#HIV / #SARS‐CoV‐2 co‐infected patients in #Istanbul, #Turkey (J Med Virol., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Medical Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

HIV/SARS‐CoV‐2 co‐infected patients in Istanbul, Turkey

Ozlem Altuntas Aydin,  Hayat Kumbasar Karaosmanoglu,  Kadriye Kart Yasar

First published: 29 April 2020 | DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25955

This article has been accepted for publication and undergone full peer review but has not been through the copyediting, typesetting, pagination and proofreading process, which may lead to differences between this version and the Version of Record. Please cite this article as doi: 10.1002/jmv.25955



In December 2019, the causative agent of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) was identified and named as SARS‐CoV‐2. Since then it has been spreading and severe form of the illness predominantly occurs in adults with advanced age or underlying comorbidities. The European AIDS Clinical Society states the lack of evidence for a higher COVID‐19 infection rate among people living with HIV (PLHIV) and there is a few published literature on the course of COVID‐19 co‐infection in PLHIV. We described four HIV/SARS‐CoV‐2 co‐infected patients with different characteristics. The impression is that comorbidities is an important factor in mortality in HIV/SARS‐CoV‐2 co‐infected cases.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; HIV/AIDS; Turkey.


Molecular characterization of the influenza A #H1N1pdm09 isolates collected in the 2015-2016 season and comparison of #HA mutations detected in #Turkey since 2009 (J Med Virol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Med Virol. 2019 Aug 7. doi: 10.1002/jmv.25565. [Epub ahead of print]

Molecular characterization of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 isolates collected in the 2015-2016 season and comparison of HA mutations detected in Turkey since 2009.

Guldemir D1, Coskun-Ari FF1, Altas AB2, Bakkaloglu Z1, Unaldi O1, Bayraktar F2, Korukluoglu G2, Aktas AR1, Durmaz R3.

Author information: 1 National Molecular Microbiology Reference Laboratory, Public Health General Directorate, Ministry of Health, Ankara, Turkey. 2 National Viral Respiratory Pathogens Reference Laboratory, Public Health General Directorate, Ministry of Health, Ankara, Turkey. 3 Department of Clinical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Yildirim Beyazit University, Ankara, Turkey.



Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic virus causing the 2009 global outbreak moved into the post-pandemic period, but its variants continued to be the prevailing subtype in the 2015-2016 influenza season in Europe and Asia. To determine the molecular characteristics of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 isolates circulating during the 2015-2016 season in Turkey, we identified mutations in the hemagglutinin (HA) genes and investigated the presence of H275Y alteration in the neuraminidase (NA) genes in the randomly selected isolates. The comparison of the HA nucleotide sequences revealed a very high homology (>99,5%) among the studied influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 isolates, while a relatively low homology (96,6%-97,2%) was observed between Turkish isolates and the A/California/07/2009 vaccine virus. Over all 14 common mutations were detected in HA sequences of all 2015-2016 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 isolates with respect to the A/California/07/2009 virus, four of which located in three different antigenic sites. Eleven rare mutations in twelve HA sequences were also detected. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all characterized influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 isolates formed a single genetic cluster, belonging to the genetic subclade 6B.1, defined by HA amino acid substitutions S84N, S162N, and I216T. Furthermore, all isolates showed an oseltamivir-sensitive genotype, suggesting that Tamiflu® (Oseltamivir) could still be the drug of choice in Turkey.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: 2015-2016 influenza season; HA; Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09; NA; Oseltamivir resistance

PMID: 31389035 DOI: 10.1002/jmv.25565

Keywords: Seasonal Influenza; H1N1pdm09; Turkey.


#Arboviral #screening of invasive #Aedes species in northeastern #Turkey: #WNV circulation and detection of insect-only viruses (PLoS Negl Trop Dis., abstract)

[Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]


Arboviral screening of invasive Aedes species in northeastern Turkey: West Nile virus circulation and detection of insect-only viruses

Mustafa M. Akıner, Murat Öztürk, Aykut Buğra Başer, Filiz Günay, Sabri Hacıoğlu, Annika Brinkmann, Nergis Emanet, Bülent Alten, Aykut Özkul, Andreas Nitsche, Yvonne-Marie Linton, Koray Ergünay

Published: May 6, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007334 / This is an uncorrected proof.




The recent reports of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus populations in Turkey, in parallel with the territorial expansion identified in several surrounding countries, have raised concerns about the establishment and re-establishment of these invasive Aedes mosquitoes in Turkey. This cross-sectional study was performed to detect Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus in regions of recent incursions, and screen for viral pathogens known to be transmitted elsewhere by these species.


Mosquitoes were collected at several locations in Artvin, Rize and Trabzon provinces of the Black Sea region during 2016–2017, identified morphologically, pooled and analyzed via generic or specific nucleic acid amplification assays. Viruses in positive pools were identified by product sequencing, cell culture inoculation and next generation sequencing (NGS) in selected specimens.

Principal findings

The study group comprised 791 specimens. Aedes albopictus was the most abundant species in all locations (89.6%), followed by Ae. aegypti (7.8%) and Culex pipiens (2.5%). Mosquitoes were screened for viruses in 65 pools where fifteen (23.1%) were reactive. The infecting strains was identified as West Nile virus (WNV) in 5 pools (7.7%) with Ae. albopictus or Cx. pipiensmosquitoes. The obtained WNV sequences phylogenetically grouped with local and global lineage 1 clade 1a viruses. In 4 (6.2%) and 6 (9.2%) pools, respectively, cell fusing agent virus (CFAV) and Aedes flavivirus (AEFV) sequences were characterized. NGS provided a near-complete AEFV genome in a pool of Ae. albopictus. The strain is provisionally called “AEFV-Turkey”, and functional analysis of the genome revealed several conserved motifs and regions associated with virus replication. Merida-like virus Turkey (MERDLVT), a recently-described novel rhabdovirus, was also co-detected in a Cx. pipiens pool also positive for WNV.


Invasive Aedes mosquitoes are established in certain locations of northeastern Turkey. Herein we conclusively show the role of these species in WNV circulation in the region. Biosurveillance is imperative to monitor the spread of these species further into Asia Minor and to detect possible introduction of pathogens.


Author summary

Mosquitoes can transmit viruses to susceptible humans during blood-feeding. The presence and establishment of particular mosquito species within a region is the prerequisite for the introduction and emergence of the diseases transmitted by that species. Aedes mosquitoes transmit dengue and yellow fever, as well as recently-emergent chikungunya and Zika viruses to susceptible humans. Mosquitoes were collected in the Black Sea region of Anatolia, NE Turkey, where invasive Aedes mosquitoes have recently encroached, and specimens were screened for a variety of viruses. We observed particular Aedes species that are associated with disease transmission, suggesting that these species have been established in the region. We did not detect dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya or Zika viruses, but West Nile virus was found in several pools of these invasive species. Moreover, we detected a number of related viruses that exclusively infect mosquitoes, identified for the first time in Anatolia. Using advanced sequencing technologies, the near-complete genome of a new Aedes flavivirus (AEFV-Turkey) was achieved.


Citation: Akıner MM, Öztürk M, Başer AB, Günay F, Hacıoğlu S, Brinkmann A, et al. (2019) Arboviral screening of invasive Aedes species in northeastern Turkey: West Nile virus circulation and detection of insect-only viruses. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(5): e0007334. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007334

Editor: Pattamaporn Kittayapong, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, THAILAND

Received: January 3, 2019; Accepted: March 26, 2019; Published: May 6, 2019

This is an open access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.

Data Availability: The nucleotide sequences characterized in this study are deposited and can be accessed at the GenBank via the following accession numbers: MF361262, MF361264, MF361265, MF361263, MF361267, MF361268, MK251047, MK251048, MK251049, MK251050, MK251051, MK251052, MK251053, MK251054, MK251055 and MK251056. All remaining data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: This study was supported in part by the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Board, Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSB-GEIS), United States of America (FY18 award P0034_18_WR (PI: Yvonne-Marie Linton) under US Army subcontract W911QY-16-C-0160). BA and FG were also included in AIM-COST. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. The material to be published reflects the views of the authors and should not be construed to represent those of the US Department of the Army or the US Department of Defense.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Flavivirus; Rhabdovirus; Mosquitoes; WNV; Aedes albopictus; Culex spp.; Turkey; Merida-like Turkey virus.


#CCHF in Eastern #Turkey: Epidemiological and #Clinical Evaluation (Turkiye Parazitol Derg., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Turkiye Parazitol Derg. 2019 Mar 28;43(1):26-29. doi: 10.4274/tpd.galenos.2019.6142.

Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Eastern Turkey: Epidemiological and Clinical Evaluation

Sağmak Tartar A1, Balın ŞÖ1, Akbulut A1, Demirdağ K1.

Author information: 1 Fırat Üniversitesi, Tıp Fakültesi Enfeksiyon Hastalıkları ve Klinik Mikrobiyoloji, Elazığ, Türkiye




The present study aimed to evaluate Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) in patients hospitalized in our hospital.


A total of 61 adult patients who were diagnosed as having CCHF between January 2011 and August 2018, in whom the diagnosis was confirmed by detecting virus-specific IgM by ELISA and/or by showing viral RNA by RT-PCR and who were managed at our clinic were evaluated retrospectively for their epidemiological and clinical findings, treatment and prognosis.


Of the 61 cases, 41 (67.2%) were male and 20 (32.8%) female. The mean age of the patients was 45.31±2.12 years. Sixty (98.4%) patients were living in rural area. Forty four patients (72.1 %) had a tick-bite history. According to months, most of the cases were seen in June, July and May, respectively. Fever, weakness and loss of appetite were the most common complaints of the patients. Treatment of ribavirin was started on the day of admission in all patients. One patient who was admitted in the late period died. The other 60 patients were discharged after being healed.


Especially during summers when the disease is seen frequently, the history of tick contact should be questioned and tick should be searched in the examination in the patients with suspected clinical findings. A significant number of the patients do not have a known tick contact. Therefore, training meetings should be organized about the symptoms and findings of the disease in the endemic areas and awareness should be raised among the community and the doctors working in emergency services and primary care.

KEYWORDS: Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever; epidemiology; tick borne disease

PMID: 30938129 DOI: 10.4274/tpd.galenos.2019.6142

Keywords: CCHF; Ribavirin; Turkey.


#Serological Evidence of #Tick-Borne #Encephalitis and #WNV #Infections Among #Children with #Arthritis in #Turkey (Vector Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Serological Evidence of Tick-Borne Encephalitis and West Nile Virus Infections Among Children with Arthritis in Turkey

Huseyin Yilmaz, Kenan Barut, Asiye Karakullukcu, Ozgur Kasapcopur, Bekir Kocazeybek, Eda Altan Tarakci, Utku Y. Cizmecigil, Aysun Yilmaz, Zahide Bilgin, Meltem Ulutas Esatgil, Christine Klaus, Juergen A. Richt, and Nuri Turan

Published Online: 28 Jan 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2018.2349



Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) are mainly transmitted by arthropod vectors to vertebrate hosts including humans, resulting in fever and neurological signs. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of antibodies to TBEV and WNV, and TBEV-RNA and WNV-RNA in Turkish children with fever and/or arthritis. For this purpose, 110 sera and buffy-coat samples were collected; sera were analyzed by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies to TBEV and WNV, and buffy-coat-derived white blood cells were analyzed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR for TBEV-RNA and WNV-RNA. IgM antibodies to TBEV were detected in five children between the ages of 3 and 7 years; no IgG antibodies to TBEV were detected. IgG antibodies to WNV were detected in two children and IgM antibodies to WNV were detected in six children, between the ages of 3 and 7 years. One of the children had IgM antibodies to WNV and to TBEV. Children who had antibodies to TBEV and WNV had fever and/or arthritis but no obvious neurological signs. Molecular diagnostic approaches revealed that neither TBEV-RNA nor WNV-RNA was present in any of the buffy-coat samples, not even in children with IgM-specific antibodies. Our serological results indicate that children in Turkey are exposed to TBEV and WNV.

Keywords: Arbovirus; Tick-borne encephalitis; WNV; Seroprevalence; Arthritis; Turkey.


A #Snapshot #Avian #Surveillance Reveals #WestNile Virus and Evidence of #WildBirds Participating in #Toscana Virus Circulation (Vector Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases

A Snapshot Avian Surveillance Reveals West Nile Virus and Evidence of Wild Birds Participating in Toscana Virus Circulation

To cite this article: Hacioglu Sabri, Dincer Ender, Isler Cafer Tayer, Karapinar Zeynep, Ataseven Veysel Soydal, Ozkul Aykut, and Ergunay Koray. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. August 2017, ahead of print. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2017.2138

Online Ahead of Print: August 23, 2017

Author information: Sabri Hacioglu,1,* Ender Dincer,2,* Cafer Tayer Isler,3 Zeynep Karapinar,4 Veysel Soydal Ataseven,5 Aykut Ozkul,1 and Koray Ergunay6

1Department of Virology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey. 2Advanced Technology Education, Research and Application Center, Mersin University, Mersin, Turkey. 3Department of Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay, Turkey. 4Department of Virology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Yuzuncu Yıl University, Van, Turkey. 5Department of Virology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay, Turkey. 6Virology Unit, Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.

*These authors have contributed equally and share the first authorship.

Address correspondence to: Koray Ergunay, Virology Unit, Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe UniversityMorphology Building 3rd Floor, Sihhiye, Ankara 06100, Turkey, E-mail: ekoray@hacettepe.edu.tr




Birds are involved in the epidemiology of several vector-borne viruses, as amplification hosts for viruses, dissemination vehicles for the vectors, and sources of emerging strains in cross-species transmission. Turkey provides diverse habitats for a variety of wild birds and is located along major bird migration routes. This study was undertaken to provide a cross-sectional screening of avian specimens for a spectrum of vector-borne viruses.

Materials and Methods:

The specimens were collected in Hatay province, in the Mediterranean coast of the Anatolian peninsula, located in the convergence zone of the known migration routes. Generic PCR assays were used for the detection of members of Nairovirus, Flavivirus, and Phlebovirus genera of Flaviviridae and Bunyaviridaefamilies. The circulating viruses were characterized via sequencing and selected specimens were inoculated onto Vero cell lines for virus isolation.

Results and Discussion: 

Specimens from 72 wild birds belonging in 8 orders and 14 species were collected. A total of 158 specimens that comprise 32 sera (20.3%) from 7 species and 126 tissues (79.7%) from 14 species were screened. Eight specimens (8/158, 5%), obtained from 4 individuals (4/72, 5.5%), were positive. West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 1 sequences were characterized in the spleen, heart, and kidney tissues from a lesser spotted eagle (Clanga pomarina), which distinctly clustered from sequences previously identified in Turkey. Toscana virus (TOSV) genotype A and B sequences were identified in brain and kidney tissues from a greater flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus), a great white pelican (Pelecanus onocrotalus), and a black stork (Ciconia nigra), without successful virus isolation. Partial amino acid sequences of the viral nucleocapsid protein revealed previously unreported substitutions. This study documents the involvement of avians in WNV dispersion in Anatolia as well in TOSV life cycle.

Keywords: Wild Birds; WNV; Toscana Virus; Turkey.


Crimean–Congo Hemorrhagic Fever [#CCHF] Virus in #Bulgaria and #Turkey (Vector Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases

Crimean–Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Bulgaria and Turkey

To cite this article: Mertens Marc, Schuster Isolde, Sas Miriam A., Vatansever Zati, Hubalek Zdenek, Güven Esin, Deniz Ahmet, Georgiev Georgi, Peshev Raiko, and Groschup Martin H.. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. July 2016, ahead of print. doi:10.1089/vbz.2016.1944.

Online Ahead of Print: July 28, 2016

Author information: Marc Mertens,1 Isolde Schuster,1 Miriam A. Sas,1 Zati Vatansever,2 Zdenek Hubalek,3 Esin Güven,4 Ahmet Deniz,5 Georgi Georgiev,6 Raiko Peshev,7 and Martin H. Groschup1

1Institute for Novel and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany. 2Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kafkas University, Kars, Turkey. 3Institute of Vertebrate Biology, Academy of Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic. 4Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Atatürk University, Erzurum, Turkey. 5Etlik Veterinary Control Central Research Institute, Ankara, Turkey. 6Risk Assessment Center, Bulgarian Food Safety Agency, Sofia, Bulgaria. 7National Diagnostic Science and Research Veterinary Medical Institute, Bulgarian Food Safety Agency, Sofia, Bulgaria.

Address correspondence to: Martin H. Groschup, Institute for Novel and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Südufer 10, 17493 Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany – E-mail: martin.groschup@fli.bund.de



Infections of humans with the tick-borne Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) can cause a severe hemorrhagic fever with case fatality rates of up to 80%. Most humans are infected by tick bite, crushing infected ticks by hand or by unprotected contact with blood of viremic mammals. Next to the notified human CCHF cases, the real distribution and the situation in animals in Southeastern Europe are nearly unknown. Since domestic ruminants play a crucial role in the life cycle of the vector ticks and the transmission and amplification of the virus, the antibody prevalence in those animals is a good indicator for the presence of CCHFV in a region. Therefore, the prevalence of CCHFV-specific antibodies was investigated in domestic ruminants of different regions of Bulgaria and Turkey. Sera of 1165 ruminants were tested and a prevalence of up to 90% was identified. The overall prevalence for Bulgaria was 26% and for Turkey 57%. The results highlight the risk of human infections in those regions and the importance of the investigation of the prevalence in animals for identification of risk areas. This article provides a unique overview about published CCHFV antibody prevalence in animals in comparison to human incidences in different areas of Bulgaria and Turkey. Although it will help to complete the understanding of the CCHFV situation in these countries, it also demonstrates the lack of unpublished and published data even in these highly endemic areas.

Keywords:  Research; Abstracts; CCHF; Turkey; Bulgaria.


#Canine #Infections and Partial S Segment #Sequence Analysis of #Toscana Virus in #Turkey (Vector Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases

Canine Infections and Partial S Segment Sequence Analysis of Toscana Virus in Turkey

To cite this article: Dincer Ender, Karapinar Zeynep, Oktem Mert, Ozbaba Merve, Ozkul Aykut, and Ergunay Koray. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. July 2016, ahead of print. doi:10.1089/vbz.2016.1979.

Online Ahead of Print: July 11, 2016

Author information: Ender Dincer,1 Zeynep Karapinar,2 Mert Oktem,3 Merve Ozbaba,4 Aykut Ozkul,5 and Koray Ergunay6

1Advanced Technology of Education, Research and Application Center, Mersin University, Mersin, Turkey. 2Department of Virology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Yuzuncu Yıl University, Van, Turkey. 3Department of Biotechnology, Mersin University, Mersin, Turkey. 4Petical Veterinary Hospital, Mersin, Turkey. 5Department of Virology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey. 6Virology Unit, Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.

Address correspondence to: Koray Ergunay, Virology Unit, Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Morphology Building 3rd Floor, Sihhiye, Ankara 06100, Turkey, E-mail: ekoray@hacettepe.edu.tr




Toscana virus (TOSV) is a sandfly-borne bunyavirus with a significant public health impact. Preliminary studies have revealed TOSV exposure in dogs and they were suggested as potential reservoirs. This study was performed to characterize canine TOSV infections in an endemic region. Sequencing of TOSV small (S) segment in several previously identified specimens was also undertaken to reveal viral genealogy.

Materials and Methods:

Canine and feline plasma were collected in several districts of Mersin province, Mediterranean Anatolia, Turkey, during May–September, 2015. Phlebovirus RNA was screened through two nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, targeting S and large (L) segments of the viral genome. A kinetoplast minicircle nested PCR was employed for Leishmania DNA detection and typing. Previously collected TOSV-positive specimens from humans, dogs, cats, and sandflies from various regions in Turkey and Cyprus were further evaluated through the S segment PCR. All amplicons were characterized through sequencing.


A total of 210 specimens that comprise canine (76.2%) and feline (23.8%) plasma were screened. In three (1.9%) and two (1.3%) canine specimens, TOSV and Leishmania nucleic acids were detected, respectively. The TOSV strains were characterized as genotype B, and Leishmania infantum was identified in positive specimens. Twenty-four partial S segment sequences were amplified, which demonstrated a maximum intramural diversity of 3.88% in the nucleotide level. Sequence comparisons revealed significant similarities to particular genotype B strains characterized in Spain and France, whereas a notable divergence was observed among several TOSV strains. Single or recurrent amino acid substitutions were noted in eight residues of the viral nucleocapsid.


Canine infections of TOSV genotype B, with temporal and spatial association with L. infantum, were detected. Divergent TOSV S segment sequences with amino acid substitutions, presumably associated with host adaptation, were observed.

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Toscana Virus; Bunyavirus; Dogs; Turkey.


#Human #Cutaneous #Anthrax, the East #Anatolian #Region of #Turkey 2008–2014 (Vector-Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases

Human Cutaneous Anthrax, the East Anatolian Region of Turkey 2008–2014 [      ]

To cite this article: Parlak Emine and Parlak Mehmet. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. -Not available-, ahead of print. doi:10.1089/vbz.2015.1835.

Online Ahead of Print: December 31, 2015

Author information: Emine Parlak and Mehmet Parlak, Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Atatürk University Faculty of Medicine, Erzurum, Turkey.

Address correspondence to: Emine Parlak, Atatürk University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Atatürk University, School of Medicine, Erzurum, 25400, Turkey – E-mail: eparlak1@yahoo.com



Anthrax is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by Bacillus anthracis. While anthrax is rare in developed countries, it is endemic in Turkey. The names of the different forms of the disease refer to the manner of entry of the spores into the body—cutaneous, gastrointestinal, inhalation, and injection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics, epidemiological history, treatment, and outcomes of patients with anthrax. Eighty-two cases of anthrax hospitalized at Atatürk University Faculty of Medicine Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology in 2008–2014 were examined retrospectively. Gender, age, occupation, year, history, clinical characteristics, character of lesions, length of hospitalization, and outcomes were recorded. Thirty (36.6%) patients were female and 52 (63.4%) patients were male; ages were 18–69 and mean age was 43.77 ± 13.05. The mean incubation period was 4.79 ± 3.76 days. Cases were largely identified in August (41.5%) and September (25.6%). Sixty-nine (84.1%) of the 82 patients had been given antibiotics before presentation. Lesions were most common on the fingers and arms. The most common occupational groups were housewives (36.6%) and people working in animal husbandry (31.7%). All patients had histories of contact with diseased animals and animal products. Penicillin-group antibiotics (78%) were most commonly used in treatment. One patient (1.2%) died from anthrax meningitis. The mean length of hospitalization was 8.30 ± 5.36 days. Anthrax is an endemic disease of economic and social significance for the region. Effective public health control measures, risk group education, vaccination of animals, and decontamination procedures will reduce the number of cases.

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Anthrax; Turkey; Human.


#Merkel says downing of #Russian #plane has complicated #Syria #solution (Channel News Asia, Nov. 25 ‘15)

[Source: Channel News Asia, full page: (LINK).]

Merkel says downing of Russian plane has complicated Syria solution [   !   ]

The shooting down of a Russian warplane by Turkey has complicated the process of finding a political solution in Syria and everything must be done to avoid a further escalation, German Chancellor Angela Merkel said on Wednesday.


Keywords: Germany; Syria; Turkey; Russia; Wars.