#Review of #neuroimaging #findings in #congenital #Zika virus syndrome and its relation to the time of infection (Neuroradiol J., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Neuroradiol J. 2020 Jan 2:1971400919896264. doi: 10.1177/1971400919896264. [Epub ahead of print]

Review of neuroimaging findings in congenital Zika virus syndrome and its relation to the time of infection.

Radaelli G1, Lahorgue Nunes M1,2,3, Bernardi Soder R1,3, de Oliveira JM1, Thays Konat Bruzzo F1, Kalil Neto F1, Leal-Conceição E1, Wetters Portuguez M1,3, Costa da Costa J1,2,3.

Author information: 1 Brain Institute of Rio Grande do Sul (BraIns), Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. 2 CNPq, Brazil. 3 School of Medicine, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Many original articles and case series have been published emphasizing the neuroimaging findings of congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. The majority of these studies do not follow a neuroradiological methodology to describe malformations and brain abnormalities resulting from ZIKV infection. The cause-and-effect correlation between the gestational period of maternal infection and the severity of encephalic changes at birth has rarely been reported. A systematic literature review was conducted on the neuroimaging findings in children affected with microcephaly due to ZIKV.

METHODS:

PubMed, Cochrane Library and Web of Science were searched for full-text articles published up to July 2019. Duplicate entries were removed. Two independent reviewers performed a quality assessment of all the studies included.

RESULTS:

A total of 2214 publications were identified. Of these 2170 were excluded by analysis of titles and abstracts, resulting in the inclusion of only eight articles. Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests were performed with a 95% confidence interval to verify the statistically significant differences in the neuroradiological findings between the cases of ZIKV infection in the first or second trimester of gestation. The studies published so far have described image abnormalities at random, without utilizing any pre-established neuroradiological criteria, and imaging modalities with different sensitivity and accuracy have been used, which jeopardizes a reliable and adequate statistical analysis.

CONCLUSIONS:

Neuroimaging abnormalities are much more prevalent and severe when the infection by ZIKV is contracted in the first or second trimester of pregnancy.

KEYWORDS: Zika virus; magnetic resonance; microcephaly; tomography

PMID: 31896285 DOI: 10.1177/1971400919896264

Keywords: Zika Virus; Zika Congenital Syndrome; Neurology; Pediatrics; Imaging; Radiology.

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#Zika virus #infection: A correlation between #prenatal ultrasonographic and #postmortem #neuropathologic changes (Neuropathology, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Neuropathology. 2019 Nov 11. doi: 10.1111/neup.12603. [Epub ahead of print]

Zika virus infection: A correlation between prenatal ultrasonographic and postmortem neuropathologic changes.

Gutiérrez Sánchez LA1,2, Sandoval Martínez DK1,3, Díaz-Martínez LA1, Becerra Mojica CH1,2.

Author information: 1 School of Medicine, Health Faculty, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia. 2 Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Hospital Universitario de Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia. 3 Department of Pathology, Hospital Universitario de Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia.

 

Abstract

This study presents a correlation between prenatal ultrasonographic images and neuropathologic findings of postmortem tissue samples from five confirmed cases of perinatal Zika virus (ZIKV) infection belonging to the cohort of the ZEN Initiative in Bucaramanga, Colombia. Deaths occurred between June 2016 and March 2017. Mothers consulted with ZIKV infection clinical manifestations or fetal central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities or both. A detailed ultrasound scan and neurosonographic protocol was performed by maternal fetal specialists. Perinatal autopsies were performed following the Colombian National Health Institute’s ZIKV protocol. The autopsies were from two fetal deaths, and three early neonatal deaths. Gestational age was between 262/7 and 382/7 weeks. Two cases were classified as mild microcephaly. Few findings by ultrasound and pathology were found in case 1 because it was a late infection; the other cases presented findings corresponding to congenital Zika syndrome: craniofacial malformations, cerebellar hypoplasia, anomalies of the corpus callosum and ventriculomegaly, all confirmed in autopsy specimens. By ultrasonography, hyperechogenicities were seen in several brain structures, which correspond to cortical and periventricular calcifications, subependymal glial reactivity and perivascular rings. The ultrasound and pathological findings show a wide spectrum of CNS anomalies that confirm the neurotropic effect of the ZIKV, recognizing the neuroimaging findings of this disease (unilateral ventriculomegaly, alterations in the corpus callosum and cerebellum, and calcifications) are highly suggestive of ZIKV infection.

© 2019 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

KEYWORDS: Zika virus infection; arthrogryposis; corpus callosum dysgenesis; lissencephaly; microcephaly

PMID: 31710135 DOI: 10.1111/neup.12603

Keywords: Zika Virus; Neuroimaging; Neuroinvasion; Pediatrics; Radiology.

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Use of #MRI in the #diagnosis and #prognosis of acute necrotizing #encephalopathy in a #Chinese teenager: A case report (Medicine (Baltimore), abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Medicine (Baltimore). 2019 Nov;98(44):e17797. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000017797.

Use of MRI in the diagnosis and prognosis of acute necrotizing encephalopathy in a Chinese teenager: A case report.

Li H1, Sun C2, Chi S2, Wang Y2, Wu L3, Qin X3.

Author information: 1 Department of Magnetic Resonance Imaging. 2 Department of Intensive Care Unit. 3 Department of Neurology, People’s Hospital of RiZhao, Rizhao, China.

 

Abstract

RATIONALE:

Acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) is a rapidly progressing disease associated with frequent neurologic sequelae and has poor prognosis. Currently, the diagnosis and treatment of ANE rely on neuroradiologic findings and offering supportive care. Here, we report the successful treatment of a teenager diagnosed with ANE using combination of high-dose methylprednisolone and oseltamivir.

PATIENT CONCERNS:

The patient, a 15-year-old female, presented with impaired consciousness and seizures secondary to acute upper respiratory tract infection. A series of brain magnetic resonance images (MRIs) were obtained toward establishing a possible diagnosis.

DIAGNOSIS:

Based on the history of presenting illness and subsequent brain MRI scans, the patient was diagnosed to be suffering from ANE.

INTERVENTIONS:

Following the diagnosis, the patient was placed on therapy comprising of high-dose methylprednisolone and oseltamivir.

OUTCOMES:

After treatment with methylprednisolone and oseltamivir for 15 days, the patient recovered nearly completely from ANE as confirmed by subsequent brain MRI scans. No complications or other emerging clinical symptoms were noted for the duration of follow-up that lasted 6 months.

LESSONS:

Contrary to common reports, ANE can occur beyond pediatric populations and its treatment should not be restricted to supportive care. Our case suggests that the use of high-dose corticosteroids and oseltamivir leads to promising prognosis.

PMID: 31689857 DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000017797

Keywords: Neurology; Neuroimaging; Antivirals; Corticosteroids; Oseltamivir; Encephalopathy.

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Association Between #Neonatal #Neuroimaging and #Clinical Outcomes in #Zika-Exposed #Infants From #Rio de Janeiro, #Brazil (JAMA Netw Open., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

JAMA Netw Open. 2019 Jul 3;2(7):e198124. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8124.

Association Between Neonatal Neuroimaging and Clinical Outcomes in Zika-Exposed Infants From Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Pool KL1, Adachi K1, Karnezis S1, Salamon N1, Romero T1, Nielsen-Saines K1, Pone S2, Boechat M2, Aibe M2, Gomes da Silva T2, Ribeiro CTM2, Boechat MI1, Brasil P2, Zin A2, Tsui I1, Gaw SL3, Daltro P4, Ribeiro BG4, Fazecas T4, Hygino da Cruz LC4, Nogueira R4, Vasconcelos Z2, Pereira JP Jr2, Saad Salles T2, Barbosa CN2, Chen W5, Foo SS5, Jung J5, Moreira ME2, Pone M2.

Author information: 1 David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles. 2 Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 3 University of California San Francisco School of Medicine. 4 Clinica de Diagnostico por Imagem CDPI, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 5 University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles.

 

Abstract

IMPORTANCE:

Congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) infection may present with a spectrum of clinical and neuroradiographic findings.

OBJECTIVE:

To determine whether neuroimaging findings for infants with a history of ZIKV exposure are associated with infant clinical outcomes and gestational age at antenatal ZIKV infection.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:

This cohort study retrospectively reviewed neuroimaging results (computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging scans) of 110 ZIKV-exposed infants from a maternity and children’s hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, following the 2015 to 2016 ZIKV epidemic. Neuroimaging from March 1, 2016, to June 30, 2017, was evaluated to determine whether findings were associated with clinical outcomes and the timing of maternal ZIKV infection. Data were analyzed from July 1, 2017, to August 30, 2018.

EXPOSURES:

Neuroimaging (computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging) was performed on ZIKV-exposed infants after birth. Blood and/or urine specimens from mothers and infants were tested for ZIKV by polymerase chain reaction assay.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:

Neuroimaging studies were evaluated for structural abnormalities and other forms of brain injury.

RESULTS:

A total of 110 infants with a mean (SD) gestational age of 38.4 (2.1) weeks had neuroimaging and clinical outcome data reviewed. Of these, 71 (65%) had abnormal neuroimaging findings, with the majority (96%) classified as having severe ZIKV infection at birth. The most common neuroimaging abnormalities were structural abnormalities including brain calcifications, especially at the cortico-subcortical white matter junction, cortex malformations, ventriculomegaly, and reduced brain volumes, followed by brainstem hypoplasia, cerebellar hypoplasia, and corpus callosum abnormalities. Frequency of abnormal imaging was higher in infants with specific clinical findings as opposed to those without them; these findings included fetal brain disruption sequence (100% vs 35%), microcephaly (100% vs 30%), congenital contractures (100% vs 58%), ophthalmologic abnormalities (95% vs 44%), hearing abnormalities (100% vs 58%), and neurologic symptoms (94% vs 10%). Four of 39 infants (10%) without initial evidence of severe ZIKV infection and normal findings on neurologic evaluation at birth had abnormal neuroimaging findings. Neuroimaging abnormalities differed by trimester of maternal ZIKV infection, with 63% of infants born to mothers infected in the first trimester, 13% of infants born to mothers infected in the second trimester, and 1% of infants born to mothers infected in the third trimester exhibiting neuroimaging abnormalities. The odds of abnormal neuroimaging were 7.9 times greater for infants with first trimester ZIKV exposure compared with other trimesters combined (odds ratio, 7.9; 95% CI, 3.0-20.4; P < .001).

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:

Neuroimaging abnormalities of computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging scans were common in ZIKV-exposed infants. While neuroimaging abnormalities were seen in 10% of infants without clinically severe ZIKV, most occurred almost exclusively among those with clinically severe ZIKV, especially among those with a history of ZIKV exposure in the first trimester.

PMID: 31365112 DOI: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8124

Keywords: Zika Virus; Zika Congenital Infection; Zika Congenital Syndrome; Neurology; Neuroimaging.

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#Congenital #Zika Syndrome: The Main Cause of #Death and Correspondence Between #Brain #CT and Postmortem #Histological Section Findings From the Same Individuals (Top Magn Reson Imaging, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Top Magn Reson Imaging. 2019 Feb;28(1):29-33. doi: 10.1097/RMR.0000000000000194.

Congenital Zika Syndrome: The Main Cause of Death and Correspondence Between Brain CT and Postmortem Histological Section Findings From the Same Individuals.

de Fatima Viana Vasco Aragão M1,2, van der Linden V3, Petribu NC3, Valenca MM4, Parizel PM5,6, de Mello RJV4.

Author information: 1 Multimagem, Recife, Brazil. 2 Catholic University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil. 3 Barão de Lucena Hospital, Recife, Brazil. 4 Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil. 5 Royal Perth Hospital (RPH), Perth, WA, Australia. 6 University of Western Australia (UWA) Medical School, Perth, WA, Australia.

 

Abstract

In the present case series, the cause of death of infants diagnosed with congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) was lung disease (pneumonia and sepsis with massive pulmonary aspiration), probably secondary to dysphagia and reflux. The main findings in infants with a confirmed diagnosis of CZS who died were as follows: (1) calcification and hypoplasia of the lentiform nuclei, hypoplasia of the caudate nuclei, and calcification at the cortical-subcortical junction was noted in all cases (100%) and calcification of the caudate nuclei was noted in 66.7% of cases; (2) calcification in the brainstem and along the lateral wall of the lateral ventricles was noted in only the case with arthrogryposis (33.3%); and (3) lesions in the posterior fossa (hypoplasia of the brainstem and cerebellum) were noted in two cases (66.7%), including the case with arthrogryposis. The findings concerning calcifications and brain malformations obtained from non-contrast computed tomography (CT) demonstrated good agreement with findings obtained from the postmortem pathological analysis; however, CT failed to detect discontinuity of the pia mater with heterotopia, invasion of the cerebral tissue into the subarachnoid space, and discontinuity of the ependyma in the lateral ventricles with gliosis; this last feature was only imaged in the most severe case of extreme microcephaly with a simplified gyral pattern. Only histopathology showed grouped calcifications associated with scattered calcifications suggestive of the neuron morphology.

PMID: 30817678 DOI: 10.1097/RMR.0000000000000194 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Congenital Zika Syndrome; Zika Virus; Microcephaly; Histopathology; Neurology; Neuroimaging.

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