#WNV #infection in individuals with pre-existing #Usutu virus #immunity, northern #Italy, 2018 (Euro Surveill., abstract)

[Source: Eurosurveillance, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

West Nile virus infection in individuals with pre-existing Usutu virus immunity, northern Italy, 2018

Alessandro Sinigaglia1, Monia Pacenti2, Thomas Martello1, Silvana Pagni1,2, Elisa Franchin1,2, Luisa Barzon1,2

Affiliations: 1 Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Padova, Padova, Italy; 2 Microbiology and Virology Unit, Padova University Hospital, Padova, Italy

Correspondence:  Luisa Barzon

Citation style for this article: Sinigaglia Alessandro, Pacenti Monia, Martello Thomas, Pagni Silvana, Franchin Elisa, Barzon Luisa. West Nile virus infection in individuals with pre-existing Usutu virus immunity, northern Italy, 2018. Euro Surveill. 2019;24(21):pii=1900261. https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.21.1900261

Received: 27 Apr 2019;   Accepted: 22 May 2019

 

Abstract

In 2018, there was a large West Nile virus (WNV) outbreak in northern Italy. We observed five atypical cases of WNV infection that were characterised by the presence of WNV RNA and WNV IgG at the time of diagnosis, but no IgM response during follow-up. Neutralisation assays demonstrated pre-existing Usutu virus immunity in all patients. Besides challenging diagnosis, the immunological crosstalk between the two viruses warrants further investigation on possible cross-protection or infection enhancement effects.

©  This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Keywords: WNV; Usutu virus; ADE; Italy.

——

Schlafen 11 Restricts #Flavivirus #Replication (J Virol., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Schlafen 11 Restricts Flavivirus Replication.

Federico Valdez, Julienne Salvador, Pedro M. Palermo, Jonathon E. Mohl, Kathryn A. Hanley, Douglas Watts, Manuel Llano

DOI: 10.1128/JVI.00104-19

 

ABSTRACT

Schlafen 11 (Slfn11) is an interferon-stimulated gene that controls synthesis of proteins by regulating tRNA abundance. Likely through this mechanism, Slfn11 has previously been shown to impair human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection and the expression of codon-biased open reading frames. Because replication of positive-sense single-stranded RNA [(+)ssRNA] viruses requires the immediate translation of the incoming viral genome whereas negative-sense, single-stranded RNA [(-)ssRNA] viruses carry at infection an RNA replicase that makes multiple translation competent copies of the incoming viral genome, we reasoned that (+)ssRNA viruses will be more sensitive to the effect of Slfn11 on protein synthesis than (-)ssRNA viruses. To evaluate this hypothesis, we tested the effects of Slfn11 on the replication of a panel of ssRNA viruses in the human glioblastoma cell line A172, which naturally expresses Slfn11. Depletion of Slfn11 significantly increased the replication of (+)ssRNA viruses from the Flavivirus genus, including West Nile (WNV), dengue (DENV), and Zika virus (ZIKV) but had no significant effect on the replication of the (-)ssRNA viruses vesicular stomatitis (VSV, Rhabdoviridae family) and Rift Valley fever (RVFV, Phenuiviridae family). Quantification of the genome-containing viral particles to plaque forming units ratio indicated that Slfn11 impairs WNV infectivity. Intriguingly, Slfn11 prevented WNV-induced down-regulation of a subset of tRNAs implicated in the translation of 11.8% of the viral polyprotein. Low abundance tRNAs might promote optimal protein folding and enhance viral infectivity, as previously reported. In summary, this study demonstrates that Slfn11 restricts flavivirus replication by impairing viral infectivity.

 

AUTHOR SUMMARY

We provide evidence that the cellular protein Schlafen 11 (Slfn11) impairs replication of flaviviruses, including West Nile (WNV), dengue (DENV), and Zika virus (ZIKV). However, replication of single-stranded, negative RNA viruses was not affected. Specifically, Slfn11 decreases the infectivity of WNV potentially by preventing virus-induced modifications of the host tRNA repertoire that could lead to enhanced viral protein folding. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Slfn11 is not the limiting factor of this novel broad anti-viral pathway.

Copyright © 2019 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Keywords: Flavivirus; Zika virus; WNV; Dengue fever; Interferons.

——

#Serological #evidence of #Flavivirus #circulation in #human populations in Northern #Kenya: an assessment of disease risk 2016-2017 (Virol J., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Virol J. 2019 May 17;16(1):65. doi: 10.1186/s12985-019-1176-y.

Serological evidence of Flavivirus circulation in human populations in Northern Kenya: an assessment of disease risk 2016-2017.

Chepkorir E1,2, Tchouassi DP3, Konongoi SL4, Lutomiah J4, Tigoi C3, Irura Z5, Eyase F6, Venter M7, Sang R3.

Author information: 1 International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, P. O. Box 30772-00100, Nairobi, Kenya. echepkorir@icipe.org. 2 Center for Viral Zoonoses, Department of Medical Virology, University of Pretoria, P. O. Box 323, Arcadia, 0007, South Africa. echepkorir@icipe.org. 3 International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, P. O. Box 30772-00100, Nairobi, Kenya. 4 Center for Virus Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, P. O. Box 54628-00200, Nairobi, Kenya. 5 Division of Disease Surveillance and Response, Ministry of Health, P. O. Box 20781-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. 6 Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, P.O. Box 606, Village Market, Nairobi, Kenya. 7 Center for Viral Zoonoses, Department of Medical Virology, University of Pretoria, P. O. Box 323, Arcadia, 0007, South Africa.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Yellow fever, Dengue, West Nile and Zika viruses are re-emerging mosquito-borne Flaviviruses of public health concern. However, the extent of human exposure to these viruses and associated disease burden in Kenya and Africa at large remains unknown. We assessed the seroprevalence of Yellow fever and other Flaviviruses in human populations in West Pokot and Turkana Counties of Kenya. These areas border Uganda, South Sudan and Ethiopia where recent outbreaks of Yellow fever and Dengue have been reported, with possibility of spillover to Kenya.

METHODOLOGY:

Human serum samples collected through a cross-sectional survey in West Pokot and Turkana Counties were screened for neutralizing antibodies to Yellow fever, Dengue-2, West Nile and Zika virus using the Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test (PRNT). Seroprevalence was compared by county, site and important human demographic characteristics. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were estimated using Firth logistic regression model.

RESULTS:

Of 877 samples tested, 127 neutralized with at least one of the four flaviviruses (14.5, 95% CI 12.3-17.0%), with a higher proportion in Turkana (21.1%, n = 87/413) than in West Pokot (8.6%, n = 40/464). Zika virus seroprevalence was significantly higher in West Pokot (7.11%) than in Turkana County (0.24%; χ2 P < 0.0001). A significantly higher Yellow fever virus seroprevalence was also observed in Turkana (10.7%) compared to West Pokot (1.29%; χ2 P < 0.0001). A high prevalence of West Nile virus was detected in Turkana County only (10.2%) while Dengue was only detected in one sample, from West Pokot. The odds of infection with West Nile virus was significantly higher in males than in females (aOR = 2.55, 95% CI 1.22-5.34). Similarly, the risk of Zika virus infection in West Pokot was twice higher in males than females (aOR = 2.01, 95% CI 0.91-4.41).

CONCLUSION:

Evidence of neutralizing antibodies to West Nile and Zika viruses indicates that they have been circulating undetected in human populations in these areas. While the observed Yellow Fever prevalence in Turkana and West Pokot Counties may imply virus activity, we speculate that this could also be as a result of vaccination following the Yellow Fever outbreak in the Omo river valley, South Sudan and Uganda across the border.

KEYWORDS: Dengue virus; Flaviviruses risk assessment; Northern Kenya; Plaque reduction neutralization test; Seroprevalence; West Nile virus; Yellow fever virus; Zika virus

PMID: 31101058 DOI: 10.1186/s12985-019-1176-y

Keywords: Flavivirus; WNV; Zika Virus; Dengue Fever; Yellow Fever; Serology; Seroprevalence; Kenya.

——

#Arboviral #screening of invasive #Aedes species in northeastern #Turkey: #WNV circulation and detection of insect-only viruses (PLoS Negl Trop Dis., abstract)

[Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Arboviral screening of invasive Aedes species in northeastern Turkey: West Nile virus circulation and detection of insect-only viruses

Mustafa M. Akıner, Murat Öztürk, Aykut Buğra Başer, Filiz Günay, Sabri Hacıoğlu, Annika Brinkmann, Nergis Emanet, Bülent Alten, Aykut Özkul, Andreas Nitsche, Yvonne-Marie Linton, Koray Ergünay

Published: May 6, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007334 / This is an uncorrected proof.

 

Abstract

Background

The recent reports of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus populations in Turkey, in parallel with the territorial expansion identified in several surrounding countries, have raised concerns about the establishment and re-establishment of these invasive Aedes mosquitoes in Turkey. This cross-sectional study was performed to detect Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus in regions of recent incursions, and screen for viral pathogens known to be transmitted elsewhere by these species.

Methodology

Mosquitoes were collected at several locations in Artvin, Rize and Trabzon provinces of the Black Sea region during 2016–2017, identified morphologically, pooled and analyzed via generic or specific nucleic acid amplification assays. Viruses in positive pools were identified by product sequencing, cell culture inoculation and next generation sequencing (NGS) in selected specimens.

Principal findings

The study group comprised 791 specimens. Aedes albopictus was the most abundant species in all locations (89.6%), followed by Ae. aegypti (7.8%) and Culex pipiens (2.5%). Mosquitoes were screened for viruses in 65 pools where fifteen (23.1%) were reactive. The infecting strains was identified as West Nile virus (WNV) in 5 pools (7.7%) with Ae. albopictus or Cx. pipiensmosquitoes. The obtained WNV sequences phylogenetically grouped with local and global lineage 1 clade 1a viruses. In 4 (6.2%) and 6 (9.2%) pools, respectively, cell fusing agent virus (CFAV) and Aedes flavivirus (AEFV) sequences were characterized. NGS provided a near-complete AEFV genome in a pool of Ae. albopictus. The strain is provisionally called “AEFV-Turkey”, and functional analysis of the genome revealed several conserved motifs and regions associated with virus replication. Merida-like virus Turkey (MERDLVT), a recently-described novel rhabdovirus, was also co-detected in a Cx. pipiens pool also positive for WNV.

Conclusions/Significance

Invasive Aedes mosquitoes are established in certain locations of northeastern Turkey. Herein we conclusively show the role of these species in WNV circulation in the region. Biosurveillance is imperative to monitor the spread of these species further into Asia Minor and to detect possible introduction of pathogens.

 

Author summary

Mosquitoes can transmit viruses to susceptible humans during blood-feeding. The presence and establishment of particular mosquito species within a region is the prerequisite for the introduction and emergence of the diseases transmitted by that species. Aedes mosquitoes transmit dengue and yellow fever, as well as recently-emergent chikungunya and Zika viruses to susceptible humans. Mosquitoes were collected in the Black Sea region of Anatolia, NE Turkey, where invasive Aedes mosquitoes have recently encroached, and specimens were screened for a variety of viruses. We observed particular Aedes species that are associated with disease transmission, suggesting that these species have been established in the region. We did not detect dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya or Zika viruses, but West Nile virus was found in several pools of these invasive species. Moreover, we detected a number of related viruses that exclusively infect mosquitoes, identified for the first time in Anatolia. Using advanced sequencing technologies, the near-complete genome of a new Aedes flavivirus (AEFV-Turkey) was achieved.

___

Citation: Akıner MM, Öztürk M, Başer AB, Günay F, Hacıoğlu S, Brinkmann A, et al. (2019) Arboviral screening of invasive Aedes species in northeastern Turkey: West Nile virus circulation and detection of insect-only viruses. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(5): e0007334. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007334

Editor: Pattamaporn Kittayapong, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, THAILAND

Received: January 3, 2019; Accepted: March 26, 2019; Published: May 6, 2019

This is an open access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.

Data Availability: The nucleotide sequences characterized in this study are deposited and can be accessed at the GenBank via the following accession numbers: MF361262, MF361264, MF361265, MF361263, MF361267, MF361268, MK251047, MK251048, MK251049, MK251050, MK251051, MK251052, MK251053, MK251054, MK251055 and MK251056. All remaining data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: This study was supported in part by the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Board, Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSB-GEIS), United States of America (FY18 award P0034_18_WR (PI: Yvonne-Marie Linton) under US Army subcontract W911QY-16-C-0160). BA and FG were also included in AIM-COST. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. The material to be published reflects the views of the authors and should not be construed to represent those of the US Department of the Army or the US Department of Defense.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Flavivirus; Rhabdovirus; Mosquitoes; WNV; Aedes albopictus; Culex spp.; Turkey; Merida-like Turkey virus.

——

#WNV and #Usutu Virus #Infections and Challenges to #Blood #Safety in the #EU (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 6—June 2019 / Perspective

West Nile and Usutu Virus Infections and Challenges to Blood Safety in the European Union

Dragoslav Domanović  , Celine M. Gossner, Ryanne Lieshout-Krikke, Wolfgang Mayr, Klara Baroti-Toth, Alina Mirella Dobrota, Maria Antonia Escoval, Olaf Henseler, Christof Jungbauer, Giancarlo Liumbruno, Salvador Oyonarte, Constantina Politis, Imad Sandid, Miljana Stojić Vidović, Johanna J. Young, Inês Ushiro-Lumb, and Norbert Nowotny

Author affiliations: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Solna, Sweden (D. Domanović, C.M. Gossner, J.J. Young); European Blood Alliance, Amsterdam, the Netherlands (R. Lieshout-Krikke); Austrian Red Cross, Vienna, Austria (W. Mayr, C. Jungbauer); National Competent Authority for Blood, Budapest, Hungary (K. Baroti-Toth); National Competent Authority for Blood, Bucharest, Romania (A.M. Dobrota); National Competent Authority for Blood, Lisbon, Portugal (M.A. Escoval); Paul Ehrlich Institute, Langen, Germany (O. Henseler); Italian National Blood Centre, National Institute of Health, Rome, Italy (G. Liumbruno); National Competent Authority for Blood, Madrid, Spain (S. Oyonarte); Hellenic Center for Disease Control and Prevention (KEELPNO), Athens, Greece (C. Politis); National Competent Authority for Blood, Paris, France (I. Sandid); Croatian Institute for Transfusion Medicine, Zagreb, Croatia (M.S. Vidović); National Health Service Blood and Transplant (NHSBT), London, UK (I. Ushiro-Lumb); University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Austria (N. Nowotny); Mohammed Bin Rashid University of Medicine and Health Sciences, Dubai, United Arab Emirates (N. Nowotny)

 

Abstract

West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) circulate in several European Union (EU) countries. The risk of transfusion-transmitted West Nile virus (TT-WNV) has been recognized, and preventive blood safety measures have been implemented. We summarized the applied interventions in the EU countries and assessed the safety of the blood supply by compiling data on WNV positivity among blood donors and on reported TT-WNV cases. The paucity of reported TT-WNV infections and the screening results suggest that blood safety interventions are effective. However, limited circulation of WNV in the EU and presumed underrecognition or underreporting of TT-WNV cases contribute to the present situation. Because of cross-reactivity between genetically related flaviviruses in the automated nucleic acid test systems, USUV-positive blood donations are found during routine WNV screening. The clinical relevance of USUV infection in humans and the risk of USUV to blood safety are unknown.

Keywords: Usutu virus; WNV; Blood safety; EU.

——

#Arboviral #diseases and #malaria in #Australia, 2014–15: Annual report of the National Arbovirus and Malaria Advisory Committee (Commun Dis Intell (2018), abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Commun Dis Intell (2018). 2019 Apr 15;43. doi: 10.33321/cdi.2019.43.14.

Arboviral diseases and malaria in Australia, 2014–15: Annual report of the National Arbovirus and Malaria Advisory Committee

Knope K1, Doggett SL2, Jansen CC3, Johansen CA4,5, Kurucz N6, Feldman R7, Lynch SE8, Hobby MP9, Sly A10, Jardine A11, Bennett S3, Currie BJ12, the National Arbovirus and Malaria Advisory Committee.

Author information: 1 Zoonoses, Foodborne and Emerging Infectious Diseases Section, Health Protection Policy Branch, Office of Health Protection, Department of Health, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory; 2 Department of Medical Entomology, Pathology West, Institute for Clinical Pathology and Medical Research, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, New South Wales; 3 Communicable Diseases Branch, Department of Health, Queensland Government, Herston, Qld 4006; 4 Arbovirus Surveillance and Research Laboratory, School of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Western Australia. 5
As of July 2015: Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, PathWest Laboratory Medicine WA, QEII Medical Centre, Western Australian Department of Health, Nedlands, Western Australia. 6 Medical Entomology, Centre for Disease Control, Health Protection Division, Northern Territory Department of Health, Royal Darwin Hospital, Casuarina, Northern Territory; 7 Communicable Disease Prevention and Control, Department of Health, Melbourne, Victoria; 8 Agriculture Victoria Research, AgriBio Centre for AgriBioscience, 5 Ring Road, Bundoora, Victoria, 3083, Australia; 9 Health Protection, Public Health, South Australian Department of Health, Adelaide, South Australia; 10 Department of Agriculture and Water Resources, Compliance Division, Eagle Farm, Queensland; 11 Medical Entomology, Environmental Health Directorate, Department of Health, Western Australia; 12 Royal Darwin Hospital Northern Territory; Menzies School of Health Research, Darwin, Northern Territory

 

Abstract

This report describes the epidemiology of mosquito-borne diseases of public health importance in Australia during the 2014–15 season (1 July 2014 to 30 June 2015) and includes data from human notifications, sentinel chicken, vector and virus surveillance programs. The National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System received notifications for 12,849 cases of disease transmitted by mosquitoes during the 2014–15 season. The Australasian alphaviruses Barmah Forest virus and Ross River virus accounted for 83% (n=10,723) of notifications. However, over-diagnosis and possible false positive diagnostic test results for these two infections mean that the true burden of infection is likely overestimated, and as a consequence, revised case definitions were implemented from 1 January 2016. There were 151 notifications of imported chikungunya virus infection. There were 74 notifications of dengue virus infection acquired in Australia and 1,592 cases acquired overseas, with an additional 34 cases for which the place of acquisition was unknown. Imported cases of dengue were most frequently acquired in Indonesia (66%). There were 7 notifications of Zika virus infection. No cases of locally-acquired malaria were notified during the 2014–15 season, though there were 259 notifications of overseas-acquired malaria and one notification for which no information on the place of acquisition was supplied. Imported cases of malaria were most frequently acquired in southern and eastern Africa (23%) and Pacific Island countries (20%). In 2014–15, arbovirus and mosquito surveillance programs were conducted in most of the states and territories. Surveillance for exotic mosquitoes at international ports of entry continues to be a vital part of preventing the establishment of vectors of mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue to new areas of Australia. In 2014-15, there was a sharp increase in the number of exotic mosquitoes detected at the Australian border, with 36 separate exotic mosquito detections made, representing a 280% increase from the 2013-14 period where there were 13 exotic mosquito detections.

KEYWORDS: arbovirus; Barmah Forest virus; chikungunya; dengue; Zika; disease surveillance; epidemiology; flavivirus; Japanese encephalitis; West Nile virus; Kunjin virus; malaria; mosquito-borne disease; mosquitoes; Murray Valley encephalitis virus; Ross River virus; yellow fever; exotic mosquitoes

PMID: 30982295

Keywords: Arbovirus; Alphavirus; Flaviviru; Barmah forest virus; Chikungunya fever; Zika virus; WNV; Malaria; Australia.

——

#Emerging #arboviruses of medical importance in the #Mediterranean region (J Clin Virol., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Clinical Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Journal of Clinical Virology / Available online 16 March 2019 / In Press, Accepted Manuscript

Emerging arboviruses of medical importance in the Mediterranean region

Anna Papa, Department of Microbiology, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, 54124, Greece

Received 12 January 2019, Revised 6 March 2019, Accepted 11 March 2019, Available online 16 March 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2019.03.007

 

Highlights

  • The epidemiology of arboviral infection in the Mediterranean region is changing.
  • 2018 was a record year for West Nile virus infections.
  • Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever emerged in the Western Europe.
  • Autochthonous chikungunya and dengue cases occurred in the Mediterranean countries.
  • The “One Health” initiative is required for tackling the emerging diseases.

 

Abstract

The epidemiology of viral infections transmitted by arthropods is changing due to a variety of parameters related to the virus, the host and the environment. The Mediterranean region is highly affected by changes in the intensity and extension of global-scale climate patterns, and, due to its location, provides a vulnerable environment for emergence of arboviral diseases. The main arboviruses that pose currently a public health threat in the Mediterranean region are West Nile virus and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and, in less extend, tick-borne encephalitis virus. Usutu virus that affects mainly birds can infect also humans, while Dengue and Chikungunya viruses showed that they are capable to cause sporadic autochthonous cases, and even outbreaks in the Mediterranean region. Sandly-transmitted viruses continue to have a public health impact, and novel ones have been identified. The presence of competent vectors (mainly mosquitoes), combined by arbovirus introduction through viremic travelers returning from endemic regions, prompt for increased surveillance to mitigate the risk for local transmission. In order to tackle efficiently and effectively the emerging arboviral diseases, an integrated “One Health initiative” is required to be maintained, involving public health, animal health and environmental authorities. Awareness of medical and veterinary staff and laboratory capacity are crucial for the early detection of pathogens, while reporting the unusual and enhance surveillance are important.

Keywords: Arbovirus – Mediterranean countries – Emerging – Humans

© 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Arbovirus; Climate Change; European Region; Chikungunya fever; Dengue fever; Zika Virus; WNV; CCHF.

——

#Epidemiology of #WNV in the Eastern #Mediterranean region: A systematic review (PLoS Negl Trop Dis., abstract)

[Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Epidemiology of West Nile Virus in the Eastern Mediterranean region: A systematic review

Sana Eybpoosh, Mehdi Fazlalipour, Vahid Baniasadi, Mohammad Hassan Pouriayevali, Farzin Sadeghi, Abbas Ahmadi Vasmehjani, Mohammad Hadi Karbalaie Niya, Roger Hewson, Mostafa Salehi-Vaziri

Published: January 29, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007081 / This is an uncorrected proof.

 

Abstract

Background

West Nile Virus (WNV), a member of the genus Flavivirus, is one of the most widely distributed arboviruses in the world. Despite some evidence for circulation of WNV in countries summarized by the World Health Organization as the Eastern Mediterrian Region Office (EMRO), comprehensive knowledge about its epidemiology remains largely unknown. This study aims to provide a concise review of the published literature on WNV infections in the Eastern Mediterranean regional office of WHO (EMRO).

Methodology/principal findings

A systematic review of WNV prevalence studies on humans, animals and vectors in the EMRO region was performed by searching: Web of Science, Science Direct, Scopus, PubMed, Embase and Google Scholar. Finally, 77 citations were included, comprising 35 seroprevalence studies on general population (24460 individuals), 15 prevalence studies among patients (3439 individuals), 22 seroprevalence studies among animals (10309 animals), and 9 studies on vectors (184242 vector species). Of the 22 countries in this region, five had no data on WNV infection among different populations. These countries include Kuwait, Bahrain, Oman, Syria and Somalia. On the other hand, among countries with available data, WNV-specific antibodies were detected in the general population of all investigated countries including Djibouti (0.3–60%), Egypt (1–61%), Iran (0–30%), Iraq (11.6–15.1%), Jordan (8%), Lebanon (0.5–1%), Libya (2.3%), Morocco (0–18.8%), Pakistan (0.6–65.0%), Sudan (2.2–47%), and Tunisia (4.3–31.1%). WNV RNA were also detected in patient populations of Iran (1.2%), Pakistan (33.3%), and Tunisia (5.3% –15.9%). WNV-specific antibodies were also detected in a wide range of animal species. The highest seropositivity rate was observed among equids (100% in Morocco) and dogs (96% in Morocco). The highest seroprevalence among birds was seen in Tunisia (23%). In addition, WNV infection was detected in mosquitoes (Culex, and Aedes) and ticks (Argas reflexus hermanni). The primary vector of WNV (Culex pipiens s.l.) was detected in Djibouti, Egypt, Iran and Tunisia, and in mosquitoes of all these countries, WNV was demonstrated.

Conclusions

This first systematic regional assessment of WNV prevalence provides evidence to support the circulation of WNV in the EMRO region as nearly all studies showed evidence of WNV infection in human as well as animal/vector populations. These findings highlight the need for continued prevention and control strategies and the collection of epidemiologic data for WNV epidemic status, especially in countries that lack reliable surveillance systems.

 

Author summary

West Nile Virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne Flavivirus belonging to the Flaviviridae family, which is endemic in a vast geographical area, including the EMRO region. However, the epidemiology of WNV in the EMRO region remains poorly understood. To address this gap, we performed a systematic review on WNV prevalence studies conducted on human populations, animals and vectors across Eastern Mediterranean countries. Our review indicated the infection of most investigated human, animal and vector populations with WNV; however, the paucity of epidemiological data underline the need for integrated surveillance programs as well as continued deployment of prevention and control strategies.

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Citation: Eybpoosh S, Fazlalipour M, Baniasadi V, Pouriayevali MH, Sadeghi F, Ahmadi Vasmehjani A, et al. (2019) Epidemiology of West Nile Virus in the Eastern Mediterranean region: A systematic review. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(1): e0007081. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007081

Editor: Hans-Peter Fuehrer, Vienna, AUSTRIA

Received: June 3, 2018; Accepted: December 14, 2018; Published: January 29, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Eybpoosh et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript.

Funding: The authors received no specific funding for this work.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Flavivirus; WNV; Eastern Mediterranean Region.

—–

#Serological Evidence of #Tick-Borne #Encephalitis and #WNV #Infections Among #Children with #Arthritis in #Turkey (Vector Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Serological Evidence of Tick-Borne Encephalitis and West Nile Virus Infections Among Children with Arthritis in Turkey

Huseyin Yilmaz, Kenan Barut, Asiye Karakullukcu, Ozgur Kasapcopur, Bekir Kocazeybek, Eda Altan Tarakci, Utku Y. Cizmecigil, Aysun Yilmaz, Zahide Bilgin, Meltem Ulutas Esatgil, Christine Klaus, Juergen A. Richt, and Nuri Turan

Published Online: 28 Jan 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2018.2349

 

Abstract

Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) are mainly transmitted by arthropod vectors to vertebrate hosts including humans, resulting in fever and neurological signs. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of antibodies to TBEV and WNV, and TBEV-RNA and WNV-RNA in Turkish children with fever and/or arthritis. For this purpose, 110 sera and buffy-coat samples were collected; sera were analyzed by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies to TBEV and WNV, and buffy-coat-derived white blood cells were analyzed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR for TBEV-RNA and WNV-RNA. IgM antibodies to TBEV were detected in five children between the ages of 3 and 7 years; no IgG antibodies to TBEV were detected. IgG antibodies to WNV were detected in two children and IgM antibodies to WNV were detected in six children, between the ages of 3 and 7 years. One of the children had IgM antibodies to WNV and to TBEV. Children who had antibodies to TBEV and WNV had fever and/or arthritis but no obvious neurological signs. Molecular diagnostic approaches revealed that neither TBEV-RNA nor WNV-RNA was present in any of the buffy-coat samples, not even in children with IgM-specific antibodies. Our serological results indicate that children in Turkey are exposed to TBEV and WNV.

Keywords: Arbovirus; Tick-borne encephalitis; WNV; Seroprevalence; Arthritis; Turkey.

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Expanding #Usutu virus #circulation in #Italy: detection in the Lazio region, central Italy, 2017 to 2018 (Euro Surveill., abstract)

[Source: Eurosurveillance, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Expanding Usutu virus circulation in Italy: detection in the Lazio region, central Italy, 2017 to 2018

Fabrizio Carletti1, Francesca Colavita1, Francesca Rovida2, Elena Percivalle2, Fausto Baldanti2,3, Ida Ricci4, Claudio De Liberato4, Francesca Rosone4, Francesco Messina1, Eleonora Lalle1, Licia Bordi1, Francesco Vairo5, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi1, Giuseppe Ippolito6, Giuseppina Cappiello7, Alberto Spanò7, Silvia Meschi1, Concetta Castilletti1

Affiliations: 1 Laboratory of Virology, National Institute for Infectious Diseases ‘Lazzaro Spallanzani’ IRCCS, Rome, Italy; 2 Molecular Virology Unit, Microbiology and Virology Department, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy; 3 Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Pediatric Sciences, University of Pavia, Italy; 4 Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle regioni Lazio e Toscana, Rome, Italy; 5 Regional Service for Surveillance and Control of Infectious Diseases (SERESMI)-Lazio Region, National Institute for Infectious Diseases ‘Lazzaro Spallanzani’ IRCCS, Rome, Italy; 6 Scientific Direction, National Institute for Infectious Diseases ‘Lazzaro Spallanzani’ IRCCS, Rome, Italy; 7 Unit of Microbiology, Sandro Pertini Hospital, Rome, Italy

Correspondence: Silvia Meschisilvia.meschiinmi.it

Citation style for this article: Carletti Fabrizio, Colavita Francesca, Rovida Francesca, Percivalle Elena, Baldanti Fausto, Ricci Ida, De Liberato Claudio, Rosone Francesca, Messina Francesco, Lalle Eleonora, Bordi Licia, Vairo Francesco, Capobianchi Maria Rosaria, Ippolito Giuseppe, Cappiello Giuseppina, Spanò Alberto, Meschi Silvia, Castilletti Concetta. Expanding Usutu virus circulation in Italy: detection in the Lazio region, central Italy, 2017 to 2018. Euro Surveill. 2019;24(3):pii=1800649. https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.3.1800649

Received: 03 Dec 2018;   Accepted: 16 Jan 2019

 

Abstract

Blood donation screening for West Nile virus (WNV) was mandatory in the Lazio region in 2017 and 2018 (June-November) according to the national surveillance plan. In these years, all five donations reactive in WNV nucleic acid amplification tests harboured instead Usutu virus (USUV). Clade ‘Europe 2’ was identified in four blood donations and a 2018 mosquito pool. The cocirculation of WNV and USUV in Lazio warrants increased laboratory support and awareness of possible virus misidentification.

©  This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Keywords: Arbovirus; Usutu Virus; WNV; Italy.

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