Temporal #changes in the effects of ambient #temperatures on #hospital #admissions in #Spain (PLoS One, abstract)

[Source: PLoS One, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]


Temporal changes in the effects of ambient temperatures on hospital admissions in Spain

Èrica Martínez-Solanas, Xavier Basagaña

Published: June 13, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0218262




The exposure to extreme ambient temperatures has been reported to increase mortality, although less is known about its impact on morbidity. The analysis of temporal changes in temperature-health associations has also focused on mortality with no studies on hospitalizations worldwide. Studies on temporal variations can provide insights on changes in susceptibility or on effectiveness of public health interventions. We aimed to analyse the effects of temperature on cause-specific hospital admissions in Spain and assess temporal changes using two periods, the second one characterized by the introduction of a heat health prevention plan.


Daily counts of non-scheduled hospital admissions for cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and respiratory diseases and daily maximum temperature were obtained for each Spanish province for the period 1997–2013. The relationship between temperature and hospitalizations was estimated using distributed lag non-linear models. We compared the risk of hospitalization due to temperatures (cold, heat and extreme heat) in two periods (1997–2002 and 2004–2013).


Cold temperatures were associated with increased risk of cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and respiratory hospital admissions. Hot temperatures were only associated with higher hospital admissions for respiratory causes while hospitalizations for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases did not increase with heat. There was a small reduction in heat-related respiratory admissions in period 2. Whereas cold-related hospitalizations for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases increased in period 2, a significant reduction for respiratory hospitalizations was reported.


Our results suggested that heat had an adverse impact on hospital admissions for respiratory diseases, while cold increased the risk of the three studied cause-specific hospitalizations. Public health interventions should also focus on morbidity effects of temperature.


Citation: Martínez-Solanas È, Basagaña X (2019) Temporal changes in the effects of ambient temperatures on hospital admissions in Spain. PLoS ONE 14(6): e0218262. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0218262

Editor: Jeffrey Shaman, Columbia University, UNITED STATES

Received: December 11, 2018; Accepted: May 29, 2019; Published: June 13, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Martínez-Solanas, Basagaña. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: The data that support the findings of this study are available from the “Instituto de Información Sanitaria” (Spanish Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equity), but restrictions apply to the availability of these data, which were used under license for the current study and so are not publicly available. Researchers will be able to request data directly from the “Instituto de Información Sanitaria” at the email address icmbd@msssi.es.

Funding: XB was supported by a grant awarded by the Instituto de Salud Carlos III and co-funded by European Union (Project “PI14/00421″). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Heatwaves; Cold waves; Extreme weather; Spain.



Co-Occurrence of #mcr-1 and qnrS1 on an IncHI2 #Plasmid in #Clinical Isolates of #SalmonellaTyphimurium in #Spain (Vector Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Co-Occurrence of mcr-1 and qnrS1 on an IncHI2 Plasmid in Clinical Isolates of SalmonellaTyphimurium in Spain

Teresa Trujillo-Soto, Jesús Machuca, Jorge Arca-Suárez, Manuel Rodríguez-Iglesias, and Fátima Galán-Sánchez

Published Online: 30 May 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2018.2398



Salmonella enterica is a well-adapted zoonotic bacterium associated to cases of gastroenteritis and bacteremia with increased morbidity and mortality. In this study, three isolates of Salmonella Typhimurium obtained from human clinical samples, showing colistin resistance and low-level resistance to quinolones, have been genetically characterized. We detected the co-occurrence of mcr-1 and qnrS1 on a single IncHI2 plasmid in isolates of Salmonella Typhimurium obtained from Spanish children without a travel history. The multiresistant region contained numerous resistance genes. Isolates were clonally related, which suggests the presence of these clones in the community and the potential to cause outbreaks affecting the most susceptible population. It is necessary to monitor the presence of these plasmid-mediated resistance genes in human European strains of Salmonella spp. because of the risk of producing outbreaks of community-acquired infections.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Colistin; Quinolones; Salmonella Typhimurium; Spain.


Evidence for #infection but not #transmission of #Zika virus by #Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) from #Spain (Parasit Vectors., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Parasit Vectors. 2019 May 3;12(1):204. doi: 10.1186/s13071-019-3467-y.

Evidence for infection but not transmission of Zika virus by Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) from Spain.

Hernández-Triana LM1, Barrero E2, Delacour-Estrella S3, Ruiz-Arrondo I4, Lucientes J3, Fernández de Marco MDM2, Thorne L2, Lumley S5, Johnson N2,6, Mansfield KL2, Fooks AR2,7.

Author information: 1 Wildlife Zoonoses and Vector-borne Diseases Research Group, Animal and Plant Health Agency, Woodham Lane, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey, KT15 3NB, UK. luis.hernandez-triana@apha.gov.uk. 2 Wildlife Zoonoses and Vector-borne Diseases Research Group, Animal and Plant Health Agency, Woodham Lane, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey, KT15 3NB, UK. 3 Department of Animal Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain. 4 Center for Rickettsiosis and Vector-Borne Diseases Group, Hospital Universitario San Pedro-CIBIR, Logroño, Spain. 5 Public Health England, Porton Down, Salisbury, SP4 0JG, UK. 6 Faculty of Health and Medicine, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU27XH, UK. 7 Department of Clinical Infection, Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.




A number of mosquito-borne viruses such as dengue virus (DENV), Usutu virus (USUV), West Nile virus (WNV) are autochthonously transmitted in Europe and six invasive mosquito species have been detected in this temperate region. This has increased the risk for the emergence of further mosquito-borne diseases. However, there is a paucity of information on whether European populations of invasive mosquito species are competent to transmit arboviruses. In this study, the susceptibility of Aedes albopictus originating from Spain and a laboratory-adapted colony of Aedes aegypti, was assessed for infection with, and transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV). Vertical transmission in both species was also assessed.


Aedes albopictus colonised from eggs collected in Spain and an existing colony of Ae. aegypti were fed infectious blood meals containing ZIKV (Polynesian strain) at 1.6 × 107 PFU/ml. Blood-fed mosquitoes were separated and maintained at 20 °C or 25 °C. Legs, saliva and bodies were sampled from specimens at 7, 14 and 21 days post-infection (dpi) in order to determine infection, dissemination and transmission rates. All samples were analysed by real-time RT-PCR using primers targeting the ZIKV NS1 gene.


At 14 dpi and 21 dpi, ZIKV RNA was detected in the bodies of both species at both temperatures. However, live virus only was detected in the saliva of Ae. aegypti at 25 °C with a transmission rate of 44%. No evidence for virus expectoration was obtained for Ae. albopictus under any condition. Notably, ZIKV RNA was not detectable in the saliva of Ae. aegypti at 20 °C after 21 days. No vertical transmission of ZIKV was detected in this study.


Experimental infection of Ae. albopictus colonized from Spain with ZIKV did not result in expectoration of virus in saliva in contrast to results for Ae. aegypti. No evidence of vertical transmission of virus was observed in this study. This suggests that this strain of Ae. albopictus is not competent for ZIKV transmission under the conditions tested.

KEYWORDS: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Spain; Vector competence; Zika virus

PMID: 31053164 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-019-3467-y

Keywords: Zika Virus; Mosquitoes; Aedes aegytpi; Aedes albopictus; Spain.


#Assessment of the #function and intergenus-compatibility of #Ebola and #Lloviu virus #proteins (J Gen Virol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Gen Virol. 2019 Apr 24. doi: 10.1099/jgv.0.001261. [Epub ahead of print]

Assessment of the function and intergenus-compatibility of Ebola and Lloviu virus proteins.

Kämper L1, Zierke L1, Schmidt ML1, Müller A1, Wendt L1, Brandt J1, Hartmann E1, Braun S1, Holzerland J2, Groseth A2, Hoenen T1.

Author information: 1 Institute for Molecular Virology and Cell Biology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Greifswald – Insel Riems, Germany. 2 Junior Research Group Arenavirus Biology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Greifswald – Insel Riems, Germany.



Sequences for Lloviu virus (LLOV), a putative novel filovirus, were first identified in Miniopterus schreibersii bats in Spain following a massive bat die-off in 2002, and also recently found in bats in Hungary. However, until now it is unclear if these sequences correspond to a fully functional, infectious virus, and whether it will show a pathogenic phenotype like African filoviruses, such as ebola- and marburgviruses, or be apathogenic for humans, like the Asian filovirus Reston virus. Since no infectious virus has been recovered, the only opportunity to study infectious LLOV is to use a reverse genetics-based full-length clone system to de novo generate LLOV. As a first step in this process, and to investigate whether the identified sequences indeed correspond to functional viral proteins, we have developed life cycle modelling systems for LLOV, which allow us to study genome replication and transcription as well as entry of this virus. We show that all LLOV proteins fulfill their canonical role in the virus life cycle as expected based on the well-studied related filovirus Ebola virus. Further, we have analysed the intergenus-compatibility of proteins that have to act in concert to facilitate the virus life cycle. We show that some but not all proteins from LLOV and Ebola virus are compatible with each other, emphasizing the close relationship of these viruses, and informing future studies of filovirus biology with respect to the generation of genus-chimeric proteins in order to probe virus protein-protein interactions on a functional level.

PMID: 31017565 DOI: 10.1099/jgv.0.001261

Keywords: Filovirus; Bats; Lloviu virus; Spain; Hungary; Ebola.


Detection of #colistin #resistance #mcr-1 gene in #Salmonella enterica serovar Rissen isolated from #mussels, #Spain, 2012­ to 2016 (Euro Surveill., abstract)

[Source: Eurosurveillance, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Detection of colistin resistance mcr-1 gene in Salmonella enterica serovar Rissen isolated from mussels, Spain, 2012­ to 2016

Antonio Lozano-Leon1,2, Carlos Garcia-Omil1, Jacobo Dalama1, Rafael Rodriguez-Souto1, Jaime Martinez-Urtaza3, Narjol Gonzalez-Escalona4

Affiliations: 1 ASMECRUZ Laboratory. Playa de Beluso s/n 36939, Pontevedra, Spain; 2 CI8 Research Group. Department Chemistry and Food Analysis, University of Vigo, As Lagoas-Marcosende 36310 Vigo, Pontevedra, Spain; 3 Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (Cefas), Barrack Road, Weymouth, Dorset, United Kingdom; 4 Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration, College Park, Maryland, United States

Correspondence:  Antonio Lozano-Leon

Citation style for this article: Lozano-Leon Antonio, Garcia-Omil Carlos, Dalama Jacobo, Rodriguez-Souto Rafael, Martinez-Urtaza Jaime, Gonzalez-Escalona Narjol. Detection of colistin resistance mcr-1 gene in Salmonella enterica serovar Rissen isolated from mussels, Spain, 2012­ to 2016. Euro Surveill. 2019;24(16):pii=1900200. https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.16.1900200

Received: 20 Mar 2019;   Accepted: 16 Apr 2019



Nineteen Salmonella strains were isolated from 5,907 randomly selected mussel samples during a monitoring programme for the presence of Salmonella in shellfish in Galicia, north-west Spain (2012–16). Serovars, sequence type and antimicrobial resistance genes were determined through genome sequencing. Presence of the mcr-1 gene in one strain belonging to serovar Rissen and ST-469 was identified. The mcr-1 gene had not been isolated previously in environmental Salmonella isolated from mussels in Spain.

©  This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Colistin; MCR1; Salmonella enterica; Spain.


#Spanish nationwide #survey on #Pseudomonas aeruginosa #antimicrobial #resistance mechanisms and #epidemiology (J Antimicrob Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Spanish nationwide survey on Pseudomonas aeruginosa antimicrobial resistance mechanisms and epidemiology

Ester del Barrio-Tofiño, Laura Zamorano, Sara Cortes-Lara, Carla López-Causapé, Irina Sánchez-Diener, Gabriel Cabot, Germán Bou, Luis Martínez-Martínez, Antonio Oliver

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, dkz147, https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz147

Published: 15 April 2019




To undertake a Spanish nationwide survey on Pseudomonas aeruginosamolecular epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance.


Up to 30 consecutive healthcare-associated P. aeruginosa isolates collected in 2017 from each of 51 hospitals were studied. MICs of 13 antipseudomonal agents were determined by broth microdilution. Horizontally acquired β-lactamases were detected by phenotypic methods and PCR. Clonal epidemiology was evaluated through PFGE and MLST; at least one XDR isolate from each clone and hospital (n = 185) was sequenced.


The most active antipseudomonals against the 1445 isolates studied were colistin and ceftolozane/tazobactam (both 94.6% susceptible, MIC50/90 = 1/2 mg/L) followed by ceftazidime/avibactam (94.2% susceptible, MIC50/90 = 2/8 mg/L). Up to 252 (17.3%) of the isolates were XDR. Carbapenemases/ESBLs were detected in 3.1% of the isolates, including VIM, IMP, GES, PER and OXA enzymes. The most frequent clone among the XDR isolates was ST175 (40.9%), followed by CC235 (10.7%), ST308 (5.2%) and CC111 (4.0%). Carbapenemase production varied geographically and involved diverse clones, including 16.5% of ST175 XDR isolates. Additionally, 56% of the sequenced XDR isolates showed horizontally acquired aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes, which correlated with tobramycin resistance. Two XDR isolates produced QnrVC1, but fluoroquinolone resistance was mostly caused by QRDR mutations. Beyond frequent mutations (>60%) in OprD and AmpC regulators, four isolates showed AmpC mutations associated with resistance to ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidime/avibactam.


ST175 is the most frequent XDR high-risk clone in Spanish hospitals, but this nationwide survey also indicates a complex scenario in which major differences in local epidemiology, including carbapenemase production, need to be acknowledged in order to guide antimicrobial therapy.

Topic: phenotype – polymerase chain reaction – pseudomonas aeruginosa – mutation – colistin – epidemiology – ceftazidime – clone cells – drug resistance, microbial – electrophoresis, gel, pulsed-field – epidemiology, molecular – fluoroquinolones – spain – enzymes – tobramycin – aminoglycosides – antimicrobials – tazobactam – extended-spectrum beta lactamases – malnutrition-inflammation-cachexia syndrome – ceftolozane – avibactam


© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model)

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Spain; Colistin; Ceftazidime; Fluoroquinolones; Tobramycin; Aminoglycosides; Tazobactam; Avibactam.


Limited #risk of #Zika virus #transmission by five #Aedes albopictus #populations from #Spain (Parasit Vectors., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Parasit Vectors. 2019 Mar 29;12(1):150. doi: 10.1186/s13071-019-3359-1.

Limited risk of Zika virus transmission by five Aedes albopictus populations from Spain.

González MA1,2, Pavan MG2, Fernandes RS2, Busquets N3, David MR2, Lourenço-Oliveira R2,4, García-Pérez AL1, Maciel-de-Freitas R5,6.

Author information: 1 NEIKER-Instituto Vasco de Investigación y Desarrollo Agrario, Derio, Bizkaia, Spain. 2 Laboratório de Mosquitos Transmissores de Hematozoários, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (IOC/ FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 3 IRTA, Centre de Recerca en Sanitat Animal (CReSA, IRTA-UAB), Campus de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain. 4 Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia em Entomologia Molecular, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 5 Laboratório de Mosquitos Transmissores de Hematozoários, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (IOC/ FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. freitas@ioc.fiocruz.br. 6 Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia em Entomologia Molecular, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. freitas@ioc.fiocruz.br.




Aedes albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito, is an exotic invasive species in Europe. It has substantial public health relevance due to its potential role in transmitting several human pathogens. Out of the European countries, Spain has one of the highest risk levels of autochthonous arbovirus transmission due to both the high density of Ae. albopictus and the extensive tourist influx from vector-endemic areas. This study aims to investigate the susceptibility of five Ae. albopictus populations from mainland Spain and the Balearic Islands to a Brazilian Zika virus (ZIKV) strain.


The F1 generation of each Ae. albopictus population was orally challenged with a ZIKV-infected blood meal (1.8 × 106 PFU/ml). At 7 and 14 days post-infection (dpi), mosquito bodies (thorax and abdomen) and heads were individually analysed through RT-qPCR to determine the infection rate (IR) and dissemination rate (DR), respectively. The saliva of infected mosquitoes was inoculated in Vero cells and the transmission rate was assessed by plaque assay or RT-qPCR on ~33 individuals per population.


The IR and DR ranged between 12-88%, and 0-60%, respectively, suggesting that ZIKV is capable of crossing the midgut barrier. Remarkably, no infectious viral particle was found in saliva samples, indicating a low ability of ZIKV to overcome the salivary gland barrier. A subsequent assay revealed that a second non-infective blood meal 48 h after ZIKV exposure did not influence Ae. albopictus vector competence.


The oral experimental ZIKV infections performed here indicate that Ae. albopictus from Spain become infected and disseminate the virus through the body but has a limited ability to transmit the Brazilian ZIKV strain through biting. Therefore, the results suggest a limited risk of autochthonous ZIKV transmission in Spain by Ae. albopictus.

KEYWORDS: Aedes albopictus; Plaque assay; RT-qPCR; Spanish populations; Vector competence; Viral copies; Zika virus

PMID: 30922370 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-019-3359-1

Keywords: Zika Virus; Aedes albopictus; Spain.