The first 100 days of #SARS-CoV-2 #control in #Vietnam (Clin Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

The first 100 days of SARS-CoV-2 control in Vietnam

Quang Thai Pham, Maia A Rabaa, Huy Luong Duong, Quang Tan Dang, Dai Quang Tran, Ha-Linh Quach, Ngoc-Anh Thi Hoang, Cong Dinh Phung, Duy Nghia Ngu, Anh Tu Tran, Ngoc Quang La, My Phuc Tran, Chau Vinh, Cong Khanh Nguyen, Duc Anh Dang, Nhu Duong Tran, Guy Thwaites, H Rogier van Doorn, Marc Choisy, OUCRU COVID-19 Research Group

Clinical Infectious Diseases, ciaa1130, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1130

Published: 01 August 2020

 

Abstract

Background

One hundred days after SARS-CoV-2 was first reported in Vietnam on January 23rd, 270 cases were confirmed, with no deaths. We describe the control measures used by the Government and their relationship with imported and domestically-acquired case numbers, with the aim of identifying the measures associated with successful SARS-CoV-2 control.

Methods

Clinical and demographic data on the first 270 SARS-CoV-2 infected cases and the timing and nature of Government control measures, including numbers of tests and quarantined individuals, were analysed. Apple and Google mobility data provided proxies for population movement. Serial intervals were calculated from 33 infector-infectee pairs and used to estimate the proportion of pre-symptomatic transmission events and time-varying reproduction numbers.

Results

A national lockdown was implemented between April 1st and 22nd. Around 200 000 people were quarantined and 266 122 RT-PCR tests conducted. Population mobility decreased progressively before lockdown. 60% (163/270) of cases were imported; 43% (89/208) of resolved infections remained asymptomatic for the duration of infection. The serial interval was 3·24 days, and 27·5% (95% confidence interval, 15·7%-40·0%) of transmissions occurred pre-symptomatically. Limited transmission amounted to a maximum reproduction number of 1·15 (95% confidence interval, 0·37-2·36). No community transmission has been detected since April 15th.

Conclusions

Vietnam has controlled SARS-CoV-2 spread through the early introduction of mass communication, meticulous contact-tracing with strict quarantine, and international travel restrictions. The value of these interventions is supported by the high proportion of asymptomatic and imported cases, and evidence for substantial pre-symptomatic transmission.

COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, Vietnam, asymptomatic, epidemic control

Issue Section: Major Article

This content is only available as a PDF.

© The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Vietnam.

——

Genetically and antigenically #divergent #influenza A(#H9N2) viruses exhibit differential #replication and #transmission phenotypes in #mammalian models (J Virol., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Genetically and antigenically divergent influenza A(H9N2) viruses exhibit differential replication and transmission phenotypes in mammalian models

Jessica A Belser, Xiangjie Sun, Nicole Brock, Claudia Pappas, Joanna A Pulit-Penaloza, Hui Zeng, Yunho Jang, Joyce Jones, Paul J Carney, Jessie Chang, Nguyen Van Long, Nguyen Thi Diep, Sharmi Thor, Han Di, Genyan Yang, Peter W Cook, Hannah M Creager, Dayan Wang, Jeffrey McFarland, Pham Van Dong, David E. Wentworth, Terrence M Tumpey, John R Barnes, James Stevens, C. Todd Davis, Taronna R Maines

DOI: 10.1128/JVI.00451-20

 

ABSTRACT

Low pathogenicity avian influenza A(H9N2) viruses, enzootic in poultry populations in Asia, are associated with fewer confirmed human infections but higher rates of seropositivity compared to A(H5) or A(H7) subtype viruses. Co-circulation of A(H5) and A(H7) viruses leads to the generation of reassortant viruses bearing A(H9N2) internal genes with markers of mammalian adaptation, warranting continued surveillance in both avian and human populations. Here, we describe active surveillance efforts in live poultry markets in Vietnam in 2018 and compare representative viruses to G1 and Y280 lineage viruses that have infected humans. Receptor binding properties, pH thresholds for HA activation, in vitro replication in human respiratory tract cells, and in vivo mammalian pathogenicity and transmissibility were investigated. While A(H9N2) viruses from both poultry and humans exhibited features associated with mammalian adaptation, one human isolate from 2018, A/Anhui-Lujiang/39/2018, exhibited increased capacity for replication and transmission, demonstrating the pandemic potential of A(H9N2) viruses.

 

IMPORTANCE

A(H9N2) influenza viruses are widespread in poultry in many parts of the world, and for over twenty years, have sporadically jumped species barriers to cause human infection. As these viruses continue to diversify genetically and antigenically, it is critical to closely monitor viruses responsible for human infections, to ascertain if A(H9N2) viruses are acquiring properties that make them better suited to infect and spread among humans. In this study, we describe an active poultry surveillance system established in Vietnam to identify the scope of influenza viruses present in live bird markets and the threat they pose to human health. Assessment of a recent A(H9N2) virus isolated from an individual in China in 2018 is also reported and was found to exhibit properties of adaptation to humans and, importantly, show similarities to strains isolated from the live bird markets of Vietnam.

Copyright © 2020 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H9N2; Human; Poultry; China; Vietnam.

——

The natural history and #transmission #potential of #asymptomatic #SARS-CoV-2 infection (Clin Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

The natural history and transmission potential of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection

Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, Vo Thanh Lam, Nguyen Thanh Dung, Lam Minh Yen, Ngo Ngoc Quang Minh, Le Manh Hung, Nghiem My Ngoc, Nguyen Tri Dung, Dinh Nguyen Huy Man, Lam Anh Nguyet, Le Thanh Hoang Nhat, Le Nguyen Truc Nhu, Nguyen Thi Han Ny, Nguyen Thi Thu Hong, Evelyne Kestelyn, Nguyen Thi Phuong Dung, Tran Chanh Xuan, Tran Tinh Hien, Nguyen Thanh Phong, Tran Nguyen Hoang Tu, Ronald B Geskus, Tran Tan Thanh, Nguyen Thanh Truong, Nguyen Tan Binh, Tang Chi Thuong, Guy Thwaites, Le Van Tan, OUCRU COVID-19 research group

Clinical Infectious Diseases, ciaa711, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa711

Published: 04 June 2020

 

Abstract

Background

Little is known about the natural history of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection or its contribution to infection transmission.

Methods

We conducted a prospective study at a quarantine center for COVID-19 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. We enrolled quarantined people with RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, collecting clinical data, travel and contact history, and saliva at enrolment and daily nasopharyngeal throat swabs (NTS) for RT-PCR testing. We compared the natural history and transmission potential of asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals.

Results

Between March 10th and April 4th, 2020, 14,000 quarantined people were tested for SARS-CoV-2; 49 were positive. Of these, 30 participated in the study: 13(43%) never had symptoms and 17(57%) were symptomatic. 17(57%) participants acquired their infection outside Vietnam. Compared with symptomatic individuals, asymptomatic people were less likely to have detectable SARS-CoV-2 in NTS samples collected at enrolment (8/13 (62%) vs. 17/17 (100%) P=0.02). SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in 20/27 (74%) available saliva; 7/11 (64%) in the asymptomatic and 13/16 (81%) in the symptomatic group (P=0.56). Analysis of the probability of RT-PCR positivity showed asymptomatic participants had faster viral clearance than symptomatic participants (P<0.001 for difference over first 19 days). This difference was most pronounced during the first week of follow-up. Two of the asymptomatic individuals appeared to transmit the infection to up to four contacts.

Conclusions

Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection is common and can be detected by analysis of saliva or NTS. NTS viral loads fall faster in asymptomatic individuals, but they appear able to transmit the virus to others.

COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, coronaviruses, pandemic, Vietnam

Issue Section: Major Article

This content is only available as a PDF.

© The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Vietnam.

——

#Clinical #features, #isolation, and complete #genome #sequence of SARS-CoV-2 from the first two patients in #Vietnam (J Med Virol., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Medical Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Clinical features, isolation, and complete genome sequence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 from the first two patients in Vietnam

Lan T. Phan,  Thuong V. Nguyen,  Loan K.T. Huynh,  Manh H. Dao,  Tho A.N. Vo,  Nhung H.P. Vu,  Hang T.T. Pham,  Hieu T. Nguyen,  Thuc T. Nguyen,  Hung Q. Le,  Thinh V. Nguyen,  Quan H. Nguyen,  Thao P. Huynh,  Sang N. Nguyen,  Anh H. Nguyen,  Ngoc T. Nguyen,  Thao N.T. Nguyen,  Long T. Nguyen,  Quang C. Luong,  Thang M. Cao,  Quang D. Pham

First published: 28 May 2020 | DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26075

Financial support:: This study was supported by Vietnam’s Ministry of Science and Technology [32/20‐ĐTĐL.CN‐CNN].

This article has been accepted for publication and undergone full peer review but has not been through the copyediting, typesetting, pagination and proofreading process, which may lead to differences between this version and the Version of Record. Please cite this article as doi: 10.1002/jmv.26075

 

Abstract

In January 2020, we identified two SARS‐CoV‐2 infections in a familial cluster with one person coming from Wuhan, China. The complete genome sequences of two SARS‐CoV‐2 strains isolated from these patients were identical and 99.98% similar to strains isolated in Wuhan. This is genetically suggestive of human‐to‐human transmission of SARS‐CoV‐2 and indicates Wuhan as the most plausible origin of the early outbreak in Vietnam. The younger patient with a mild upper respiratory illness and a brief viral shedding, while the elderly with multi‐morbidity had pneumonia, prolonged viral shedding, and residual lung damage. Evidence of nonsynonymous substitutions in the ORF1ab region of the viral sequence warrants further studies.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Vietnam.

——

#COVID19 in #Vietnam: a lesson of pre-preparation (J Clin Virol., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Clinical Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Journal of Clinical Virology | Available online 22 April 2020, 104379 | In Press, Journal Pre-proof | Short communication

COVID-19 in Vietnam: a lesson of pre-preparation

Ha-Linh Quach 1, Ngoc-Anh Hoang Thi

1 Research School of Population Health, Australian National University, Australia

Received 17 April 2020, Accepted 19 April 2020, Available online 22 April 2020.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2020.104379

 

Highlights

  • Slowing the spread of COVID-19 was initially achieved in Vietnam
  • Vietnam’s healthcare system put the precaution of COVID-19 to priority
  • Intensive and expansive contact, overall isolation, and sterilization should be implemented as soon as possible to cope with speading of COVID-19
  • Further measures are expected in light of different progressive scenarios of the disease

 

Abstract

Background

Vietnam was slowing the spread of COVID-19 to 200 cases by the end of March. From perspective of a relatively vulnerable healthcare systems, timely interventions were implemented to different stage of pandemic progress to limit the spread.

Method

The authors compiled literature on different public health measures in Vietnam in compared to the progression of COVID-19 from January to March 2020.

Results

Three stages of pandemic progression of COVID-19 were recorded in Vietnam. At 213 confirmed cases under treatment and isolation, a range of interventions were enforced including intensive and expansive contact, mass testing, isolation, and sterilization. Many were in place before any case were reported.

Conclusion

Preparation were key for Vietnam’s healthcare system in the ever-changing landscape of COVID-19 pandemic.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Vietnam.

—–

#SARS-CoV-2 #Shedding by #Travelers, #Vietnam, 2020 (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 26, Number 7—July 2020 | Research Letter

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Shedding by Travelers, Vietnam, 2020

Thi Quynh Mai Le1, Taichiro Takemura1, Meng Ling Moi, Takeshi Nabeshima, Le Khanh Hang Nguyen, Vu Mai Phuong Hoang, Thi Hong Trang Ung, Thi Thanh Le, Vu Son Nguyen, Hong Quynh Anh Pham, Tran Nhu Duong, Hai Tuan Nguyen, Duy Nghia Ngu, Cong Khanh Nguyen, Kouichi Morita, Futoshi Hasebe  , and Duc Anh Dang

Author affiliations: National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam (T.Q.M. Le, L.K.H. Nguyen, V.M.P. Hoang, T.H.T. Ung, T.T. Le, V.S. Nguyen, H.Q.A. Pham, T.N. Duong, D.A. Dang); World Health Organization Collaborating Center for Reference and Research on Tropical and Emerging Virus Diseases, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan (T. Takemura, M.L. Moi, T. Nabeshima, K. Morita, F. Hasebe)

 

Abstract

We analyzed 2 clusters of 12 patients in Vietnam with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection during January–February 2020. Analysis indicated virus transmission from a traveler from China. One asymptomatic patient demonstrated virus shedding, indicating potential virus transmission in the absence of clinical signs and symptoms.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Vietnam.

—–

The first #infant case of #COVID19 acquired from a secondary #transmission in #Vietnam (Lancet Child Adolescent Health, summary)

[Source: The Lancet Child and Adolescent Health, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

The first infant case of COVID-19 acquired from a secondary transmission in Vietnam

Prof Hai T Le, MD, Lam V Nguyen, MD, Dien M Tran, MD, Hai T Do, MD, Huong T Tran, MD, Yen T Le, MD, Phuc H Phan, MD

Published: March 23, 2020 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(20)30091-2

___

An outbreak of atypical pneumonia, subsequently termed the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has been reported in Wuhan, China since December, 2019, and has become a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.1 Despite the greatly increased number of reported cases, the number of paediatric cases remains small.

(…)

Contributors: HTL and PHP collated the findings. PHP wrote the Case Report. DMT searched the literature and reviewed the manuscript. LVN and HTD were involved in the diagnosis, provided direct medical care, and collected clinical data. HTT and YTL collected epidemiological data. All authors discussed and contributed to the final manuscript. Written consent for publication was obtained from the patient.

Declaration of interests: The authors declare no competing interests.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Vietnam.

—–

#Outbreak #investigation for #COVID19 in northern #Vietnam (Lancet Infect Dis., summary)

[Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Outbreak investigation for COVID-19 in northern Vietnam

Hai Nguyen Thanh, Truong Nguyen Van, Huong Ngo Thi Thu, Binh Nghiem Van, Binh Doan Thanh, Ha Phung Thi Thu, Anh Nguyen Thi Kieu, Nhung Nguyen Viet, Guy B Marks, Greg J Fox, Thu-Anh Nguyen

Published: March 04, 2020 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30159-6

___

Two Vietnamese adults returned to their home province of Vinh Phuc in northern Vietnam on Jan 17, 2020, from Wuhan, China, where they had been living since Nov 15, 2019, for a business trip. They presented with mild respiratory symptoms to their local health facilities at 4 days and 8 days, respectively, after arrival in Vinh Phuc. Both individuals were initially placed into respiratory isolation in hospital. Case 1 tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative organism of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), on Jan 30, 2020, and remained in isolation until recovery. Case 2 was discharged from isolation in hospital after having one negative test result on Jan 28 (11 days after returning from Wuhan). Following discharge, the patient attended a family social function. 2 days later, she was readmitted after a second nasal swab for SARS-CoV-2 taken during her time in hospital was reported as positive.

(…)

___

We declare no competing interests.

Keywords: SARS-COV-2; COVID-19; Vietnam.

——

The first #Vietnamese case of #COVID19 acquired from #China (Lancet Infect Dis., summary)

[Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

The first Vietnamese case of COVID-19 acquired from China

Le Van Cuong, Hoang Thi Nam Giang, Le Khac Linh, Jaffer Shah, Le Van Sy, Trinh Huu Hung, Abdullah Reda, Luong Ngoc Truong, Do Xuan Tien, Nguyen Tien Huy

Published: February 18, 2020 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30111-0

___

An outbreak of a novel coronavirus was reported in Wuhan, China in late December, 2019, and has since become a global health emergency.1,  2 This letter describes the first Vietnamese case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) acquired from China. A 25-year-old Vietnamese woman who had been in Wuhan for a 2-month business trip returned to Vietnam on Jan 17, 2020. In Wuhan, she lived with two Vietnamese colleagues. They did not visit the Huanan market, which was located 20 km away, and cannot recall contact with anyone who had influenza-like symptoms. All three individuals returned to Vietnam on the same flight. On January 23, the patient presented with coughing, sneezing, fever, and chest pain. After an initial visit to a district hospital, she was transferred to Thanh Hoa General Hospital with suspected severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and the Thanh Hoa Provincial Center for Disease Control was informed. Her two colleagues had similar symptoms and were admitted to another hospital, where they tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Individuals who had substantial contact with the patient and her two colleagues were quarantined and all accommodations and transit methods were decontaminated.

(…)

___

Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-COV-2; Vietnam.

—–

#Importation and #H2H #Transmission of a Novel #Coronavirus in #Vietnam (N Engl J Med., summary)

[Source: The New England Journal of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Importation and Human-to-Human Transmission of a Novel Coronavirus in Vietnam

 

TO THE EDITOR:

The emergence and spread of a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) from Wuhan, China, has become a global health concern.1 Since the detection of the coronavirus in late December 2019, several countries have reported sporadic imported cases among travelers returning from China.2 We report one family cluster of 2019-nCoV originating from a Chinese man.

On January 22, 2020, a 65-year-old man with a history of hypertension, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease for which a stent had been implanted, and lung cancer was admitted to the emergency department of Cho Ray Hospital, the referral hospital in Ho Chi Minh City, for low-grade fever and fatigue. He had become ill with fever on January 17, a total of 4 days after he and his wife had flown to Hanoi from the Wuchang district in Wuhan, where outbreaks of 2019-nCoV were occurring. He reported that he had not been exposed to a “wet market”(a market where dead and live animals are sold) in Wuhan.

(…)

___

Lan T. Phan, Ph.D., Thuong V. Nguyen, M.D., Ph.D., Quang C. Luong, M.D., Thinh V. Nguyen, M.D., Hieu T. Nguyen, B.Sc., Pasteur Institute Ho Chi Minh City, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam – nguyenthuong@yahoo.com; Hung Q. Le, M.D., Ph.D., Thuc T. Nguyen, M.D., Cho Ray Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; Thang M. Cao, Pharm.D., Quang D. Pham, M.D., Ph.D., Pasteur Institut Ho Chi Minh City, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Disclosure forms provided by the authors are available with the full text of this letter at NEJM.org.

This letter was published on January 28, 2020, at NEJM.org.

Keywords: 2019-nCoV; Vietnam; China.

—–