Low #seroprevalence of #Zika virus #infection among #adults in Southern #Taiwan (BMC Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

BMC Infect Dis. 2019 Oct 23;19(1):884. doi: 10.1186/s12879-019-4491-4.

Low seroprevalence of Zika virus infection among adults in Southern Taiwan.

Chien YW1,2, Ho TC3, Huang PW1, Ko NY4, Ko WC5, Perng GC6,7,8.

Author information: 1 Department of Public Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan. 2 Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan. 3 Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan. 4 Department of Nursing, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan. 5 Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan. 6 Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan. gperng@mail.ncku.edu.tw. 7 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan, 70101, Taiwan. gperng@mail.ncku.edu.tw. 8 Center of Infectious Disease and Signaling Research, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan. gperng@mail.ncku.edu.tw.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

We recently conducted a serosurvey of newly arrived workers in Taiwan from four Southeast Asian countries which revealed that 1% of the migrant workers had laboratory-confirmed recent Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. Taiwan, where Aedes mosquitoes are prevalent, has a close relationship with Southeast Asian countries. Up to now, 21 imported cases of ZIKV infection have been reported in Taiwan, but there has been no confirmed indigenous case. The aim of this serosurvey was to assess whether there was unrecognized ZIKV infections in Taiwan.

METHODS:

A total of 212 serum samples collected in a cross-sectional seroepidemiologic study conducted during the end of the 2015 dengue epidemic in Tainan, Taiwan, were analyzed. Anti-ZIKV IgM and IgG were tested using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNTs) for ZIKV and four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes were performed for samples with positive anti-ZIKV antibodies. A confirmed case of ZIKV infection was defined by ZIKV PRNT90 titer ratio ≥ 4 compared to four DENV serotypes.

RESULTS:

The mean age of the 212 participants was 54.0 years (standard deviation 13.7 years), and female was predominant (67.0%). Anti-ZIKV IgM and IgG were detected in 0 (0%) and 9 (4.2%) of the 212 participants, respectively. For the 9 samples with anti-ZIKV IgG, only 1 sample had 4 times higher ZIKV PRNT90 titers compared to PRNT90 titers against four dengue virus serotypes; this individual denied having traveled abroad.

CONCLUSIONS:

The results suggest that undetected indigenous ZIKV transmission might have occurred in Taiwan. The findings also suggest that the threat of epidemic transmission of ZIKV in Taiwan does exist due to extremely low-level of herd immunity. Our study also indicates that serological tests for ZIKV-specific IgG remain a big challenge due to cross-reactivity, even in dengue non-endemic countries.

KEYWORDS: Flaviviruses; Neutralization tests; Plaque reduction neutralization tests; Seroprevalence; Zika virus

PMID: 31646973 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-019-4491-4

Keywords: Zika virus; Serology; Seroprevalence; Taiwan.

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#EV-71 #seroepidemiology in #Taiwan in 2017 and comparison of those rates in 1997, 1999 and 2007 (PLoS One, abstract)

[Source: PLoS One, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Enterovirus 71 seroepidemiology in Taiwan in 2017 and comparison of those rates in 1997, 1999 and 2007

Jian-Te Lee, Ting-Yu Yen, Wei-Liang Shih, Chun-Yi Lu, Ding-Ping Liu, Yi-Chuan Huang, Luan-Yin Chang , Li-Min Huang, Tzou-Yien Lin

Published: October 17, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0224110

 

Abstract

Background

During recent 20 years, enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as a major concern among children, particularly in the Asia-Pacific region. To understand current EV71 serostatus, to find risk factors associated with EV71 infection and to establish future EV71 vaccine policy, we performed a seroepidemiology study in Taiwan in 2017.

Methods

After informed consent was obtained, we enrolled preschool children, 6–15-year-old students, 16–50-year-old people. They received a questionnaire and a blood sample was collected to measure the EV71 neutralization antibody.

Results

Altogether, 920 subjects were enrolled with a male-to-female ratio of 1.03. The EV71 seropositive rate was 10% (8/82) in infants, 4% (6/153) in 1-year-old children, 8% (7/83) in 2-year-old children, 8% (13/156) in 3–5-year-old children, 31% (38/122) in 6–11-year-old primary school students, 45% (54/121) in 12–15-year-old high school students and 75% (152/203) in 16-50-year-old people. Risk factors associated with EV71 seropositivity in preschool children were female gender, having siblings, more siblings, and contact with herpangina or hand-foot-and-mouth disease. The risk factor with EV71 seropositivity in 16–50-year-old people was having children in their families in addition to older age (p<0.001). Compared with the rates in 1997, 1999 and 2007, the rates in children were significantly lower in 2017.

Conclusion

EV71 seropositive rates were very low, at 4% to 10%, in preschool children and not high, at 31%, in primary school students. Preschool children are highly susceptible and need EV71 vaccine most.

___

Citation: Lee J-T, Yen T-Y, Shih W-L, Lu C-Y, Liu D-P, Huang Y-C, et al. (2019) Enterovirus 71 seroepidemiology in Taiwan in 2017 and comparison of those rates in 1997, 1999 and 2007. PLoS ONE 14(10): e0224110. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0224110

Editor: Dong-Yan Jin, University of Hong Kong, HONG KONG

Received: August 13, 2019; Accepted: October 4, 2019; Published: October 17, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Lee et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: This study was supported by grants from the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control, the Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taiwan (grant number MOHW 106-CDC-C-114-000117 to L-YC) and the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan (grant numbers MOST 105-2320-B-002-016 and 105-2314-B-002-139-MY3) to L-YC. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Enterovirus; EV-71; Taiwan; Serology; Seroprevalence.

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Detection of #reassortant #H5N6 clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic #avian #influenza virus in a black-faced #spoonbill (Platalea minor) found dead, #Taiwan, 2017 (Infect Genet Evol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Infect Genet Evol. 2018 Aug;62:275-278. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2018.04.026. Epub 2018 Apr 27.

Detection of reassortant H5N6 clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in a black-faced spoonbill (Platalea minor) found dead, Taiwan, 2017.

Liu YP1, Lee DH2, Chen LH1, Lin YJ1, Li WC1, Hu SC1, Chen YP1, Swayne DE2, Lee MS3.

Author information: 1 Animal Health Research Institute, Council of Agriculture, New Taipei City, Taiwan. 2 U.S. National Poultry Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Athens, GA, USA. 3 Animal Health Research Institute, Council of Agriculture, New Taipei City, Taiwan. Electronic address: minshiuh@mail.nvri.gov.tw.

 

Abstract

A H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) was detected in a black-faced spoonbill (Platalea minor) found dead in Taiwan during December 2017. Genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses suggest the hemagglutinin gene belongs to H5 clade 2.3.4.4 Group B. All genes except neuraminidase gene shared high levels of nucleotide identity with H5N8 HPAIV identified from Europe during 2016-2017. Genetically similar H5N6 HPAIV was also identified from Japan during November 2017. Enhanced surveillance is required in this region.

Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Clade 2.3.4.4; H5N6; Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus; Phylogenetic analysis; Taiwan

PMID: 29705362 DOI: 10.1016/j.meegid.2018.04.026 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6; H5N8; Reassortant strain; Wild Birds; Taiwan.

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#Population #dynamics at #neuraminidase position 151 of #influenza A #H1N1pdm09 virus in #clinical specimens (J Gen Virol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Gen Virol. 2019 Apr 17. doi: 10.1099/jgv.0.001258. [Epub ahead of print]

Population dynamics at neuraminidase position 151 of influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 virus in clinical specimens.

Gong YN1,2, Tsao KC3,2,1, Chen GW4,1,2, Wu CJ2, Chen YH2, Liu YC1, Yang SL3,1, Huang YC5,6, Shih SR3,2,1,7.

Author information: 1 2​Department of Laboratory Medicine, Linkou Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan, ROC. 2 1​Research Center for Emerging Viral Infections, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan, ROC. 3 3​Department of Medical Biotechnology and Laboratory Science, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan, ROC. 4 4​Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College of Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan, ROC. 5 6​College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan, ROC. 6 5​Department of Pediatrics, Linkou Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan, ROC. 7 7​Research Center for Chinese Herbal Medicine, Research Center for Food and Cosmetic Safety and Graduate Institute of Health Industry Technology, College of Human Ecology, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Taoyuan, Taiwan, ROC.

 

Abstract

Influenza A virus mutates rapidly, allowing it to escape natural and vaccine-induced immunity. Neuraminidase (NA) is a surface protein capable of cleaving the glycosidic linkages of neuraminic acids to release newly formed virions from infected cells. Genetic variants within a viral population can influence the emergence of pandemic viruses as well as drug susceptibility and vaccine effectiveness. In the present study, 55 clinical specimens from patients infected with the 2009 pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus, abbreviated as A(H1N1)pdm09, during the 2015-2016 outbreak season in Taiwan were collected. Whole genomes were obtained through next-generation sequencing. Based on the published sequences from A(H1N1)pdm09 strains worldwide, a mixed population of two distinct variants at NA position 151 was revealed. We initially reasoned that such a mixed population may have emerged during cell culture. However, additional investigations confirmed that these mixed variants were detectable in the specimens of patients. To further investigate the role of the two NA-151 variants in a dynamic population, a reverse genetics system was employed to generate recombinant A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses. It was observed that the mixture of the two distinct variants was characterized by a higher replication rate compared to the recombinant viruses harbouring a single variant. Moreover, an NA inhibition assay revealed that a high frequency of the minor NA-151 variant in A(H1N1)pdm09 was associated with a reduced susceptibility to NA inhibitors. We conclude that two distinct NA-151 variants can be identified in patient specimens and that such variants may increase viral replication and NA activity.

PMID: 30994443 DOI: 10.1099/jgv.0.001258

Keywords: Seasonal Influenza; H1N1pdm09; Taiwan.

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#Seroprevalence of #Zika and #Dengue Virus #Antibodies among #Migrant Workers, #Taiwan, 2017 (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 4—April 2019 / Dispatch

Seroprevalence of Zika and Dengue Virus Antibodies among Migrant Workers, Taiwan, 2017

Guey Chuen Perng, Tzu-Chuan Ho, Hsin-I Shih, Chia-Hua Lee, Pei-Wen Huang, Chih-Huan Chung, Nai-Ying Ko, Wen-Chien Ko, and Yu-Wen Chien

Author affiliations: National Cheng Kung University College of Medicine, Tainan, Taiwan (G.C. Perng, T.-C. Ho, H.-I. Shih, C.-H. Lee, P.-W. Huang, N.-Y. Ko, W.-C. Ko, Y.-W. Chien); National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Tainan (H.-I. Shih, N.-Y. Ko, W.-C. Ko, Y.-W. Chien); Kuo General Hospital, Tainan (C.-H. Chung)

 

Abstract

A serosurvey of 600 workers newly arrived in Taiwan from 4 Southeast Asia countries showed that 18 (3%) were positive for Zika virus IgM; 6 (1%) fulfilled the World Health Organization criteria for laboratory-confirmed recent Zika virus infection. The incidence of Zika virus infection in Southeast Asia might be underestimated.

Keywords:  Seroprevalence; Dengue fever; Zika Virus; Taiwan.

—–

#Narcolepsy and 2009 #H1N1 #pandemic #vaccination in #Taiwan (Sleep Med., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Sleep Med. 2018 Nov 26. pii: S1389-9457(18)30567-7. doi: 10.1016/j.sleep.2018.10.036. [Epub ahead of print]

Narcolepsy and 2009 H1N1 pandemic vaccination in Taiwan.

Huang WT1, Huang YS2, Hsu CY3, Chen HC4, Lee HC5, Lin HC5, Hsieh CF3, Wu MN3, Yang CH5.

Author information: 1 Taiwan Centers for Disease Control, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address: huangwt@ntu.edu.tw. 2 Department of Child Psychiatry and Sleep Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and University, Taoyuan, Taiwan. 3 Department of Neurology and Sleep Disorders Center, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. 4 Department of Psychiatry and Center of Sleep Disorders, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. 5 Taiwan Centers for Disease Control, Taipei, Taiwan.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Several European countries have observed an association between narcolepsy and H1N1 vaccines containing AS03®adjuvant in children/adolescents. In Taiwan, a nationwide campaign starting November 2009 administered H1N1 vaccines without adjuvant or with MF59® adjuvant to 67% of children and 12% of adults.

METHODS:

For those registered in the 2000-2012 National Health Insurance (NHI) databases, we compared age-stratified (0-4, 5-18, 19-59, and ≥60 years) incidence of first referral for a diagnostic MSLT for the pre-pandemic, pandemic/pre-vaccination, and vaccination/post-pandemic period. We also compared the odds of H1N1 vaccination in each chart-ascertained narcolepsy patient, whoever had an onset of excessive daytime sleepiness between April 2009 and December 2012, with 10 population-based controls from the NHI databases on year of birth, sex, and index date, using conditional logistic regressions.

RESULTS:

Incidence of MSLT referral for narcolepsy was highest and significantly increased in the pandemic/pre-vaccination period in the age group 5-18 (IRR 3.40, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 2.12-5.45) and 19-59 (IRR 2.90, 95% CI 1.62-5.02) years. Among 137 confirmed narcolepsy cases (86 adults and 51 children), the odds ratios (ORs) were 1.67 (95% CI 0.81-3.45) (adults) and 1.22 (95% CI 0.62-2.39) (children) for H1N1 vaccination without adjuvant, and 1.39 (95% CI 0.17-11.48) (adults) and 3.66 (95% CI 0.37-36.02) (children) with MF59®adjuvant.

CONCLUSION:

No substantial association between the use of H1N1 vaccines and narcolepsy was identified in Taiwan. Instead, the H1N1 infection itself could have played a role in triggering narcolepsy in children and young adults.

Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Epidemiology; H1N1; Influenza vaccine; MF59; Narcolepsy; Taiwan

PMID: 30579702 DOI: 10.1016/j.sleep.2018.10.036

Keywords: Influenza A; H1N1pdm09; Vaccines; Drugs Safety; Narcolepsy; Taiwan.

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#Influenza-associated #neurological #complications during 2014-2017 in #Taiwan (Brain Dev., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Brain Dev. 2018 Jun 8. pii: S0387-7604(18)30143-8. doi: 10.1016/j.braindev.2018.05.019. [Epub ahead of print]

Influenza-associated neurological complications during 2014-2017 in Taiwan.

Chen LW1, Teng CK1, Tsai YS2, Wang JN1, Tu YF1, Shen CF1, Liu CC3.

Author information: 1 Department of Pediatrics, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan. 2 Department of Diagnostic Radiology, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan. 3 Department of Pediatrics, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan. Electronic address: liucc@mail.ncku.edu.tw.

 

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Seasonal influenza-associated neurological complications had high mortality and morbidity rates in recent studies. We reported influenza-associated encephalitis/encephalopathy in children during 2014-2017 in Taiwan, focusing on neurological presentations, neuroimaging correlations, and critical care managements.

MATERIALS/SUBJECTS:

During January 1st 2014 to June 30th 2017, pediatric patients reported to the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control surveillance system for severe complicated influenza infections in the hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Children with influenza-associated encephalitis/encephalopathy were inspected for clinical presentations, laboratory data, neuroimaging studies, treatment modalities, and neurological outcomes.

RESULTS:

Ten children with median age 5.9 years were enrolled for analysis. Influenza-associated encephalitis/encephalopathy appeared in the spring and summer, with a delayed peak comparing with the occurrence of pneumonia and septic shock. The neurological symptoms developed rapidly within median 1 day after the first fever episode. All patients had consciousness disturbance. Seven patients (70%) had seizures at initial presentation, and six of them had status epilepticus. Anti-viral treatments were applied in all patients, with median door-to-drug time 0.9 h for oseltamivir and 6.0 h for peramivir. Multi-modality treatments also included steroid pulse therapy, immunoglobulin treatment, and target temperature management, with 85.2% of the major treatments administered within 12 h after admission. Nine of the ten patients recovered without neurological sequelae. Only one patient had epilepsy requiring long-term anticonvulsants and concomitant cognitive decline.

CONCLUSIONS:

In highly prevalent area, influenza-associated encephalitis/encephalopathy should be considered irrespective of seasons. Our study suggested the effects of timely surveillance and multi-modality treatments in influenza-associated encephalitis/encephalopathy.

Copyright © 2018 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Encephalitis; Encephalopathy; Influenza; Multi-modality treatments; Status epilepticus

PMID: 29891404 DOI: 10.1016/j.braindev.2018.05.019

Keywords: Seasonal Influenza; Neurology; Encephalitis; Taiwan.

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