#Avian #Influenza Virus Detection Rates in #Poultry and #Environment at Live Poultry #Markets, #Guangdong, #China (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 26, Number 3—March 2020 / Dispatch

Avian Influenza Virus Detection Rates in Poultry and Environment at Live Poultry Markets, Guangdong, China

Kit Ling Cheng1, Jie Wu1, Wei Ling Shen, Alvina Y.L. Wong, Qianfang Guo, Jianxiang Yu, Xue Zhuang, Wen Su, Tie Song, Malik Peiris, Hui-Ling Yen2  , and Eric H.Y. Lau2

Author affiliations: University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China (K.L. Cheng, A.Y.L. Wong, W. Su, M. Peiris, H.-L. Yen, E.H.Y. Lau); Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangdong, China (J. Wu, W.L. Shen, Q. Guo, J. Yu, X. Zhuang, T. Song)

 

Abstract

We report the use of environmental samples to assess avian influenza virus activity in chickens at live poultry markets in China. Results of environmental and chicken samples correlate moderately well. However, collection of multiple environmental samples from holding, processing, and selling areas is recommended to detect viruses expected to have low prevalence.

Keywords: Avian Influenza; Poultry; Live poultry Market; Guangdong; China.

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Occurrence of #antibiotics and their associations with antibiotic #resistance genes and #bacterial communities in #Guangdong #coastal areas (Ecotoxicol Environ Saf., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2019 Oct 16;186:109796. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.109796. [Epub ahead of print]

Occurrence of antibiotics and their associations with antibiotic resistance genes and bacterial communities in Guangdong coastal areas.

Xu K1, Wang J2, Gong H1, Li Y1, Zhou L1, Yan M3.

Author information: 1 College of Marine Sciences, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, China; Joint Laboratory of Guangdong Province and Hong Kong Region on Marine Bioresource Conservation and Exploitation, College of Marine Sciences, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, China. 2 College of Marine Sciences, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, China; Joint Laboratory of Guangdong Province and Hong Kong Region on Marine Bioresource Conservation and Exploitation, College of Marine Sciences, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, China. Electronic address: wangjun2016@scau.edu.cn. 3 College of Marine Sciences, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, China; Joint Laboratory of Guangdong Province and Hong Kong Region on Marine Bioresource Conservation and Exploitation, College of Marine Sciences, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, China. Electronic address: marineymt@scau.edu.cn.

 

Abstract

The concentration of 8 antibiotics and 21 antibiotic resistance genes were investigated in the coastal areas of Guangdong, China. Total concentrations of antibiotics ranged from 0.43 ng/L to 1040.31 ng/L. The concentrations of tetracyclines were much higher than that of sulfonamides in most sampling sites. The abundance of target antibiotic resistance genes ranged from 1.82 × 105 to 5.9 × 109 copies/mL and tetM accounted for the highest percentages of detected antibiotic resistance genes in most sampling sites. Furthermore, the dominant phyla in water samples were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. The relationship between antibiotics, antibiotic resistance genes, and bacterial communities was also investigated. As a result, the abundance of sul1 was positively correlated with the concentration of sulfadiazine, sulfamethoxazole and sulfonamide p-methyl oxypyrimidine. Besides, sulfonamide p-methyl oxypyrimidine, sulfadiazine and p-aminobenzenesulfonamide were significantly correlated with the bacterial communities. These findings suggested that the residues of antibiotics in coastal areas of Guangdong affect the distribution of antibiotic resistance genes and alter the microbial communities.

Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

PMID: 31629908 DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.109796

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Guangdong; China; Environmental pollution.

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#Platelet count and #mortality of #H7N9 infected patients in #Guangdong, #China (Platelets., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Platelets. 2019 Sep 11:1-4. doi: 10.1080/09537104.2019.1665639. [Epub ahead of print]

Platelet count and mortality of H7N9 infected patients in Guangdong, China.

Chen Y1,2, Yang Y1, Cheng J2, Lu J1, Hu W2.

Author information: 1 School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University , Guangzhou , China. 2 School of Public Health and Social Work, Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology , Brisbane , Australia.

 

Abstract

Avian influenza A (H7N9) is a serve zoonosis with a high mortality rate. Timely and effective diagnosis and early warning is crucial for the clinical treatment of H7N9 patients. The previous studies indicated that thrombocytopenia was associated with the prognosis of influenza cases, but the related evidence of platelet change within the course of the disease remains largely insufficient. A total of 130 laboratory-confirmed H7N9 cases and their corresponding medical records from August 2013 to March 2015 were collected from 23 hospitals of 13 cities in Guangdong, China. The results indicated that there was a significant difference between the outcome of H7N9 cases and their average platelet count (PC) including maximum, minimum, range, admission and discharge/death of the PC value. Furthermore, we built a classification and regression tree (CART) model to predict the fatality rate which varied with average PC. There was a 7% chance for a mortality from H7N9 if PC was over 207.0 × 10^9/L, while there was a 46.3% chance of a mortality from H7N9 when PC was between 123.9 × 10^9/L and 207.0 × 10^9/L, and 81.3% chance of a mortality from H7N9 when PC was less than 123.9 × 10^9/L. This study demonstrates that using platelet count to predict the fatality of H7N9 is significant, and lower platelet counts of H7N9 patients were associated with higher risk of mortality of H7N9 patients, which may need to be taken into consideration when planning clinical treatment.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza A (H7N9); CART; platelet count; predicting death

PMID: 31509040 DOI: 10.1080/09537104.2019.1665639

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H7N9; Human; China; Guangdong.

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#Antigenic Variation of #Avian #Influenza A(#H5N6) Viruses, #Guangdong Province, #China, 2014–2018 (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 10—October 2019 / Dispatch

Antigenic Variation of Avian Influenza A(H5N6) Viruses, Guangdong Province, China, 2014–2018

Ru Bai1, Reina S. Sikkema1, Cong rong Li, Bas B. Oude Munnink, Jie Wu, Lirong Zou, Yi Jing, Jing Lu, Runyu Yuan, Ming Liao, Marion P.G. Koopmans1  , and Chang-wen Ke1

Author affiliations: Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangzhou, China (R. Bai, C. Li, J. Wu, L. Zou, Y. Jing, J. Lu, R. Yuan, C. Ke); Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands (R.S. Sikkema, B.B. Oude Munnink, M.P.G. Koopmans); Southern Medical University (C. Li, Y. Jing, C. Ke); South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou (M. Liao)

 

Abstract

Market surveillance showed continuing circulation of avian influenza A(H5N6) virus in live poultry markets in Guangdong Province in 2017, despite compulsory vaccination for avian influenza A(H5Nx) and A(H7N9). We analyzed H5N6 viruses from 2014–2018 from Guangdong Province, revealing antigenic drift and decreased antibody response against the vaccine strain in vaccinated chickens.

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6; Poultry; Guangdong; China.

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#Clinical #analysis of seven cases of #H1N1 #influenza-associated #encephalopathy in #children (Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi, abstract)

[Source: US Naitonal Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi. 2019 Jul 2;57(7):538-542. doi: 10.3760/cma.j.issn.0578-1310.2019.07.009.

[Clinical analysis of seven cases of H1N1 influenza-associated encephalopathy in children].

[Article in Chinese; Abstract available in Chinese from the publisher]

Li XF1, Ai B2, Ye JW1, He DM1, Tan LM1, Chen MX1, Yang HM1, Zeng FS1, Yang FX1, Liu HS2, Xu Y1.

Author information: 1 Department of Infectious Diseases, Guangzhou Women and Children’s Medical Center, Guangzhou 540120, China. 2 Department of Radiology, Guangzhou Women and Children’s Medical Center, Guangzhou 540120, China.

Abstract in English, Chinese

Objective:

To investigate the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of H1N1 influenza A-associated encephalopathy (IAE) in children.

Methods:

The clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), electroencephalography (EEG) examinations and treatments of seven children with H1N1 IAE hospitalized in Guangzhou Women and Children’s Medical Center from December 2018 to January 2019 were retrospectively analyzed.

Results:

Five of the seven children with H1N1 IAE were female. The age at admission was 4 years and 5 months (range 7 months-9 years). Neurological symptoms occurred simultaneously or early (0-3 days) after the flu-like symptom appeared. The main clinical manifestations of neurological symptoms were seizures (repeated seizures in five cases and status convulsion in two cases, including one case of unexpected fever and repeated seizures in a nine-year old girl) accompanied with altered consciousness (drowsiness in five cases and coma in two cases). Cranial MRI in three cases displayed multifocal lesions, mainly in the bilateral thalamus, brainstem and cerebellar hemisphere. MRI also showed reversible splenial lesion in the corpus callusumin in three cases. EEG tracings were characterized by diffuse slow wave activity in four cases, and status epilepticus was monitored in one case. All the 7 cases were treated with oral oseltamivir. Three cases were treated with pulsed methylprednisolone and intravenous immunoglobulin. One case was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin alone and all the patients received oral oseltamivir. All the patients survived, with three patients had minor neurological sequelae at discharge.

Conclusions:

The main clinical manifestations of H1N1 IAE are seizures and altered consciousness. Cranial MRI combined with EEG is helpful for early diagnosis. Intravenous immunoglobulin and (or) methylprednisolone should be considered for severe cases.

KEYWORDS: Child; Encephalopathy, influenza; Influenza A virus, H1N1 subtype

PMID: 31269554 DOI: 10.3760/cma.j.issn.0578-1310.2019.07.009

Keywords: Seasonal Influenza; H1N1pdm09; Encephalopathy; Pediatrics; Neurology; Guangdong; China.

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Novel Recombinant #Seneca Valley Virus Isolated from Slaughtered #Pigs in #Guangdong Province (Virol Sin., abstract)

[Source: Virologica Sinica, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Novel Recombinant Seneca Valley Virus Isolated from Slaughtered Pigs in Guangdong Province

Authors: Jianxin Liu, Yunfeng Zha, Huizi Li, Yanwei Sun, Fuguang Wang, Rong Lu, Zhangyong Ning

Letter / First Online: 25 June 2019

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Dear Editor,

Since the first outbreak in Brazil in 2015, Seneca Valley virus (SVV) associated with porcine idiopathic vesicular disease, has shown increasing geographic distribution. Cases of SVV have been reported from several countries including the United States (US), Colombia, Thailand, Canada, and China (Pasma et al.2008; Zhang et al.2015; Sun et al.2017; Wu et al.2017; Liu et al.2018; Saeng-Chuto et al.2018). SVV was first identified in the US in 2002 and is the only member of the genus Senecavirus in the family Picornaviridae (Hales et al.2008; Leme et al.2017). The SVV genome contains a large open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polyprotein, which is cleaved into various mature viral proteins including the leader protein (L), structural proteins (VP1, VP2, VP3, and VP4), and non-structural proteins (2A, 2B, 2C, 3A, 3B, 3C, and 3D) (Hales et al.2008). Structural proteins bind to their receptor, anthrax toxin receptor 1, to mediate viral invasion and stimulate specific immunity…

(…)

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Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Key Research and Development Program of Guangdong Province (2019B020218004).

 

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Animal and Human Rights Statement

All institutional and national guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.

Keywords: Picornavirus; Seneca Valley Virus; Pigs; China; Guangdong.

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Evaluating the #effect of virus #mutation on the #transmission of #avian #influenza #H7N9 virus in #China based on dynamical model (Math Biosci Eng., abstract)

[Source: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Evaluating the effect of virus mutation on the transmission of avian influenza H7N9 virus in China based on dynamical model

Ning Bai 1,2, Juan Zhang 1,2, Li Li 3, Zhen Jin 1,2

1 Complex Systems Research Center, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030006, People’s Republic of China; 2 Shanxi Key Laboratory of Mathematical Techniques and Big Data Analysis on Disease Control and Prevention, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030006, People’s Republic of China; 3 School of Computer & Information Technology, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030006,People’s Republic of China

Received: 22 February 2019 , Accepted: 03 April 2019 , Published: 19 April 2019

Special Issues: Transmission dynamics in infectious diseases

 

Abstract

In 2017, the low pathogenic avian influenza H7N9 virus in China had mutated into high pathogenicity to domestic poultry, and led to a large number of poultry death and human cases. To evaluate the effect of virus mutation on the transmission of avian influenza H7N9 virus, this paper takes Guangdong province for the research area, takes domestic poultry, virus in the domestic poultry survival environment and human beings for the research objects, and establishes a non-autonomous dynamical model. By fitting model with the newly confirmed human cases in Guangdong province,the model we established is confirmed and applied to explain the dynamics of historical human cases. By carrying on parameter estimation, it is deduced that at least 5,279,376 human beings in Guangdong province had been infected with avian influenza H7N9 virus from March 2013 to September 2017, but most of them were not confirmed, since they had no obvious symptoms or had been cured as common influenza. And comparing with the low pathogenic avian influenza H7N9 virus (H7N9 LPAIV), the transmission rate of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H7N9 virus (H7N9 HPAIV) to human is almost unchanged, but to domestic poultry is about 3.87 times higher. Also, we calculate the basic reproduction number R 0 = 1.3042, which indicates that the virus will persist in Guangdong province with time. Besides, we also perform some sensitivity analysis of the newly confirmed human cases and R 0 in terms of model parameters and conclude that reducing the birth population of domestic poultry, speeding up the circulation of domestic poultry in the market and raising the rate of disease-related death of domestic poultry are benefit to control the transmission of the avian influenza H7N9 virus.

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Keywords:  avian influenza H7N9 virus; virus mutation; dynamical model; basic reproduction number; data fitting; parameters estimation;sensitivity analysis

Citation: Ning Bai, Juan Zhang , Li Li, Zhen Jin. Evaluating the effect of virus mutation on the transmission of avian influenza H7N9 virus in China based on dynamical model. Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering, 2019, 16(5): 3393-3410. doi: 10.3934/mbe.2019170

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H7N9; Poultry; Human; Guangdong; China; Mathematical models.

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