#MRSA in #swine, #farmers and #abattoir #workers in Southern #Italy (Food Microbiol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Food Microbiol. 2019 Sep;82:287-293. doi: 10.1016/j.fm.2019.03.003. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

MRSA in swine, farmers and abattoir workers in Southern Italy.

Parisi A1, Caruso M1, Normanno G2, Latorre L1, Miccolupo A1, Fraccalvieri R1, Intini F3, Manginelli T3, Santagada G1.

Author information: 1 Experimental Zooprophylactic Institute of Apulia and Basilicata, Via Manfredonia 20, 71121, Foggia, Italy. 2 Department of Science of Agriculture, Food and the Environment (SAFE), Via Napoli 25, University of Foggia, 7121, Foggia, Italy. Electronic address: giovanni.normanno@unifg.it. 3 Azienda Sanitaria Locale Bari, Lungomare Starita 6, 70123, Bari, Italy.

 

Abstract

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important medical issue, since it causes serious and sometimes fatal infections in humans. Intensively reared swine may serve as reservoirs for MRSA that can infect swine workers, and also consumers (via contaminated meat). In this study, MRSA strains were isolated from 55 of the 85 (64.7%) intensive pig farms surveyed, and prevalence was greater on pig fattening farms than on breeding farms. In addition, we included in the study 63 foreign pigs imported for slaughter. Overall, the prevalence of MRSA in the 418 sampled swine was 59.1%; 12 genotypes were identified among the isolates; ST398 (96.4%) was most prevalent, followed by ST97 (2%), ST9 (0.8%) and ST1 (0.8%). MRSA isolates were also detected in 26 (17.3%) of the 150 operators included in the study; the genotypes detected were ST398 (85%), ST9 (7.6%), ST5 (3.8%) and ST1 (3.8%). All the strains were pvl negative and pia positive. Both swine and human strains displayed a multi-resistance pattern, and almost all were resistant to tetracycline. The results obtained in this study confirm the high prevalence of MRSA in swine reared and slaughtered in Italy, and underline the public health risk linked to the spread of antimicrobial-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among intensively reared pigs.

Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Antimicrobial resistance; Food safety; MRSA; Professional risk; Public health; Swine

PMID: 31027785 DOI: 10.1016/j.fm.2019.03.003 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Tetracycline; MRSA; Staphylococcus aureus; Italy; Apulia; Pigs; Human.

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A novel small tet(T)–tet(L)–aadD-carrying #plasmid from #MRSA and #MSSA ST9 isolates of #swine origin (J Antimicrob Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

A novel small tet(T)–tet(L)–aadD-carrying plasmid from MRSA and MSSA ST9 isolates of swine origin

Nansong Jiang, Jun Li, Andrea T Feßler, Yang Wang, Stefan Schwarz, Congming Wu

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, dkz177, https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz177

Published: 03 May 2019

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Sir,

Staphylococcus aureus, especially methicillin-resistant isolates, are major pathogens of humans and animals.1 Plasmids play a key role in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance genes within the gene pool to which staphylococci and other Firmicutes have access.2 Tetracycline is one of the most commonly used antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine and food animal production. The tetracycline resistance gene tet(L) was often identified on plasmids of S. aureus, particularly among those of livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) of ST398.3 In contrast, the tetracycline resistance gene tet(T) has only been reported in a few streptococcal and enterococcal strains.4 As…

(…)

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© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model)

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Staphylococcus aureus; MRSA; Tetracycline; Pigs.

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Comparing #Antimicrobial Susceptibilities among #Mycoplasma pneumoniae Isolated from #Pediatric Patients in #Japan between Two Recent #Epidemic Periods (Antimicrob Agents Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Comparing Antimicrobial Susceptibilities among Mycoplasma pneumoniaeIsolated from Pediatric Patients in Japan between Two Recent Epidemic Periods

Tomohiro Oishi, Kento Takahashi, Shoko Wakabayashi, Yoshitaka Nakamura, Sahoko Ono, Mina Kono, Atsushi Kato, Aki Saito, Eisuke Kondo, Yuhei Tanaka, Hideto Teranishi, Hiroto Akaike,Takaaki Tanaka, Ippei Miyata, Satoko Ogita, Naoki Ohno, Takashi Nakano, Kazunobu Ouchi

DOI: 10.1128/AAC.02517-18

 

ABSTRACT

We compared the antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma pneumoniae isolated from pediatric patients in Japan in 2011–2012 and 2015–2016 when epidemics occurred. The antimicrobial activity of macrolides and tetracyclines against M. pneumoniae tended to be restored in 2015–2016. There was no change in the antimicrobial activity of quinolones against M. pneumoniae.

Copyright © 2019 Oishi et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Quinolones; Macrolides; Tetracyclines; Mycoplasma pneumoniae; Japan.

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The first #isolation of #Clostridium difficile RT078/ST11 from #pigs in #China (PLoS One, abstract)

[Source: PLoS One, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

The first isolation of Clostridium difficile RT078/ST11 from pigs in China

Li-Juan Zhang, Ling Yang, Xi-Xi Gu, Pin-Xian Chen, Jia-Li Fu, Hong-Xia Jiang

Published: February 26, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0212965

 

Abstract

We investigated the molecular characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium difficile isolated from animals in China. We obtained 538 rectal swabs from pigs, chickens and ducks in 5 provinces during 2015 and 2016. C. difficile isolates were characterized by detection of toxin genes, multilocus sequence typing and ribotyping. And antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the agar dilution method. Out of 538 samples, 44 (8.2%) were C. difficile positive with high prevalence in pigs (n = 31). Among these, 39 (88.6%) were toxigenic including 14 (31.8%) that were A+B+CDT+ and 13 (29.5%) A+B+. The remaining 12 (27.3%) were A-B+. We identified 7 ST types and 6 PCR ribotypes. The most predominant type was ST11/RT078 with toxin profile A+B+CDT+ and all were isolated from piglets with diarrhea. ST109 isolates possessed two different toxigenic profiles (A-B-CDT- and A-B+CDT-) and although it was not the most prevalent sequence type, but it was widely distributed between chickens, ducks and pigs in the 5 provinces. All C. difficile isolates were fully susceptible to vancomycin, metronidazole, fidaxomicin, amoxicillin/clavulanate and meropenem but retained resistance to 4 or 5 of the remaining antibiotics, especially cefotaxime, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, cefoxitin. The RT078/ST11 isolates were simultaneously resistant to cefotaxime, tetracycline, cefoxitin, ciprofloxacin and imipenem. This is the first report of the molecular epidemiology of C. difficile isolated from food animals in China. We identified the epidemic strain RT078/ST11 as the predominate isolate among the animals we screened in our study.

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Citation: Zhang L-J, Yang L, Gu X-X, Chen P-X, Fu J-L, Jiang H-X (2019) The first isolation of Clostridium difficile RT078/ST11 from pigs in China. PLoS ONE 14(2): e0212965. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0212965

Editor: Pradeep Dudeja, University of Illinois at Chicago, UNITED STATES

Received: November 2, 2018; Accepted: February 12, 2019; Published: February 26, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Zhang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper.

Funding: This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31272602) (H-XJ) and Graduate Student Oversea Study Program of South China Agriculture University (2017LHPY029) (LY). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Clostridium difficile; Pigs; China.

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The #antimicrobial #resistome in relation to antimicrobial use and #biosecurity in #pig #farming, a metagenome-wide association study in nine #European countries (J Antimicrob Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

The antimicrobial resistome in relation to antimicrobial use and biosecurity in pig farming, a metagenome-wide association study in nine European countries

Liese Van Gompel, Roosmarijn E C Luiken, Steven Sarrazin, Patrick Munk, Berith E Knudsen, Rasmus B Hansen, Alex Bossers, Frank M Aarestrup, Jeroen Dewulf, Jaap A Wagenaar, Dik J Mevius, Heike Schmitt, Dick J J Heederik, Alejandro Dorado-García, Lidwien A M Smit, EFFORT consortium

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, dky518, https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dky518

Published: 14 January 2019

 

Abstract

Objectives

Previous studies in food-producing animals have shown associations between antimicrobial use (AMU) and resistance (AMR) in specifically isolated bacterial species. Multi-country data are scarce and only describe between-country differences. Here we investigate associations between the pig faecal mobile resistome and characteristics at the farm-level across Europe.

Methods

A cross-sectional study was conducted among 176 conventional pig farms from nine European countries. Twenty-five faecal samples from fattening pigs were pooled per farm and acquired resistomes were determined using shotgun metagenomics and the Resfinder reference database, i.e. the full collection of horizontally acquired AMR genes (ARGs). Normalized fragments resistance genes per kilobase reference per million bacterial fragments (FPKM) were calculated. Specific farm-level data (AMU, biosecurity) were collected. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed by country, relating farm-level data to relative ARG abundances (FPKM).

Results

Total AMU during fattening was positively associated with total ARG (total FPKM). Positive associations were particularly observed between widely used macrolides and tetracyclines, and ARGs corresponding to the respective antimicrobial classes. Significant AMU-ARG associations were not found for β-lactams and only few colistin ARGs were found, despite high use of these antimicrobial classes in younger pigs. Increased internal biosecurity was directly related to higher abundances of ARGs mainly encoding macrolide resistance. These effects of biosecurity were independent of AMU in mutually adjusted models.

Conclusions

Using resistome data in association studies is unprecedented and adds accuracy and new insights to previously observed AMU-AMR associations. Major components of the pig resistome are positively and independently associated with on-farm AMU and biosecurity conditions.

Issue Section: ORIGINAL RESEARCH

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model)

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Macrolides; Colistin; Tetracyclines; Pigs; European Region.

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#Phylogenomics of #colistin-susceptible and resistant #XDR #Acinetobacter baumannii (J Antimicrob Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Phylogenomics of colistin-susceptible and resistant XDR Acinetobacter baumannii

Mustapha M Mustapha, Bin Li, Marissa P Pacey, Roberta T Mettus, Christi L McElheny, Christopher W Marshall, Robert K Ernst, Vaughn S Cooper, Yohei Doi

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, dky290, https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dky290

Published: 14 August 2018

 

Abstract

Background

Acinetobacter baumannii is a healthcare-associated pathogen with high rates of carbapenem resistance. Colistin is now routinely used for treatment of infections by this pathogen. However, colistin use has been associated with development of resistance to this agent.

Objectives

To elucidate the phylogenomics of colistin-susceptible and -resistant A. baumannii strain pairs from a cohort of hospitalized patients at a tertiary medical centre in the USA.

Methods

WGS data from 21 pairs of colistin-susceptible and -resistant, XDR clinical strains were obtained and compared using phylogeny of aligned genome sequences, assessment of pairwise SNP differences and gene content.

Results

Fourteen patients had colistin-resistant strains that were highly genetically related to their own original susceptible strain with a median pairwise SNP distance of 5.5 (range 1–40 SNPs), while seven other strain pairs were divergent with ≥84 SNP differences. In addition, several strains from different patients formed distinct clusters on the phylogeny in keeping with closely linked transmission chains. The majority of colistin-resistant strains contained non-synonymous mutations within the pmrAB locus suggesting a central role for pmrAB mutations in colistin resistance. Excellent genotype–phenotype correlation was also observed for carbapenems, aminoglycosides and tetracyclines.

Conclusions

The findings suggest that colistin resistance in the clinical setting arises through both in vivo evolution from colistin-susceptible strains and reinfection by unrelated colistin-resistant strains, the latter of which may involve patient-to-patient transmission.

Issue Section: ORIGINAL RESEARCH

© The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/about_us/legal/notices)

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Colistin; Acinetobacter baumannii; Carbapenem; Aminoglycosides; Tetracyclines.

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#Tetracycline and #fluoroquinolone #resistance in clinical #Ureaplasma spp. and #Mycoplasma hominis isolates in #France between 2010 and 2015 (J Antimicrob Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Tetracycline and fluoroquinolone resistance in clinical Ureaplasma spp. and Mycoplasma hominis isolates in France between 2010 and 2015

A Meygret, C Le Roy, H Renaudin, C Bébéar, S Pereyre

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, dky238, https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dky238

Published: 06 July 2018

 

Abstract

Objectives

As information on Ureaplasma spp. and Mycoplasma hominis resistance is currently limited, the aim of this study was to investigate the susceptibility of Ureaplasma spp. and M. hominis to tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones in France.

Methods

The susceptibility of 1014 clinical isolates obtained in Bordeaux University Hospital (Bordeaux, France) between 2010 and 2015 was evaluated using two commercial kits, S.I.R. Mycoplasma (Bio-Rad) from 1 January 2010 to 5 October 2012 and MYCOFAST RevolutioN kit (ELITech Group) from 6 October 2012 to 31 December 2015. The MICs of isolates designated as resistant were determined using the broth microdilution assay. Additionally, the tet(M) gene and fluoroquinolone resistance-associated mutations were identified.

Results

Among 831 Ureaplasma spp. isolates, the tetracycline, levofloxacin and moxifloxacin resistance rates were 7.5%, 1.2% and 0.1%, respectively. Among 183 M. hominis isolates, the resistance rates were 14.8%, 2.7% and 1.6% for tetracycline, levofloxacin and moxifloxacin, respectively. Over the 6 year period, no significant change in resistance to tetracycline or fluoroquinolones was observed. The tet(M) gene was found in all tetracycline-resistant isolates. All levofloxacin-resistant isolates harboured a mutation in the parC or parEgenes. Isolates that were also resistant to moxifloxacin harboured an additional mutation in the gyrA gene. The MYCOFAST RevolutioN kit significantly overestimated levofloxacin and moxifloxacin resistance in Ureaplasma spp. isolates.

Conclusions

Resistance to tetracycline and fluoroquinolones is limited in France in mycoplasmas but compared with a previous report in 1999–2002, a significant increase in tetracycline resistance among Ureaplasma spp. was observed. Ongoing monitoring of the antibiotic susceptibility of these urogenital mycoplasmas remains necessary.

Issue Section: ORIGINAL RESEARCH

© The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/about_us/legal/notices)

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Fluoroquinolones; Tetracycline; Ureaplasma spp.; Mycoplasma hominis.

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