkol V, Athipunyakom P, et al. (2019) Antibiotic use in mandarin production (Citrus reticulata Blanco) in major mandarin-producing areas in Thailand: A survey assessment. PLoS ONE 14(11): e0225172. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0225172

Editor: Richard Mankin, US Department of Agriculture, UNITED STATES

Received: July 9, 2019; Accepted: October 30, 2019; Published: November 13, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Chanvatik et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: This study was supported by funding from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (Grant number: LOA/RAP/2017/17). The funder had no role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of this manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Amoxicillin; Tetracyclines; Ampicillin; Penicillin; Plant diseases; Thailand.

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#Antibiotics #resistance and #toxin profiles of #Bacillus cereus-group isolates from fresh #vegetables from #German retail #markets (BMC Microbiol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

BMC Microbiol. 2019 Nov 9;19(1):250. doi: 10.1186/s12866-019-1632-2.

Antibiotics resistance and toxin profiles of Bacillus cereus-group isolates from fresh vegetables from German retail markets.

Fiedler G1, Schneider C2, Igbinosa EO3,4, Kabisch J3, Brinks E3, Becker B2, Stoll DA2, Cho GS3, Huch M2, Franz CMAP3.

Author information: 1 Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Hermann-Weigmann-Straße 1, 24103, Kiel, Germany. gregor.fiedler@mri.bund.de. 2 Department of Safety and Quality of Fruit and Vegetables, Max Rubner-Institut, Federal Research Institute of Nutrition and Food, Haid-und-Neu-Straße 9, 76131, Karlsruhe, Germany. 3 Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Hermann-Weigmann-Straße 1, 24103, Kiel, Germany. 4 Present Address: Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Benin, Private Mail Bag 1154, Benin City, 30001, Nigeria.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

This study aimed to evaluate the safety of raw vegetable products present on the German market regarding toxin-producing Bacillus cereus sensu lato (s.l.) group bacteria.

RESULTS:

A total of 147 B. cereus s.l. group strains isolated from cucumbers, carrots, herbs, salad leaves and ready-to-eat mixed salad leaves were analyzed. Their toxinogenic potential was assessed by multiplex PCR targeting the hemolysin BL (hbl) component D (hblD), non-hemolytic enterotoxin (nhe) component A (nheA), cytotoxin K-2 (cytK-2) and the cereulide (ces) toxin genes. In addition, a serological test was used to detect Hbl and Nhe toxins. On the basis of PCR and serological results, none of the strains were positive for the cereulide protein/genes, while 91.2, 83.0 and 37.4% were positive for the Hbl, Nhe and CytK toxins or their genes, respectively. Numerous strains produced multiple toxins. Generally, strains showed resistance against the β-lactam antibiotics such as penicillin G and cefotaxim (100%), as well as amoxicillin/clavulanic acid combination and ampicillin (99.3%). Most strains were susceptible to ciprofloxacin (99.3%), chloramphenicol (98.6%), amikacin (98.0%), imipenem (93.9%), erythromycin (91.8%), gentamicin (88.4%), tetracycline (76.2%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole combination (52.4%). The genomes of eight selected strains were sequenced. The toxin gene profiles detected by PCR and serological test mostly agreed with those from whole-genome sequence data.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our study showed that B. cereus s.l. strains encoding toxin genes occur in products sold on the German market and that these may pose a health risk to the consumer if present at elevated levels. Furthermore, a small percentage of these strains harbor antibiotic resistance genes. The presence of these bacteria in fresh produce should, therefore, be monitored to guarantee their safety.

KEYWORDS: Antibiotic resistance; Bacillus cereus sensu lato; Food safety; Fresh produce; Toxins; Whole genome sequencing

PMID: 31706266 DOI: 10.1186/s12866-019-1632-2

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Bacillus cereus; Food Safety; Germany; Amoxicillin; Cefotaxim; Ampicillin.

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In vitro #bactericidal activity of #amoxicillin combined with different #cephalosporins against #endocarditis-associated #Enterococcus faecalis clinical isolates (J Antimicrob Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

In vitro bactericidal activity of amoxicillin combined with different cephalosporins against endocarditis-associated Enterococcus faecalis clinical isolates

Nathan Peiffer-Smadja, Elena Guillotel, David Luque-Paz, Naouale Maataoui, F-Xavier Lescure, Vincent Cattoir

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, dkz388, https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz388

Published: 08 September 2019

 

Abstract

Background

The combination of amoxicillin with cefazolin could be an interesting regimen for the empirical therapy of severe infective endocarditis, but its activity against enterococci is unknown.

Objectives

To evaluate in vitro the bactericidal activity of the combination of amoxicillin with different cephalosporins including cefazolin.

Methods

Combinations of amoxicillin (at MIC × ¼) with cefazolin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, cefepime, ceftaroline or ceftobiprole (at the mean free plasma concentration) were studied using time–kill experiments for 10 endocarditis-associated Enterococcus faecalis strains and 2 reference strains.

Results

The combinations amoxicillin/cefazolin, amoxicillin/cefotaxime, amoxicillin/ceftriaxone and amoxicillin/cefepime were synergistic at 12 and 24 h against 12/12 strains and amoxicillin/ceftobiprole and amoxicillin/ceftaroline against 10/12 strains. The combination amoxicillin/cefepime was bactericidal at 24 h against 9/12 strains, the combination amoxicillin/cefazolin against 8/12 strains, the combinations amoxicillin/ceftaroline, amoxicillin/cefotaxime and amoxicillin/ceftobiprole against 7/12 strains and the combination amoxicillin/ceftriaxone against 6/12 strains.

Conclusions

The combination amoxicillin/cefazolin is as synergistic and bactericidal in vitro as amoxicillin/cefotaxime or amoxicillin/ceftriaxone against E. faecalis.

Issue Section: ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Keywords: Antibiotics; Amoxicillin; Cephalosporins; Endocarditis; Enterococcus faecalis.

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#SME-4-producing #Serratia marcescens from #Argentina belonging to clade 2 of the S. marcescens phylogeny (J Antimicrob Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

SME-4-producing Serratia marcescens from Argentina belonging to clade 2 of the S. marcescens phylogeny

Laura Dabos, Rafael Patiño-Navarrete, Marcela Nastro, Angela Famiglietti, Philippe Glaser, Carlos H Rodriguez, Thierry Naas

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, dkz115, https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz115

Published: 16 April 2019

 

Abstract

Background

SME carbapenemases are increasingly reported, especially from North and South America. Here, we describe an SME-4-producing Serratia marcescens(SME-Sm) clinical isolate from Argentina and compare its genome with other SME-Sm and Sm isolates recovered from public databases.

Methods

Sm isolates were characterized by WGS using Illumina technology, susceptibility testing and MIC determination. Carbapenemase activity was revealed by biochemical tests based on imipenem hydrolysis. A whole-genome phylogeny was estimated for all the Sm isolates retrieved from public databases with kSNP3 and a whole-genome phylogenetic analysis based on non-recombinant core SNPs was inferred for Sm complete genomes and for those encoding any blaSME variants.

Results

Sm163 was resistant to amoxicillin, temocillin, aztreonam and carbapenems, remaining susceptible to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. WGS analysis of Sm163 revealed a genome of 5 139 329 bp and a chromosomally encoded blaSME-4 carbapenemase gene located on a genomic island closely related to SmarGI1-1 of Sm N11-02820. Comparison of the Sm genomes revealed that the 14 SME-Sm isolates possess this genomic island inserted at the same loci, that 13/14 belong to clade 1 and that 11/14 form a well-defined subcluster of cluster I of Sm clade 1, while Sm163 belongs to clade 2, suggesting that an SME-encoding genomic island may have been transferred between isolates from different clades.

Conclusions

To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of an SME-4-encoding Smfrom Argentina. The blaSME-4 gene is located on a SmarGI1-1-like genomic island. The genome of Sm163 belongs to clade 2, unlike all the other SME-Smisolates, which belong to clade 1.

Issue Section: ORIGINAL RESEARCH

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model)

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Carbapene; Serratia marcescens; Amoxicillin; Temocillin; Aztreonam; Argentina.

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#Antibiotic #Resistance of #Campylobacter spp. in a #Pediatric Cohort Study (Antimicrob Agents Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Antibiotic Resistance of Campylobacter spp. in a Pediatric Cohort Study

Francesca Schiaffino, Josh M. Colston, Maribel Paredes Olortegui, Ruthly François, Nora Pisanic, Rosa Burga, Pablo Peñataro Yori, Margaret N. Kosek

DOI: 10.1128/AAC.01911-18

 

ABSTRACT

Objectives

To determine phenotypic patterns of antibiotic resistance and epidemiology of drug-resistant Campylobacter spp. from a low-resource setting.

Methods

A birth cohort of 303 was followed until 5 years of age. Stool from asymptomatic (n= 10,008) and diarrhea samples (n=3175) were cultured for Campylobacter. Disk diffusion to CIP, NAL, ERY, AZM, TET, GM, AMP, AMC, CRO, C and TMS were determined. Antibiotic resistance between C. jejuni and non-C. jejuni isolates, and surveillance and diarrhea samples were compared and the association between personal macrolide exposure and subsequent occurrence of a macrolide resistant Campylobacter spp. was assessed.

Results

Of 917 Campylobacter isolates, 77.4% of C. jejuni isolates and 79.8% non-C. jejuni isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin while 4.9% of C. jejuni isolates and 24.8% of non-C. jejuniisolates were not susceptible to azithromycin. Of the 303 children, 33.1% were ever diagnosed with a Campylobacter strain non-susceptible to both azithromycin and ciprofloxacin. Personal macrolide exposure did not affect the risk of macrolide resistant Campylobacter. Amoxicillin and clavulanic acid (94.0%) was one of the antibiotics with the highest rates of susceptibility.

Conclusion

There is a high incidence of quinolone and macrolide resistant Campylobacter infections in infants under 24 months of age. Given the lack of association between personal exposure to macrolides and a subsequent Campylobacter infection resistant to macrolides, there is a need to evaluate the source of MDR Campylobacter. This study provides compelling evidence to propose amoxicillin/clavulanic acid as a treatment for Campylobacteriosis.

Copyright © 2018 Schiaffino et al.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Campylobacter spp.; Amoxicillin; Macrolides; Quinolones; Ciprofloxacin; Azithromycin.

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Trends over time in #Escherichia coli #bloodstream #infections, #UTIs, and #antibiotic susceptibilities in #Oxfordshire, #UK, 1998–2016: a study of electronic health records (Lancet Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Trends over time in Escherichia coli bloodstream infections, urinary tract infections, and antibiotic susceptibilities in Oxfordshire, UK, 1998–2016: a study of electronic health records

Karina-Doris Vihta, MMath, Nicole Stoesser, DPhil, Prof Martin J Llewelyn, PhD, T Phuong Quan, MSc, Tim Davies, MBBS, Nicola J Fawcett, BMBCh, Laura Dunn, MSc, Katie Jeffery, BMBCh, Prof Chris C Butler, FMedSci, Gail Hayward, DPhil, Monique Andersson, MD, Marcus Morgan, MSc, Sarah Oakley, MSc, Amy Mason, PhD, Susan Hopkins, FRCP, David H Wyllie, PhD, Prof Derrick W Crook, MBBCh, Prof Mark H Wilcox, MD, Prof Alan P Johnson, PhD, Prof Tim E A Peto, FRCP †, Prof A Sarah Walker, PhD †

Published: August 17, 2018 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30353-0

 

Summary

Background

Escherichia coli bloodstream infections are increasing in the UK and internationally. The evidence base to guide interventions against this major public health concern is small. We aimed to investigate possible drivers of changes in the incidence of E colibloodstream infection and antibiotic susceptibilities in Oxfordshire, UK, over the past two decades, while stratifying for time since hospital exposure.

Methods

In this observational study, we used all available data on E coli bloodstream infections and E coli urinary tract infections (UTIs) from one UK region (Oxfordshire) using anonymised linked microbiological data and hospital electronic health records from the Infections in Oxfordshire Research Database (IORD). We estimated the incidence of infections across a two decade period and the annual incidence rate ratio (aIRR) in 2016. We modelled the data using negative binomial regression on the basis of microbiological, clinical, and health-care-exposure risk factors. We investigated infection severity, 30-day all-cause mortality, and community and hospital amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid (co-amoxiclav) use to estimate changes in bacterial virulence and the effect of antimicrobial resistance on incidence.

Findings

From Jan 1, 1998, to Dec 31, 2016, 5706 E coli bloodstream infections occurred in 5215 patients, and 228 376 E coli UTIs occurred in 137 075 patients. 1365 (24%) E coli bloodstream infections were nosocomial (onset >48 h after hospital admission), 1132 (20%) were quasi-nosocomial (≤30 days after discharge), 1346 (24%) were quasi-community (31–365 days after discharge), and 1863 (33%) were community (>365 days after hospital discharge). The overall incidence increased year on year (aIRR 1·06, 95% CI 1·05–1·06). In 2016, 212 (41%) of 515 E coli bloodstream infections and 3921 (28%) of 13 792 E coli UTIs were co-amoxiclav resistant. Increases in E colibloodstream infections were driven by increases in community (aIRR 1·10, 95% CI 1·07–1·13; p<0·0001) and quasi-community (aIRR 1·08, 1·07–1·10; p<0·0001) cases. 30-day mortality associated with E coli bloodstream infection decreased over time in the nosocomial (adjusted rate ratio [RR] 0·98, 95% CI 0·96–1·00; p=0·03) group, and remained stable in the quasi-nosocomial (adjusted RR 0·98, 0·95–1·00; p=0·06), quasi-community (adjusted RR 0·99, 0·96–1·01; p=0·32), and community (adjusted RR 0·99, 0·96–1·01; p=0·21) groups. Mortality was, however, substantial at 14–25% across all hospital-exposure groups. Co-amoxiclav-resistant E coli bloodstream infections increased in all groups across the study period (by 11–18% per year, significantly faster than co-amoxiclav-susceptible E coli bloodstream infections; p heterogeneity<0·0001), as did co-amoxiclav-resistant E coli UTIs (by 14–29% per year; pheterogeneity<0·0001). Previous year co-amoxiclav use in primary-care facilities was associated with increased subsequent year community co-amoxiclav-resistant E coli UTIs (p=0·003).

Interpretation

Increases in E coli bloodstream infections in Oxfordshire are primarily community associated, with substantial co-amoxiclav resistance; nevertheless, we found little or no change in mortality. Focusing interventions on primary care facilities, particularly those with high co-amoxiclav use, could be effective in reducing the incidence of co-amoxiclav-resistant E coli bloodstream infections, in this region and more generally.

Funding

National Institute for Health Research.

Keywords: E. Coli; Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Amoxicillin; Bacteremia; UK.

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