#Feeding Low-Income #Children during the #Covid19 #Pandemic (N Engl J Med., summary)

[Source: The New England Journal of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Feeding Low-Income Children during the Covid-19 Pandemic

Caroline G. Dunn, Ph.D., R.D., Erica Kenney, Sc.D., M.P.H., Sheila E. Fleischhacker, J.D., Ph.D., and Sara N. Bleich, Ph.D.

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As Covid-19 spreads throughout the United States, schools and child care facilities are balancing their role of helping to prevent disease transmission with ensuring access to food for children who rely on the federal nutrition safety net. Together, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) National School Lunch Program, School Breakfast Program, and Child and Adult Care Food Program serve nearly 35 million children daily, delivering vital nutrition and financial assistance to families in need.1 With such programs interrupted, an essential element of the Covid-19 response will be feeding children from low-income families.

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Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Poverty; Society; Pediatrics.

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#Structural #violence in the era of a new #pandemic: the case of the #Gaza Strip (Lancet, summary)

[Source: The Lancet, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Structural violence in the era of a new pandemic: the case of the Gaza Strip

*David Mills, Bram Wispelwey, Rania Muhareb, Mads Gilbert

david.mills@childrens.harvard.edu

Boston Children’s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA (DM); Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA (DM, BW); Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA (BW); Al-Haq, occupied Palestinian territory (RM); University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, Norway (MG); and The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway (MG)

Published Online March 26, 2020 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30730-3

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“Hope for improving health and quality of life of Palestinians will exist only once people recognise that the structural and political conditions that they endure…are the key determinants of [Palestinian] population health.”1 As the world is consumed by the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), it should be of no surprise that epidemics  (and indeed, pandemics) are disproportionately violent to populations burdened by poverty, military occupation, discrimination, and institutionalised oppression.2

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Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Gaza; Poverty; Society; Wars.

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Responding to #health #emergencies in the Eastern #Mediterranean #region in times of #conflict (Lancet, summary)

[Source: The Lancet, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Responding to health emergencies in the Eastern Mediterranean region in times of conflict

Richard Brennan, Rana Hajjeh, Ahmed Al-Mandhari

Published: March 02, 2020 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30069-6

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WHO’s Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR) is facing emergencies on a scale that is perhaps unprecedented in its history. There is armed conflict in 12 of the region’s 22 countries.1, 2 The region’s 680 million people3 represent 9% of the global population, yet the EMR is home to 43% of those who need humanitarian assistance4  and is the source of 64% of the world’s refugees.5 The health effects of these crises are immense. Direct health consequences include trauma-related deaths and disability, gender-based violence, and mental disorders. Disruption of health systems contributes to increased morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases, malnutrition, obstetric complications, and non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Health indicators in the EMR are among the worst in the world.6

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AA-M is WHO Regional Director for the Eastern Mediterranean. We declare no other competing interests.

Editorial note: the Lancet Group takes a neutral position with respect to territorial claims in published maps, content, and institutional affiliations.

Keywords: Society; Poverty; Wars; COVID-19; Pandemic preparedness.

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#Gaps in #Sexual #Assault Health #Care Among #Homeless Young Adults (Am J Prev Med., abstract)

[Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Gaps in Sexual Assault Health Care Among Homeless Young Adults

Diane M. Santa Maria, DrPH, RN1, Khara Breeden, DNP, RN2, Stacy A. Drake, PhD, MPH, RN1, Sarah C. Narendorf, PhD3, Anamika Barman-Adhikari, PhD4, Robin Petering, PhD5, Hsun-Ta Hsu, PhD6, Jama Shelton, PhD7, Kristin Ferguson-Colvin, PhD8, Kimberly Bender, PhD4

Open Access / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2019.09.023

Published online: December 16, 2019

 

Abstract

Introduction

Young adults experiencing homelessness are at increased risk for sexual assault. Receiving a post–sexual assault examination has important implications for HIV and unintended pregnancy prevention; yet, utilization is not well understood. In a population at elevated risk for HIV, unintended pregnancy, and sexual violence, identifying barriers and facilitators to post–sexual assault examination is imperative.

Methods

As part of a large, multisite study to assess youth experiencing homelessness across 7 cities in the U.S, a cross-sectional survey was conducted between June 2016 and July 2017. Data were analyzed in 2019 to determine the prevalence and correlates of sexual violence and examine the correlates of post–sexual assault examination utilization.

Results

Respondents (n=1,405), aged 18–26 years, were mainly youth of color (38% black, 17% Latinx) and identified as cisgender male (59%) and lesbian, gay, bisexual, or queer (29%). HIV risks were high: 23% of participants had engaged in trade sex, 32% had experienced sexual assault as a minor, and 39% had experienced sexual exploitation. Young adults reported high rates of sexual assault (22%) and forced sex (24%). Yet, only 29% of participants who were forced to have sex received a post–sexual assault examination. Latinx young adults were more likely than other races/ethnicities to receive post-assault care. Participants frequently said they did not get a post–sexual assault exam because they did not want to involve the legal system and did not think it was important.

Conclusions

Interventions are needed to increase use of preventive care after experiencing sexual assault among young adults experiencing homelessness.

© 2019 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc.

Keywords: USA; Society; Poverty; Violence.

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#Risk #factors, #awareness of disease and use of #medications in a deprived population: differences between #indigent natives and undocumented #migrants in #Italy (J Pub Health, abstract)

[Source: Journal of Public Health, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Risk factors, awareness of disease and use of medications in a deprived population: differences between indigent natives and undocumented migrants in Italy

Gianfrancesco Fiorini, Cesare Cerri, Flavia Magri, Luca Chiovato, Laura Croce, Antonello E Rigamonti, Alessandro Sartorio, Silvano G Cella

Journal of Public Health, fdz123, https://doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdz123

Published: 08 November 2019

 

Abstract

Background

Undocumented migrants experience many health problems; a comparison with a suitable control group of natives living in the same socio-economic conditions is still lacking.

Methods

Demographic data and data on risk factors, chronic conditions and dietary habits were obtained for 6933 adults (2950 Italians and 3983 undocumented migrants) receiving medical assistance from 40 non-governmental organizations all over the country.

Results

Attributed to the fact that these were unselected groups, differences were found in their demographic features, the main ones being their marital status (singles: 50.5% among Italians and 42.8% among migrants; P < 0.001). Smokers were more frequent among Italians (45.3% versus 42.7% P = 0.03); the same happened with hypertension (40.5% versus 34.5% P < 0.001). Migrants were more often overweight (44.1% versus 40.5% P < 0.001) and reporting a chronic condition (20.2% versus 14.4% P < 0.001). Among those on medications (n = 1354), Italians were fewer (n = 425) and on different medications. Differences emerged also in dietary habits.

Conclusions

Differences in health conditions exist between native-borns and undocumented migrants, not because of a bias related to socio-economic conditions. Further studies are needed to design sustainable health policies and tailored prevention plans.

chronic diseases, dispensation of medications, poverty, undocumented migrants

Topic: hypertension – diet – adult – chronic disease – demography – habits – health policy – italy – marital status – medical assistance – single person – socioeconomic factors – poverty – overweight – prevention – nongovernmental organizations – smokers

Issue Section: Original Article

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model)

Keywords: Public Health; Society; Poverty; Migrants; Italy.

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The #publichealth #crisis of #underimmunisation: a global plan of action (Lancet Infect Dis., summary)

[Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

The public health crisis of underimmunisation: a global plan of action

Prof Lawrence O Gostin, JD, Prof James G Hodge Jr, JD, Prof Barry R Bloom, MD, Ayman El-Mohandes, MD, Prof Jonathan Fielding, MD, Prof Peter Hotez, MD, Dean Ann Kurth, PhD, Prof Heidi J Larson, PhD, Prof Walter A Orenstein, Kenneth Rabin, PhD, Prof Scott C Ratzan, MD, Prof Daniel Salmon, PhD

Published: November 06, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(19)30558-4

 

Summary

Vaccination is one of public health’s greatest achievements, responsible for saving billions of lives. Yet, 20% of children worldwide are not fully protected, leading to 1·5 million child deaths annually from vaccine-preventable diseases. Millions more people have severe disabling illnesses, cancers, and disabilities stemming from underimmunisation. Reasons for falling vaccination rates globally include low public trust in vaccines, constraints on affordability or access, and insufficient governmental vaccine investments. Consequently, an emerging crisis in vaccine hesitancy ranges from hyperlocal to national and worldwide. Outbreaks often originate in small, insular communities with low immunisation rates. Local outbreaks can spread rapidly, however, transcending borders. Following an assessment of underlying determinants of low vaccination rates, we offer an action based on scientific evidence, ethics, and human rights that spans multiple governments, organisations, disciplines, and sectors.

Keywords: Vaccines; Society; Politics; Public Health.

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Sustainable #development #levers are key in #global #response to #antimicrobial #resistance (Lancet, summary)

[Source: The Lancet, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Sustainable development levers are key in global response to antimicrobial resistance

Angelina Taylor, Jasper Littmann, Anna Holzscheiter, Maike Voss, Lothar Wieler, Tim Eckmanns

Published: October 30, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)32555-3

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Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a borderless challenge, with drug-resistant infections estimated to cause at least 700 000 deaths per year globally. 1  To address this, member states of WHO agreed to the Global Action Plan for AMR in 2015, followed by adoption of the UN political declaration on AMR in 2016. A global governance structure is in place—namely, the Tripartite, made up of WHO, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO), and the World Organisation of Animal Health (OIE)—all of which are strengthening their AMR mandates. 2  The UN Interagency Coordination Group on AMR (IACG), tasked by the UN Secretary-General, has been engaging with member states and other stakeholders and has made recommendations for globally combatting AMR. 3

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Keywords: Society; Poverty; Global Health; Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance.

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