#Antibiotic use in #mandarin #production (Citrus reticulata Blanco) in major mandarin-producing areas in #Thailand: A survey assessment (PLOS One, abstract)

[Source: PLOS One, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Antibiotic use in mandarin production (Citrus reticulata Blanco) in major mandarin-producing areas in Thailand: A survey assessment

Sunicha Chanvatik , Siriporn Donnua , Angkana Lekagul , Wanwisa Kaewkhankhaeng , Vuthiphan Vongmongkol , Pornpimon Athipunyakom , Saenchai Khamlar , Maitree Prommintara , Viroj Tangcharoensathien

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Published: November 13, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0225172

 

Abstract

Background

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR), one of the major global threats to human security, has serious negative consequences for both health and economies. Excessive and inappropriate uses of antibiotics are the main drivers of the emergence of resistant bacterial strains. In Thailand, antibiotics have been used in citrus production since 2012 to treat citrus greening disease or Huanglongbing disease, despite no antibiotics being registered for use in mandarin. This raises concerns about irrational use of antibiotics, which can cause AMR.

Objective

To assess the status of greening disease and the use of antibiotics in mandarin production.

Method

A face-to-face interview survey in 2017 with 221 mandarin growers in two major mandarin-producing areas.

Findings

Greening disease is one of the most serious diseases in mandarins and farmers in the two major mandarin-producing areas in Thailand used ampicillin, amoxicillin, tetracycline and penicillin to treat it. As no antibiotics are registered for use in plants, farmers used antibiotics (registered with the Thai Food and Drug Administration) for human use, either active pharmaceutical ingredients or finished products. They commonly purchased them from retail pharmacies or agrochemical suppliers. Farmers were influenced to use antibiotics by their orchard neighbours and advice from a few academics. The farmers injected antibiotics into the tree trunks approximately three to four times a year and stopped for more than two months before harvesting for in-season fruits.

Conclusion

Antibiotics registered for human use are being applied to control greening diseases. We recommend scaling up sustainable disease control measures and curtail the use of antibiotics through close and effective dialogue among ‘One Health’ partners.

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Citation: Chanvatik S, Donnua S, Lekagul A, Kaewkhankhaeng W, Vongmongkol V, Athipunyakom P, et al. (2019) Antibiotic use in mandarin production (Citrus reticulata Blanco) in major mandarin-producing areas in Thailand: A survey assessment. PLoS ONE 14(11): e0225172. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0225172

Editor: Richard Mankin, US Department of Agriculture, UNITED STATES

Received: July 9, 2019; Accepted: October 30, 2019; Published: November 13, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Chanvatik et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: This study was supported by funding from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (Grant number: LOA/RAP/2017/17). The funder had no role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of this manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Amoxicillin; Tetracyclines; Ampicillin; Penicillin; Plant diseases; Thailand.

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#Genomic Analysis of #Fluoroquinolone- and #Tetracycline-Resistant #Campylobacter jejuni Sequence Type 6964 in #Humans and #Poultry, #NZ, 2014–16 (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 12—December 2019 / Research

Genomic Analysis of Fluoroquinolone- and Tetracycline-Resistant Campylobacter jejuni Sequence Type 6964 in Humans and Poultry, New Zealand, 2014–2016

Nigel P. French  , Ji Zhang, Glen P. Carter, Anne C. Midwinter, Patrick J. Biggs, Kristin Dyet, Brent J. Gilpin, Danielle J. Ingle, Kerry Mulqueen, Lynn E. Rogers, David A. Wilkinson, Sabrina S. Greening, Petra Muellner, Ahmed Fayaz, and Deborah A. Williamson

Author affiliations: Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand (N.P. French, J. Zhang, A.C. Midwinter, P.J. Biggs, L.E. Rogers, D.A. Wilkinson, S.S. Greening, A. Fayaz); New Zealand Food Safety Science and Research Centre, Palmerston North (N.P. French, D.A. Wilkinson); The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia (G.P. Carter, D.J. Ingle, D.A. Williamson); Institute of Environmental Science and Research Limited, Christchurch, New Zealand (K. Dyet, B.J. Gilpin); Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia (D.J. Ingle); Poultry Industry Association of New Zealand, Auckland, New Zealand (K. Mulqueen); EPI-interactive, Wellington, New Zealand (P. Muellner)

 

Abstract

In 2014, antimicrobial drug–resistant Campylobacter jejuni sequence type 6964 emerged contemporaneously in poultry from 3 supply companies on the North Island of New Zealand and as a major cause of campylobacteriosis in humans in New Zealand. This lineage, not previously identified in New Zealand, was resistant to tetracycline and fluoroquinolones. Genomic analysis revealed divergence into 2 major clades; both clades were associated with human infection, 1 with poultry companies A and B and the other with company C. Accessory genome evolution was associated with a plasmid, phage insertions, and natural transformation. We hypothesize that the tetO gene and a phage were inserted into the chromosome after conjugation, leaving a remnant plasmid that was lost from isolates from company C. The emergence and rapid spread of a resistant clone of C. jejuni in New Zealand coupled with evolutionary change in the accessory genome demonstrate the need for ongoing Campylobacter surveillance among poultry and humans.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Tetracyclines; Fluoroquinolones; Campylobacter jejuni; Human; Poultry; New Zealand.

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#MRSA in #swine, #farmers and #abattoir #workers in Southern #Italy (Food Microbiol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Food Microbiol. 2019 Sep;82:287-293. doi: 10.1016/j.fm.2019.03.003. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

MRSA in swine, farmers and abattoir workers in Southern Italy.

Parisi A1, Caruso M1, Normanno G2, Latorre L1, Miccolupo A1, Fraccalvieri R1, Intini F3, Manginelli T3, Santagada G1.

Author information: 1 Experimental Zooprophylactic Institute of Apulia and Basilicata, Via Manfredonia 20, 71121, Foggia, Italy. 2 Department of Science of Agriculture, Food and the Environment (SAFE), Via Napoli 25, University of Foggia, 7121, Foggia, Italy. Electronic address: giovanni.normanno@unifg.it. 3 Azienda Sanitaria Locale Bari, Lungomare Starita 6, 70123, Bari, Italy.

 

Abstract

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important medical issue, since it causes serious and sometimes fatal infections in humans. Intensively reared swine may serve as reservoirs for MRSA that can infect swine workers, and also consumers (via contaminated meat). In this study, MRSA strains were isolated from 55 of the 85 (64.7%) intensive pig farms surveyed, and prevalence was greater on pig fattening farms than on breeding farms. In addition, we included in the study 63 foreign pigs imported for slaughter. Overall, the prevalence of MRSA in the 418 sampled swine was 59.1%; 12 genotypes were identified among the isolates; ST398 (96.4%) was most prevalent, followed by ST97 (2%), ST9 (0.8%) and ST1 (0.8%). MRSA isolates were also detected in 26 (17.3%) of the 150 operators included in the study; the genotypes detected were ST398 (85%), ST9 (7.6%), ST5 (3.8%) and ST1 (3.8%). All the strains were pvl negative and pia positive. Both swine and human strains displayed a multi-resistance pattern, and almost all were resistant to tetracycline. The results obtained in this study confirm the high prevalence of MRSA in swine reared and slaughtered in Italy, and underline the public health risk linked to the spread of antimicrobial-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among intensively reared pigs.

Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Antimicrobial resistance; Food safety; MRSA; Professional risk; Public health; Swine

PMID: 31027785 DOI: 10.1016/j.fm.2019.03.003 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Tetracycline; MRSA; Staphylococcus aureus; Italy; Apulia; Pigs; Human.

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A novel small tet(T)–tet(L)–aadD-carrying #plasmid from #MRSA and #MSSA ST9 isolates of #swine origin (J Antimicrob Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

A novel small tet(T)–tet(L)–aadD-carrying plasmid from MRSA and MSSA ST9 isolates of swine origin

Nansong Jiang, Jun Li, Andrea T Feßler, Yang Wang, Stefan Schwarz, Congming Wu

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, dkz177, https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz177

Published: 03 May 2019

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Sir,

Staphylococcus aureus, especially methicillin-resistant isolates, are major pathogens of humans and animals.1 Plasmids play a key role in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance genes within the gene pool to which staphylococci and other Firmicutes have access.2 Tetracycline is one of the most commonly used antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine and food animal production. The tetracycline resistance gene tet(L) was often identified on plasmids of S. aureus, particularly among those of livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) of ST398.3 In contrast, the tetracycline resistance gene tet(T) has only been reported in a few streptococcal and enterococcal strains.4 As…

(…)

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© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model)

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Staphylococcus aureus; MRSA; Tetracycline; Pigs.

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Comparing #Antimicrobial Susceptibilities among #Mycoplasma pneumoniae Isolated from #Pediatric Patients in #Japan between Two Recent #Epidemic Periods (Antimicrob Agents Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Comparing Antimicrobial Susceptibilities among Mycoplasma pneumoniaeIsolated from Pediatric Patients in Japan between Two Recent Epidemic Periods

Tomohiro Oishi, Kento Takahashi, Shoko Wakabayashi, Yoshitaka Nakamura, Sahoko Ono, Mina Kono, Atsushi Kato, Aki Saito, Eisuke Kondo, Yuhei Tanaka, Hideto Teranishi, Hiroto Akaike,Takaaki Tanaka, Ippei Miyata, Satoko Ogita, Naoki Ohno, Takashi Nakano, Kazunobu Ouchi

DOI: 10.1128/AAC.02517-18

 

ABSTRACT

We compared the antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma pneumoniae isolated from pediatric patients in Japan in 2011–2012 and 2015–2016 when epidemics occurred. The antimicrobial activity of macrolides and tetracyclines against M. pneumoniae tended to be restored in 2015–2016. There was no change in the antimicrobial activity of quinolones against M. pneumoniae.

Copyright © 2019 Oishi et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Quinolones; Macrolides; Tetracyclines; Mycoplasma pneumoniae; Japan.

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The first #isolation of #Clostridium difficile RT078/ST11 from #pigs in #China (PLoS One, abstract)

[Source: PLoS One, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

The first isolation of Clostridium difficile RT078/ST11 from pigs in China

Li-Juan Zhang, Ling Yang, Xi-Xi Gu, Pin-Xian Chen, Jia-Li Fu, Hong-Xia Jiang

Published: February 26, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0212965

 

Abstract

We investigated the molecular characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium difficile isolated from animals in China. We obtained 538 rectal swabs from pigs, chickens and ducks in 5 provinces during 2015 and 2016. C. difficile isolates were characterized by detection of toxin genes, multilocus sequence typing and ribotyping. And antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the agar dilution method. Out of 538 samples, 44 (8.2%) were C. difficile positive with high prevalence in pigs (n = 31). Among these, 39 (88.6%) were toxigenic including 14 (31.8%) that were A+B+CDT+ and 13 (29.5%) A+B+. The remaining 12 (27.3%) were A-B+. We identified 7 ST types and 6 PCR ribotypes. The most predominant type was ST11/RT078 with toxin profile A+B+CDT+ and all were isolated from piglets with diarrhea. ST109 isolates possessed two different toxigenic profiles (A-B-CDT- and A-B+CDT-) and although it was not the most prevalent sequence type, but it was widely distributed between chickens, ducks and pigs in the 5 provinces. All C. difficile isolates were fully susceptible to vancomycin, metronidazole, fidaxomicin, amoxicillin/clavulanate and meropenem but retained resistance to 4 or 5 of the remaining antibiotics, especially cefotaxime, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, cefoxitin. The RT078/ST11 isolates were simultaneously resistant to cefotaxime, tetracycline, cefoxitin, ciprofloxacin and imipenem. This is the first report of the molecular epidemiology of C. difficile isolated from food animals in China. We identified the epidemic strain RT078/ST11 as the predominate isolate among the animals we screened in our study.

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Citation: Zhang L-J, Yang L, Gu X-X, Chen P-X, Fu J-L, Jiang H-X (2019) The first isolation of Clostridium difficile RT078/ST11 from pigs in China. PLoS ONE 14(2): e0212965. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0212965

Editor: Pradeep Dudeja, University of Illinois at Chicago, UNITED STATES

Received: November 2, 2018; Accepted: February 12, 2019; Published: February 26, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Zhang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper.

Funding: This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31272602) (H-XJ) and Graduate Student Oversea Study Program of South China Agriculture University (2017LHPY029) (LY). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Clostridium difficile; Pigs; China.

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The #antimicrobial #resistome in relation to antimicrobial use and #biosecurity in #pig #farming, a metagenome-wide association study in nine #European countries (J Antimicrob Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

The antimicrobial resistome in relation to antimicrobial use and biosecurity in pig farming, a metagenome-wide association study in nine European countries

Liese Van Gompel, Roosmarijn E C Luiken, Steven Sarrazin, Patrick Munk, Berith E Knudsen, Rasmus B Hansen, Alex Bossers, Frank M Aarestrup, Jeroen Dewulf, Jaap A Wagenaar, Dik J Mevius, Heike Schmitt, Dick J J Heederik, Alejandro Dorado-García, Lidwien A M Smit, EFFORT consortium

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, dky518, https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dky518

Published: 14 January 2019

 

Abstract

Objectives

Previous studies in food-producing animals have shown associations between antimicrobial use (AMU) and resistance (AMR) in specifically isolated bacterial species. Multi-country data are scarce and only describe between-country differences. Here we investigate associations between the pig faecal mobile resistome and characteristics at the farm-level across Europe.

Methods

A cross-sectional study was conducted among 176 conventional pig farms from nine European countries. Twenty-five faecal samples from fattening pigs were pooled per farm and acquired resistomes were determined using shotgun metagenomics and the Resfinder reference database, i.e. the full collection of horizontally acquired AMR genes (ARGs). Normalized fragments resistance genes per kilobase reference per million bacterial fragments (FPKM) were calculated. Specific farm-level data (AMU, biosecurity) were collected. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed by country, relating farm-level data to relative ARG abundances (FPKM).

Results

Total AMU during fattening was positively associated with total ARG (total FPKM). Positive associations were particularly observed between widely used macrolides and tetracyclines, and ARGs corresponding to the respective antimicrobial classes. Significant AMU-ARG associations were not found for β-lactams and only few colistin ARGs were found, despite high use of these antimicrobial classes in younger pigs. Increased internal biosecurity was directly related to higher abundances of ARGs mainly encoding macrolide resistance. These effects of biosecurity were independent of AMU in mutually adjusted models.

Conclusions

Using resistome data in association studies is unprecedented and adds accuracy and new insights to previously observed AMU-AMR associations. Major components of the pig resistome are positively and independently associated with on-farm AMU and biosecurity conditions.

Issue Section: ORIGINAL RESEARCH

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model)

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Macrolides; Colistin; Tetracyclines; Pigs; European Region.

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