Long-Term #Nonmalignant #Disease #Mortality in Subjects Exposed to Transmissible #Agents Present in #Animals Used for #Food (Vector Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases

Long-Term Nonmalignant Disease Mortality in Subjects Exposed to Transmissible Agents Present in Animals Used for Food

To cite this article: Ndetan Harrison, Ekanem Uwemedimbuk S., Faramawi Mohammed F., Chedjieu Irene P., Thapa Susan, Johnson Bianca K., Johnson Kemmian D., Surani Salima S., and Johnson Eric S.. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. September 2016, ahead of print. doi:10.1089/vbz.2016.1984.

Online Ahead of Print: September 1, 2016

Author information: Harrison Ndetan,1,2 Uwemedimbuk S. Ekanem,3 Mohammed F. Faramawi,4,5 Irene P. Chedjieu,4 Susan Thapa,4 Bianca K. Johnson,4 Kemmian D. Johnson,4 Salima S. Surani,4 and Eric S. Johnson4

1Parker Research Institute, Parker University, Dallas, Texas. 2Department of Biostatistics & Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, Texas. 3Department of Community Health, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria. 4Department of Epidemiology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas. 5Department of Public Health, National Liver Institute, Menoufiya University, Menoufiya, Egypt.

Address correspondence to: Eric S. Johnson, Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 West Markham Street, Little Rock, AR 72205-7101, E-mail: esjohnson@uams.edu

 

ABSTRACT

Objective:

To study mortality from nonmalignant diseases in subjects with high exposure to transmissible agents present in animals used for food, and in their raw or inadequately cooked products.

Methods:

Mortality was compared in a cohort of meat handlers in slaughtering and processing plants with that of the U.S. general population.

Results:

Excess mortality was observed for conditions known to be associated with infections—these include, septicemia, chronic nephritis, diseases of the kidney and ureter, diseases of the pancreas, cirrhosis of the liver, acute and subacute endocarditis, acute rheumatic fever, functional diseases of the heart, aortic aneurysm, intracranial and intraspinous abscess, and meningitis. Excess mortality was also observed for ischemic heart disease and diabetes, conditions without an established infectious etiology, but which have been linked with infections.

Conclusions:

If transmissible agents present in food animals and their raw products cause long-term diseases and mortality in humans, this study importantly points to the likely diseases, many of which are already known to be associated with infections. The excess mortality observed for ischemic heart disease and diabetes is consistent with existing evidence linking these conditions with infections, and gives rise to the novel hypothesis that microbial agents present in food animals and their products may be candidates for an infective role in the occurrence of these conditions, and therefore needs further investigation.

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Zoonoses; Infectious Diseases.

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#Zoonotic #bacterial #meningitis in #human adults (Neurol., abstract)

[Source: Neurology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Zoonotic bacterial meningitis in human adults

Anusha van Samkar, MD, Matthijs C. Brouwer, MD, PhD, Arie van der Ende, PhD and Diederik van de Beek, MD, PhD

AFFILIATIONS:  From the Departments of Neurology (A.v.S., M.C.B., D.v.d.B.) and Medical Microbiology (A.v.d.E.), Academic Medical Centre, Centre of Infection and Immunity Amsterdam; and Academic Medical Centre (A.v.d.E.), Netherlands Reference Laboratory for Bacterial Meningitis.

Correspondence to Dr. van de Beek: d.vandebeek@amc.uva.nl

Published online before print August 17, 2016, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000003101 / Neurology 10.1212/WNL.0000000000003101

 

Abstract

Objective:

To describe the epidemiology, etiology, clinical characteristics, treatment, outcome, and prevention of zoonotic bacterial meningitis in human adults.

Methods:

We identified 16 zoonotic bacteria causing meningitis in adults.

Results:

Zoonotic bacterial meningitis is uncommon compared to bacterial meningitis caused by human pathogens, and the incidence has a strong regional distribution. Zoonotic bacterial meningitis is mainly associated with animal contact, consumption of animal products, and an immunocompromised state of the patient. In a high proportion of zoonotic bacterial meningitis cases, CSF analysis showed only a mildly elevated leukocyte count. The recommended antibiotic therapy differs per pathogen, and the overall mortality is low.

Conclusions:

Zoonotic bacterial meningitis is uncommon but is associated with specific complications. The suspicion should be raised in patients with bacterial meningitis who have recreational or professional contact with animals and in patients living in regions endemic for specific zoonotic pathogens. An immunocompromised state is associated with a worse prognosis. Identification of risk factors and underlying disease is necessary to improve treatment.

Received March 13, 2016. Accepted in final form June 1, 2016.

© 2016 American Academy of Neurology

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Meningitis; Zoonoses.

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Detection of #Zoonotic #Pathogens in #WildBirds in the Cross-Border Region #Austria – #Czech Republic (J Wildl Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Wildl Dis. 2016 Aug 15. [Epub ahead of print]

Detection of Zoonotic Pathogens in Wild Birds in the Cross-Border Region Austria – Czech Republic.

Konicek C1, Vodrážka P2, Barták P2, Knotek Z3, Hess C1, Račka K2, Hess M1, Troxler S1.

Author information: 1   Clinic for Poultry and Fish Medicine, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Veterinärplatz 1, 1210 Vienna, Austria. 2   State Veterinary Institute Jihlava, Rantířovská 93/20, 58605 Jihlava, Czech Republic. 3   University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno, Palackého tř. 1946/1, 61242 Brno, Czech Republic.

 

Abstract

To assess the importance of wild birds as a reservoir of zoonotic pathogens in Austria and the Czech Republic, we sampled 1,325 wild birds representing 13 orders, 32 families, and 81 species. The majority belonged to orders Columbiformes (43%), Passeriformes (25%), and to birds of prey: Accipitriformes, Strigiformes, and Falconiformes (15%). We collected cloacal swabs from 1,191 birds for bacterial culture and 1,214 triple swabs (conjunctiva, choana, cloaca) for DNA and RNA isolation. The cloacal swabs were processed by classical bacteriologic methods for isolation of Escherichia coli , Salmonella spp., methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and thermophilic Campylobacter spp. Nucleic acids isolated from triple swabs were investigated by PCR for West Nile virus, avian influenza viruses, and Chlamydia spp. We also tested tissue samples from 110 fresh carcasses for Mycobacterium spp. by PCR and we cultured fresh droppings from 114 birds for Cryptococcus spp. The most-frequently detected zoonotic bacteria were thermophilic Campylobacter spp. (12.5%) and Chlamydia spp. (10.3%). From 79.2% of the sampled birds we isolated E. coli , while 8.7% and 0.2% of E. coli isolates possessed the virulence genes for intimin (eaeA) and Shiga toxins (stx1 and stx2), respectively. Salmonella spp. were rarely found in the sampled birds (2.2%), similar to findings of MRSA (0.3%). None of the samples were positive for Cryptococcus neoformans , Mycobacterium spp., avian influenza viruses, or West Nile virus.

KEYWORDS: Austria; Czech Republic; bacterial infections; mycosis; viral infections; wild birds; wildlife; zoonoses

PMID: 27525596 DOI: 10.7589/2016-02-038

[PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Wild Birds; Zoonoses.

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#Global #Patterns of #Zoonotic #Disease in #Mammals (SD, abstract)

[Source: Science Direct, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Available online 14 June 2016 / In Press, Corrected Proof / Review

Global Patterns of Zoonotic Disease in Mammals

Barbara A. Han1, Andrew M. Kramer2, John M. Drake2, 3

1 Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Box AB Millbrook, NY 12545, USA – 2 Odum School of Ecology, University of Georgia, 140 East Green Street, Athens, GA 30602, USA – 3 Center for the Ecology of Infectious Diseases, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA

Available online 14 June 2016 / doi:10.1016/j.pt.2016.04.007

 

Abstract

As the frequency and prevalence of zoonotic diseases increase worldwide, investigating how mammal host distributions determine patterns of human disease and predicting which regions are at greatest risk for future zoonotic disease emergence are two goals which both require better understanding of the current distributions of zoonotic hosts and pathogens. We review here the existing data about mammalian host species, comparing and contrasting these patterns against global maps of zoonotic hosts from all 27 orders of terrestrial mammals. We discuss the zoonotic potential of host species from the top six most species-rich mammal groups, and review the literature to identify analytical and conceptual gaps that must be addressed to improve our ability to generate testable predictions about zoonotic diseases originating from wild mammals.

 

Trends

Predicting zoonotic disease events remains a prominent scientific challenge.

In response to increasing frequency of emerging infectious disease events caused by animal-borne (zoonotic) pathogens, recent advances assess the biogeographic patterns of human infectious diseases.

A disproportionate representation of mammal-borne zoonoses among emerging human disease has sparked research emphasis on mammal reservoirs because improved understanding of mammal host distributions may lead to improved predictions of future hotspots for zoonotic disease emergence.

In addition to spatial distributions of animal hosts and human disease, the concept of ‘disease risk’ is a topic of intense analysis, and has been quantified on the basis of hindsight where regions undergoing frequent or intense human disease events are categorized as possessing numerous factors that interact to increase disease risk.

Keywords: macroecology; infectious disease; biogeography; hotspot; risk; prediction

© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Zoonoses; Infectious Diseases; Emerging Diseases.

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#Zoonotic and #Vector-Borne #Infections Among #Urban #Homeless and Marginalized People in the #USA and #Europe, 1990–2014 (Vector Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 

Zoonotic and Vector-Borne Infections Among Urban Homeless and Marginalized People in the United States and Europe, 1990–2014

To cite this article: Leibler Jessica H., Zakhour Christine M., Gadhoke Preety, and Gaeta Jessie M.. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. May 2016, ahead of print. doi:10.1089/vbz.2015.1863.

Online Ahead of Print: May 9, 2016

Author information: 1Department of Environmental Health, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts. 2Department of Epidemiology, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts. 3College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, St. Johns University, Queens, New York. 4Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program, Boston, Massachusetts. 5Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts.

Address correspondence to: Jessica H. Leibler, Department of Environmental Health, Boston University School of Public Health, 715 Albany Street, T430W, Boston, MA 02118, E-mail: jleibler@bu.edu

 

ABSTRACT

Introduction:

In high-income countries, homeless individuals in urban areas often live in crowded conditions with limited sanitation and personal hygiene. The environment of homelessness in high-income countries may result in intensified exposure to ectoparasites and urban wildlife, which can transmit infections. To date, there have been no systematic evaluations of the published literature to assess vector-borne and zoonotic disease risk to these populations.

Objectives:

The primary objectives of this study were to identify diversity, prevalence, and risk factors for vector-borne and zoonotic infections among people experiencing homelessness and extreme poverty in urban areas of high-income countries.

Methods:

We conducted a systematic review and narrative synthesis of published epidemiologic studies of zoonotic and vector-borne infections among urban homeless and very poor people in the United States and Europe from 1990 to 2014.

Results:

Thirty-one observational studies and 14 case studies were identified (n = 45). Seroprevalence to the human louse-borne pathogen Bartonella quintana (seroprevalence range: 0–37.5%) was identified most frequently, with clinical disease specifically observed among HIV-positive individuals. Seropositivity to Bartonella henselae (range: 0–10.3%) and Rickettsia akari (range: 0–16.2%) was noted in multiple studies. Serological evidence of exposure to Rickettsia typhi, Rickettsia prowazekii, Bartonella elizabethae, West Nile virus, Borellia recurrentis, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, Wohlfartiimonas chitiniclastica, Seoul hantavirus (SEOV), and Leptospira species was also identified in published studies, with SEOV associated with chronic renal disease later in life. HIV infection, injection drug use, and heavy drinking were noted across multiple studies as risk factors for infection with vector-borne and zoonotic pathogens.

Conclusions:

B. quintana was the most frequently reported vector-borne infection identified in our article. Delousing efforts and active surveillance among HIV-positive individuals, who are at elevated risk of complication from B. quintana infection, are advised to reduce morbidity. Given documented exposure to rodent-borne zoonoses among urban homeless and marginalized people, reducing human contact with rodents remains an important public health priority.

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Zoonoses; USA; Europe.

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