#Vertical #transmission of #Zika virus in #Culex quinquefasciatus Say and #Aedes aegypti (L.) #mosquitoes (Sci Rep., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Sci Rep. 2019 Mar 27;9(1):5257. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-41727-8.
Vertical transmission of Zika virus in Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes.

Phumee A1,2, Chompoosri J3, Intayot P4, Boonserm R2, Boonyasuppayakorn S5, Buathong R6, Thavara U3, Tawatsin A3, Joyjinda Y1, Wacharapluesadee S1, Siriyasatien P7.

Author information: 1 Thai Red Cross Emerging Infectious Health Science Centre, Neuroscience Center for Research and Development & WHO-CC for Research and Training on Viral Zoonoses King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 10330, Thailand. 2 Vector Biology and Vector Borne Disease Research Unit, Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 10330, Thailand. 3 National Institute of Health, Department of Medical Sciences, Nonthaburi, 11000, Thailand. 4 Medical Science Program, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 10330, Thailand. 5 Applied Medical Virology Research Unit, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 10330, Thailand. 6 Department of Disease Control, Bureau of Epidemiology, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, 11000, Thailand. 7 Vector Biology and Vector Borne Disease Research Unit, Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 10330, Thailand. padet.s@chula.ac.th.

 

Abstract

Several mosquito species have been described as vectors for the Zika virus (ZIKV), such as those in the Aedes, Anopheles, Mansonia and Culex genera. Our previous survey studies were found the ZIKV RNA positive in both male, female and larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes collected from active ZIKV infected patients’ homes in Thailand. Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate whether ZIKV could be vertically transmitted in Cx. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Laboratory and field colonies of these mosquito species were maintained and artificially fed with ZIKV in human blood. Fully engorged mosquitoes (F0) were selected and reared for the vertical transmission study. The subsequent mosquito generations were fed with human blood without the virus. ZIKV in the mosquitoes was detected by hemi-nested RT-PCR and sequencing. C6/36 cells were used to isolate ZIKV from samples that tested positive by hemi-nested RT-PCR. Moreover, ZIKV was identified by immunocytochemical staining 7 days after infection in several organs of infected F0 females, including the salivary glands, midguts, yoke granules and facet cells of the eye. The localization of the ZIKV antigen was identified by the presence of the specific antibody in the salivary glands, midguts, yoke granules and facet cells. ZIKV was detected in female and male Cx. quinquefasciatus until the F6 and F2 generations, respectively. The isolated virus showed cytopathic effects in C6/36 cells by 5 days postinfection. The results suggested that the vertical transmission of ZIKV occurs in Cx. quinquefasciatus in the laboratory. However, we were able to detect the presence of ZIKV in Ae. aegypti in only the F1 generation in both male and female mosquitoes, and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were not able to vertically transmit the virus at all. Data obtained from this study could be valuable for developing a better understanding of the role of Cx. quinquefasciatus as a potential vector for ZIKV transmission in Thailand and may be useful in creating more effective mosquito vector control strategies in the future.

PMID: 30918310 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-41727-8

Keywords: Zika Virus; Aedes aegypti; Culex quinquefasciatus; Mosquitoes.

——

Advertisements

#Travellers as #sentinels of #chikungunya #epidemics: a #family #cluster among Finnish travellers to Koh Lanta, #Thailand, January 2019 (Euro Surveill., abstract)

[Source: Eurosurveillance, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Travellers as sentinels of chikungunya epidemics: a family cluster among Finnish travellers to Koh Lanta, Thailand, January 2019

Anu Kantele 1

Affiliations: 1 Inflammation Center, Department of Infectious Diseases, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

Correspondence:  Anu Kantele

Citation style for this article: Kantele Anu. Travellers as sentinels of chikungunya epidemics: a family cluster among Finnish travellers to Koh Lanta, Thailand, January 2019. Euro Surveill. 2019;24(11):pii=1900162. https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.11.1900162

Received: 04 Mar 2019;   Accepted: 14 Mar 2019

 

Abstract

In January 2019, five of 11 travellers to Koh Lanta, Thailand, contracted chikungunya, symptoms starting 4 days after presumed transmission. Four cases were hospitalised, one child treated in intensive care; 6 weeks after disease onset, all three adults have persistent arthralgias/arthritis, incapacitating for two. Together with a recent report of eight chikungunya cases among travellers to various destinations in Thailand, the high attack rate in our cluster points to an ongoing outbreak in the country.

© This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Keywords: Chikungunya fever; Finland; Thailand.

——-

#Molecular #Epidemiology and Genetic #Diversity of #Zika Virus from Field-Caught #Mosquitoes in Various Regions of #Thailand (Pathogens, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Pathogens. 2019 Mar 6;8(1). pii: E30. doi: 10.3390/pathogens8010030.

Molecular Epidemiology and Genetic Diversity of Zika Virus from Field-Caught Mosquitoes in Various Regions of Thailand.

Phumee A1,2, Buathong R3, Boonserm R4, Intayot P5, Aungsananta N6, Jittmittraphap A7, Joyjinda Y8, Wacharapluesadee S9, Siriyasatien P10.

Author information: 1 Thai Red Cross Emerging Infectious Diseases-Health Science Centre, World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Research and Training on Viral Zoonoses, Chulalongkorn Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand. amphumee@gmail.com. 2 Vector Biology and Vector Borne Disease Research Unit, Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand. amphumee@gmail.com. 3 Bureau of Epidemiology, Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi 11000, Thailand. romebua@hotmail.com. 4 Vector Biology and Vector Borne Disease Research Unit, Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand. sky_rung123@hotmail.com. 5 Medical Science Program, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand. khunproaw@gmail.com. 6 Public Health Center 22 Wat Pak Bor, Health Department, Bangkok Metropolitan Administration, Bangkok 10250, Thailand. thephonee@gmail.com. 7 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand. akanitt@hotmail.com. 8 Thai Red Cross Emerging Infectious Diseases-Health Science Centre, World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Research and Training on Viral Zoonoses, Chulalongkorn Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand. yutthana.jjd@gmail.com. 9 Thai Red Cross Emerging Infectious Diseases-Health Science Centre, World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Research and Training on Viral Zoonoses, Chulalongkorn Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand. spwa@hotmail.com. 10 Vector Biology and Vector Borne Disease Research Unit, Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand. padet.s@chula.ac.th.

 

Abstract

Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is an emerging and re-emerging arbovirus disease that is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes. ZIKV infections were first described in Thailand in 1954 from the sera of indigenous residents and several travelers returning from Thailand in 2014. However, reported cases in Thailand have been increasing since 2015 and 2016, and epidemiological information about the vectors of ZIKV is unclear. We investigated the molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of ZIKV from mosquitoes collected from different geographic regions experiencing ZIKV outbreaks in Thailand. Polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify the non-structural protein (NS5) gene of ZIKV, which was then sequenced. A total of 1026 mosquito samples (626 females, 367 males, and 33 larvae) were collected from active ZIKV patients’ houses. ZIKV was detected in 79 samples (7.7%), including Aedes aegypti (2.24% female, 1.27% male, and 0.19% larvae), Culex quinquefasciatus (1.85% female, 1.66% male, and 0.29% larvae), and Armigeres subalbatus (0.1% female and 0.1% male), whereas no ZIKV was detected in Aedes albopictus. Phylogenetic analysis of the 79 positive samples were classified into two clades: Those closely related to a previous report in Thailand, and those related to ZIKV found in the Americas. This is the first report of the detection of ZIKV in Ae. aegypti, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and Ar. subalbatus mosquitoes, and genetic variations of ZIKV in the mosquitoes collected from several geographic regions of Thailand were examined. Detection of ZIKV in male and larval mosquitoes suggests that vertical transmission of ZIKV occurred in these mosquito species. This study provides a more in-depth understanding of the patterns and epidemiologic data of ZIKV in Thailand; the data could be used for future development of more effective prevention and control strategies of ZIKV in Thailand.

KEYWORDS: Thailand; Zika virus; genetic diversity; molecular epidemiology; mosquitoes

PMID: 30845707 DOI: 10.3390/pathogens8010030

Keywords: Zika Virus; Moquitoes; Aedes aegypti; Culex quinquefasciatus; Thailand.

——

Increased #risk of #chikungunya #infection in #travellers to #Thailand during ongoing #outbreak in #tourist areas: cases imported to #Europe and the Middle East, early 2019 (Euro Surveill., abstract)

[Source: Eurosurveillance, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Increased risk of chikungunya infection in travellers to Thailand during ongoing outbreak in tourist areas: cases imported to Europe and the Middle East, early 2019

Emilie Javelle1,2,3, Simin-Aysel Florescu4, Hilmir Asgeirsson5,6, Shilan Jmor7, Gilles Eperon8, Eyal Leshem9, Johannes Blum10, Israel Molina11,Vanessa Field7,12, Nancy Pietroski13, Carole Eldin2, Victoria Johnston7, Ioana Ani Cotar14, Corneliu Popescu4, Davidson H Hamer15,16,Philippe Gautret2,3

Affiliations: 1 Laveran Military Teaching Hospital, Marseille, France; 2 IHU-Méditerranée Infection, Marseille, France; 3 Aix Marseille Université, IRD, AP-HM, SSA, VITROME, Marseille, France; 4 Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Clinical Hospital of Infectious and Tropical Diseases ‘Dr. Victor Babes’, Bucharest, Romania; 5 Department of Infectious Diseases, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; 6 Unit of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 7 Hospital for Tropical Diseases, London, United Kingdom; 8 Division of Tropical and Humanitarian Medicine, Department of Primary Care, Geneva University Hospitals (HUG), Geneva, Switzerland; 9 The Center for Travel and Tropical Medicine, Sheba Medical Center and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Israel; 10 FMH Innere Medizin und Tropen- und Reisemedizin, Schweizerisches Tropen- und Public Health Institut, Basel, Switzerland; 11 Department of Infectious Diseases, Hospital Universitari Vall d’Hebron, PROSICS Barcelona, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 12 Chair of the Tracking and Communications Working Group, GeoSentinel, London, United Kingdom. 13 International Society of Travel Medicine, Dunwoody, United States; 14 ‘Cantacuzino’ National Medico-Military Institute for Research and Development, Bucharest, Romania; 15 Department of Global Health, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, United States; 16 Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Boston Medical Center, Boston, United States

Correspondence:  Emilie Javelle

Citation style for this article: Javelle Emilie, Florescu Simin-Aysel, Asgeirsson Hilmir, Jmor Shilan, Eperon Gilles, Leshem Eyal, Blum Johannes, Molina Israel, Field Vanessa,Pietroski Nancy, Eldin Carole, Johnston Victoria, Cotar Ioana Ani, Popescu Corneliu, Hamer Davidson H, Gautret Philippe. Increased risk of chikungunya infection in travellers to Thailand during ongoing outbreak in tourist areas: cases imported to Europe and the Middle East, early 2019. Euro Surveill. 2019;24(10):pii=1900146. https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.10.1900146

Received: 22 Feb 2019;   Accepted: 06 Mar 2019

 

Abstract

We report nine travellers with confirmed chikungunya virus infection, returning from tourist areas of Thailand to Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, Romania, Israel and France, diagnosed in January and February 2019. These sentinel tourists support the intensification of chikungunya virus circulation in Thailand and highlight the potential for importation to areas at risk of local transmission.

©  This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Keywords: Chikungunya fever; European Region; Thailand.

——

#Endemic #Zika virus #transmission: implications for #travellers (Lancet Infect Dis., summary)

[Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Endemic Zika virus transmission: implications for travellers

Margaret A Honein, Martin S Cetron, Dana Meaney-Delman

Published: February 27, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30793-X

 

Summary

In 2016, a Zika virus epidemic swept across the Americas and resulted in the declaration of a Public Health Emergency of International Concern because of the potentially devastating consequences of congenital infection.1, 2 Globally, Zika virus transmission occurs at a much lower level today than in 2016; however, cases have been reported in 2017 and 2018 in Africa and India, and serological studies suggest nearly 10% of children younger than 5 years in Indonesia have evidence of Zika virus infection.3, 4, 5

(…)

___

We declare no competing interests. The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Keywords: Zika Virus; Thailand; Travel Warnings.

—–

Long-term #circulation of #Zika virus in #Thailand: an observational study (Lancet Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Long-term circulation of Zika virus in Thailand: an observational study

Kriangsak Ruchusatsawat, PhD, Pattara Wongjaroen, MSc, Arisara Posanacharoen, BSc, Isabel Rodriguez-Barraquer, PhD, Somchai Sangkitporn, MD, Derek A T Cummings, PhD, Henrik Salje, PhD

Published: February 27, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30718-7

 

Summary

Background

Little is known about the historical and current risk of Zika virus infection in southeast Asia, where the mosquito vector is widespread and other arboviruses circulate endemically. Centralised Zika virus surveillance began in Thailand in January, 2016. We assessed the long-term circulation of Zika virus in Thailand.

Methods

In this observational study, we analysed data from individuals with suspected Zika virus infection who presented at hospitals throughout the country and had biological samples (serum, plasma, or urine) tested for confirmation with PCR at the National Institute of Health laboratories in Bangkok. We analysed the spatial and age distribution of cases, and constructed time-resolved phylogenetic trees using genomes from Thailand and elsewhere to estimate when Zika virus was first introduced.

Findings

Of the 3089 samples from 1717 symptomatic individuals tested between January, 2016, and December, 2017, 368 were confirmed to have Zika virus infection. Cases of Zika virus infection were reported throughout the year, and from 29 of the 76 Thai provinces. Individuals had 2·8 times (95% CI 2·3–3·6) the odds of testing positive for Zika virus infection if they came from the same district and were sick within the same year of a person with a confirmed infection relative to the odds of testing positive anywhere, consistent with focal transmission. The probability of cases being younger than 10 years was 0·99 times (0·72–1·30) the probability of being that age in the underlying population. This probability rose to 1·62 (1·33–1·92) among those aged 21–30 years and fell to 0·53 (0·40–0·66) for those older than 50 years. This age distribution is consistent with that observed in the Zika virus epidemic in Colombia. Phylogenetic reconstructions suggest persistent circulation within Thailand since at least 2002.

Interpretation

Our evidence shows that Zika virus has circulated at a low but sustained level for at least 16 years, suggesting that Zika virus can adapt to persistent endemic transmission. Health systems need to adapt to cope with regular occurrences of the severe complications associated with infection.

Funding

European Research Council, National Science Foundation, and National Institutes of Health.

Keywords: Zika Virus; Thailand.

—–

#Evidence of H1N1pdm09 #influenza exposure in #dogs and #cats, #Thailand: A serological survey (Zoonoses Public Health, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Zoonoses Public Health. 2018 Dec 14. doi: 10.1111/zph.12551. [Epub ahead of print]

Evidence of pandemic H1N1 influenza exposure in dogs and cats, Thailand: A serological survey.

Tangwangvivat R1,2, Chanvatik S1,2, Charoenkul K1,2, Chaiyawong S1,2, Janethanakit T1,2, Tuanudom R1,3, Prakairungnamthip D1,3, Boonyapisitsopa S1,2, Bunpapong N1,2, Amonsin A1,2.

Author information: 1 Center of Excellences for Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases in Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand. 2 Department of Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand. 3 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

 

Abstract

Influenza A virus causes respiratory disease in both humans and animals. In this study, a survey of influenza A antibodies in domestic dogs and cats was conducted in 47 animal shelters in 19 provinces of Thailand from September 2011 to September 2014. One thousand and eleven serum samples were collected from 932 dogs and 79 cats. Serum samples were tested for influenza A antibodies using a multi-species competitive NP-ELISA and haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. The NP-ELISA results showed that 0.97% (9/932) of dogs were positive, but all cat samples were negative. The HI test against pandemic H1N1, human H3N2 and canine H3N2 showed that 0.64% (6/932) and 1.20% (1/79) of dogs and cats were positive, respectively. It is noted that all six serum samples (5 dogs and 1 cat) had antibodies against pandemic H1N1. In summary, a serological survey revealed the evidence of pandemic H1N1 influenza exposure in both dogs and cats in the shelters in Thailand.

KEYWORDS: Thailand; canine; influenza; serology

PMID: 30552750 DOI: 10.1111/zph.12551

Keywords: Influenza A; H1N1pdm09; Seroprevalence; Dogs; Cats; Thailand.

——