[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2019 Jan;40(1):79-88. doi: 10.1017/ice.2018.290.
Scope and extent of healthcare-associated Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus transmission during two contemporaneous outbreaks in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 2017.
Alanazi KH1, Killerby ME2, Biggs HM2, Abedi GR2, Jokhdar H1, Alsharef AA1, Mohammed M1, Abdalla O1, Almari A1, Bereagesh S1, Tawfik S1, Alresheedi H1, Alhakeem RF1, Hakawi A1, Alfalah H3, Amer H3, Thornburg NJ2, Tamin A2, Trivedi S4, Tong S2, Lu X2, Queen K2, Li Y2, Sakthivel SK5, Tao Y2, Zhang J2, Paden CR2, Al-Abdely HM1, Assiri AM1, Gerber SI2, Watson JT2.
Author information: 1 Ministry of Health,Riyadh,Saudi Arabia. 2 Division of Viral Diseases,National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,Atlanta,Georgia,United States. 3 King Saud Medical City,Riyadh,Saudi Arabia. 4 IHRC,contractor to National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,Atlanta,Georgia,United States. 5 Batelle, contractor to National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA,USA.
To investigate a Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) outbreak event involving multiple healthcare facilities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; to characterize transmission; and to explore infection control implications.
Cases presented in 4 healthcare facilities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: a tertiary-care hospital, a specialty pulmonary hospital, an outpatient clinic, and an outpatient dialysis unit.
Contact tracing and testing were performed following reports of cases at 2 hospitals. Laboratory results were confirmed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and/or genome sequencing. We assessed exposures and determined seropositivity among available healthcare personnel (HCP) cases and HCP contacts of cases.
In total, 48 cases were identified, involving patients, HCP, and family members across 2 hospitals, an outpatient clinic, and a dialysis clinic. At each hospital, transmission was linked to a unique index case. Moreover, 4 cases were associated with superspreading events (any interaction where a case patient transmitted to ≥5 subsequent case patients). All 4 of these patients were severely ill, were initially not recognized as MERS-CoV cases, and subsequently died. Genomic sequences clustered separately, suggesting 2 distinct outbreaks. Overall, 4 (24%) of 17 HCP cases and 3 (3%) of 114 HCP contacts of cases were seropositive.
We describe 2 distinct healthcare-associated outbreaks, each initiated by a unique index case and characterized by multiple superspreading events. Delays in recognition and in subsequent implementation of control measures contributed to secondary transmission. Prompt contact tracing, repeated testing, HCP furloughing, and implementation of recommended transmission-based precautions for suspected cases ultimately halted transmission.
PMID: 30595141 DOI: 10.1017/ice.2018.290
Keywords: MERS-CoV; Nosocomial Outbreaks; Saudi Arabia.