#Genotypic #evolution and #epidemiological characteristics of #H9N2 #influenza virus in #Shandong Province, #China (Poult Sci., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Poult Sci. 2019 Sep 1;98(9):3488-3495. doi: 10.3382/ps/pez151.

Genotypic evolution and epidemiological characteristics of H9N2 influenza virus in Shandong Province, China.

Li Y1, Liu M1, Sun Q1, Zhang H1, Zhang H1, Jiang S1, Liu S1, Huang Y2.

Author information: 1 College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian 271018, China. 2 Shandong Key Laboratory of Animal Disease Control and Breeding, Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinan 250100, China.



H9N2 avian influenza has been prevalent in chicken flocks of China for years. In the first half year of 2018, clinical cases of suspected H9N2 infection were collected from chicken flocks in Shandong province. Nine strains of H9N2 influenza virus were isolated. The pathological changes of the dead chickens were mainly respiratory inflammation, renal swelling, and secondary infection. The microscopic lesions were consistent with the pathogenic characteristics of H9N2 influenza virus. From November 2017 to June 2018, a total of 3,380 serum samples were randomly collected from commercial laying hens in Shandong Province. The H9 antibody levels were tested with the isolated strain (CK/SD/231/17) as the antigen. It showed that the average of antibody titers of H9 avian influenza was 9.24 1og2. Hemagglutination inhibition experiments were conducted on chicken serum with the vaccine virus and the isolated virus (CK/SD/231/17) as the antigens. It was found that the antibody titer measured with the vaccine virus was 1 or 2 titers higher than the isolated strain. It indicated that the antigenicity of H9N2 circulating strain was different from that of vaccine strain. The nucleotide sequences of HA gene of these recent H9N2 avian influenza virus isolates shared homologies from 93.8 to 99.9%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the eight gene segments of the viruses were in the same clades with G57 gene reference strain. The amino acid site analysis of influenza resistance showed that the virus was sensitive to neuraminidase inhibitors and resistant to amantadine.


The protection rate of the H9N2 AIV vaccine almost reached 100% before 2016, but the antibody level of serum samples showed high diversity in this study, which means the poultry were infected. The antigenicity of isolated H9N2 strains was different from that of vaccine strain. Current available vaccines may provide only limited protection.

© 2019 Poultry Science Association Inc.

KEYWORDS: CK/GD/SS/94; CK/SH/F/98; H9N2 subtype; Shandong; avian influenza

PMID: 30941436 DOI: 10.3382/ps/pez151 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H9N2; Poultry; Vaccines; Antivirals; Drugs Resistance; Oseltamivir; Amantadine; Shandong; China.


Molecular #Detection of #Toxoplasma gondii in the #Slaughter #Sheep and #Goats from #Shandong Province, Eastern #China (Vector Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Molecular Detection of Toxoplasma gondii in the Slaughter Sheep and Goats from Shandong Province, Eastern China

Kang Ai, Cui-Qin Huang, Jing-Jing Guo, Hua Cong, Shen-Yi He, Chun-Xue Zhou, and Wei Cong

Published Online: 23 Sep 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2019.2488



It is generally recognized that sheep are susceptible to Toxoplasma gondii and play a very important role in the transmission of toxoplasmosis to humans. In China, sheep toxoplasmosis has been reported in some regions based on serological investigations. However, little is known about sheep toxoplasmosis in Shandong province, eastern China. Thus, this study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of T. gondii infection in the slaughter sheep and goats from three cities (Weihai, Yantai, and Rizhao) of Shandong province, eastern China. From November 2016 to March 2018, a total of 692 meat samples (438 sheep and 254 goats) were collected and detected by a seminested PCR-targeted T. gondii B1 gene. The overall prevalence of T. gondii in sheep and goats were 9.84% and 10.73%, respectively. Meat collected from rural markets (16.04%) had a significantly higher T. gondii prevalence than those collected from supermarkets (6.84%) (p < 0.001). Moreover, sheep and goats raised in backyard were more easily to be infected by T. gondii compared with those raised in farms (p < 0.001). This is the first report of the molecular prevalence of T. gondii infection in sheep and goats in Shandong province, eastern China, which would provide effective data for prevention and control of sheep and human toxoplasmosis in China.

Keywords: Toxoplasmosis; Food Safety; Goats; Sheeps; Shandong; China.


A novel #reassortant #influenza A (#H1N1) virus #infection in #swine in #Shandong Province, eastern #China (Transbound Emerg Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Transbound Emerg Dis. 2019 Sep 19. doi: 10.1111/tbed.13360. [Epub ahead of print]

A novel reassortant influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in swine in Shandong Province, eastern China.

Yu Z1,2,3, Cheng K4, He H5, Wu J1,2,3.

Author information: 1 Poultry Institute, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinan, 250023, China. 2 Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Poultry Diseases Diagnosis and Immunology. 3 Poultry Breeding Engineering Technology Center of Shandong Province. 4 Dairy Cattle Research Center, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinan, 250132, China. 5 College of Life Sciences, Shandong Normal University, Jinan, 250014, China.



Influenza A (H1N1) viruses are distributed worldwide and pose a threat to public health. Swine, as a natural host and mixing vessel of influenza A (H1N1) virus, play a critical role in the transmission of this virus to humans. Furthermore, swine influenza A (H1N1) viruses have provided all eight genes or some genes to the genomes of influenza strains that historically have caused human pandemics. Hence, persistent surveillance of influenza A (H1N1) virus in swine herds could contribute to the prevention and control of this virus. Here, we report a novel reassortant influenza A (H1N1) virus generated by reassortment between 2009 pandemic H1N1 viruses and swine viruses. We also found that this virus is prevalent in swine herds in Shandong Province, eastern China. Our findings suggest that surveillance of the emergence of the novel reassortant influenza A (H1N1) virus in swine is imperative.

© 2019 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

KEYWORDS: H1N1; human; influenza; reassortant; swine

PMID: 31535780 DOI: 10.1111/tbed.13360

Keywords: Seasonal Influenza; Swine Influenza; H1N1; H1N1pdm09; Pigs; Reassortant strain; Shandong; China.


Detection of #plasmid-mediated #tigecycline-resistant gene tet(X4) in #Escherichia coli from #pork, #Sichuan and #Shandong Provinces, #China, February 2019 (Euro Surveill., abstract)

[Source: Eurosurveillance, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Detection of plasmid-mediated tigecycline-resistant gene tet(X4) in Escherichia coli from pork, Sichuan and Shandong Provinces, China, February 2019

Li Bai1,2,3, Pengcheng Du3,4, Yinju Du5, Honghu Sun1,2,6, Pei Zhang1,2, Yuping Wan6, Qi Lin6, Séamus Fanning1,2,7, Shenghui Cui8, Yongning Wu1,2

Affiliations: 1 Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, National Health Commission of the People’s Republic of China, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2 Food Safety Research Unit of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3 These authors contributed equally to this work; 4 Institute of Infectious Diseases, Beijing Ditan Hospital, Capital Medical University, and Beijing Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 5 Center for disease control and prevention of Liaocheng city, Liaocheng, People’s Republic of China; 6 Chengdu institute for Food and Drug Control, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China; 7 UCD-Centre for Food Safety, School of Public Health, Physiotherapy and Sports Science, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin, Ireland; 8 Department of Food Science, National Institutes for Food and Drug Control, Beijing, People’s Republic of China

Correspondence:  Yongning Wu

Citation style for this article: Bai Li, Du Pengcheng, Du Yinju, Sun Honghu, Zhang Pei, Wan Yuping, Lin Qi, Fanning Séamus, Cui Shenghui, Wu Yongning. Detection of plasmid-mediated tigecycline-resistant gene tet(X4) in Escherichia coli from pork, Sichuan and Shandong Provinces, China, February 2019. Euro Surveill.2019;24(25):pii=1900340. https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.25.1900340

Received: 29 May 2019;   Accepted: 20 Jun 2019



The plasmid-mediated high-level tigecycline resistance gene, tet(X4), was detected in seven Escherichia coli isolates from pork in two Chinese provinces. Two isolates belonged to the epidemic spreading sequence type ST101. Tet(X4) was adjacent to ISVsa3 and concurrent with floR in all seven isolates. In addition to IncFIB, the replicon IncFII was found to be linked to tet(X4). This report follows a recent detection of tet(X3)/(X4) in E. coli from animals and humans in China.

©  This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Tigecycline; Plasmids; Pigs; E. Coli; Food Safety; China; Sichuan; Shandong.


The characteristics of current natural foci of #HFRS in #Shandong Province, #China, 2012-2015 (PLoS Negl Trop Dis., abstract)

[Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]


The characteristics of current natural foci of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Shandong Province, China, 2012-2015

Zhaolei Zheng, Peizhu Wang, Zhiqiang Wang, Dandan Zhang, Xu Wang, Shuqing Zuo, Xiujun Li

Published: May 20, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007148 / This is an uncorrected proof.




Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), an infectious disease caused by hantaviruses, is endemic in China and remains a serious public health problem. Historically, Shandong Province has had the largest HFRS burden in China. However, we do not have a comprehensive and clear understanding of the current epidemic foci of HFRS in Shandong Province.

Methodology/principal findings

The incidence and mortality rates were calculated, and a phylogenetic analysis was performed after laboratory testing of the virus in rodents. Spatial epidemiology analysis was applied to investigate the epidemic foci, including their sources. A total of 6,206 HFRS cases and 59 related deaths were reported in Shandong Province. The virus carriage rates of the rodents Rattus norvegicus, Apodemus agrarius and Mus musculus were 10.24%, 6.31% and 0.27%, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that two novel viruses obtained from R. norvegicus in Anqiu City and Qingzhou City were dissimilar to the other strains, but closely related to strains previously isolated in northeastern China. Three epidemic foci were defined, two of which were derived from the Jining and Linyi epidemic foci, respectively, while the other was the residue of the Jining epidemic focus.


The southeastern and central Shandong Province are current key HFRS epidemic foci dominated by A. agrarius and R. norvegicus, respectively. Our study could help local departments to strengthen prevention and control measures in key areas to reduce the hazards of HFRS.


Author summary

Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is a global infectious disease, which is still a serious public health threat in China today. The reported HFRS cases in Shandong Province accounted for approximate one third of total cases in the whole country. HFRS is a zoonosis mainly caused by Hantaan virus (HTNV) and Seoul virus (SEOV), which natural rodent hosts are A. agrarius and R. norvegicus, respectively. To explore the current HFRS epidemic foci based on patients, rodents and molecular epidemiology characteristics in Shandong Province, we collected the records of HFRS cases from whole province and the rodents captured in 14 surveillance sites. We found that the epidemic situation of HFRS is quiet different in temporal and spatial distribution. Three epidemic foci were defined based on patients, rodents and molecular epidemiology characteristics. The situation of HFRS epidemic foci in Shandong Province was clear. Our study provides a reference for relevant departments to develop key prevention strategies.


Citation: Zheng Z, Wang P, Wang Z, Zhang D, Wang X, Zuo S, et al. (2019) The characteristics of current natural foci of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Shandong Province, China, 2012-2015. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(5): e0007148. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007148

Editor: David Joseph Diemert, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, UNITED STATES

Received: January 3, 2019; Accepted: May 2, 2019; Published: May 20, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Zheng et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: Some relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files. The data of HFRS incidence and death underlying the results presented in the study are available from Shandong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention (http://www.sdcdc.cn/col/col9776/index.html?uid=51587&pageNum=1).

Funding: This research was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (no. 81673238, 81473025), the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province (no. ZR2016HM75) and State Key Research Development Program of China (2016YFC1201902). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Hantavirus; HFRS; Shandong; China.


Novel #astroviruses types circulating in #Shandong Province (Eastern #China) during 2016: A clinical and #environmental #surveillance (J Clin Virol., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Clinical Virology, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Journal of Clinical Virology / Available online 12 May 2019 / In Press, Accepted Manuscript  / Short communication

Novel astroviruses types circulating in Shandong Province (Eastern China) during 2016: A clinical and environmental surveillance

Zexin Tao a, Haiyan Wang a, Wenqiang Zhang a, Aiqiang Xu a,b

{a} Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Control and Prevention, Shandong Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 16992 Jingshi Road, Jinan 250014, People’s Republic of China; {b} School of Public Health, Shandong University, No. 44 Wenhuaxi Road, Jinan 250012, People’s Republic of China

Received 13 December 2018, Revised 29 April 2019, Accepted 11 May 2019, Available online 12 May 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2019.05.005



  • Eighteen of 635 specimens (2.8%) were positive for novel astrovirus with 13 MLB1, 4 MLB2, and 1 VA3 in Jinan, China in 2016.
  • Novel astrovirus subtypes in sewage include MLB1, MLB2, VA1, VA2, VA3, and VA5.
  • VA2, MLB1, and VA1 were the most common subtypes in sewage samples.
  • Eighteen partial ORF2 sequences that could not be classified into any known novel astrovirus subtypes were identified from sewage samples.


Keywords: Astrovirus; Shandong; China.


Neutralizing #antibodies to #SFTS Virus in general #population, #Shandong Province, #China (Sci Rep., abstract)

[Source: Scientific Reports, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Article | OPEN | Published: 18 October 2018

Neutralizing antibodies to Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus in general population, Shandong Province, China

Dexin Li,  Lijun Shao,  Yu Bi &  Guoyu Niu

Scientific Reports, volume 8, Article number: 15401 (2018)



Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease caused by SFTS virus (SFTSV) in East Asia. The research on seroprevalence of SFTSV in healthy people and risk factors had been detailed. However, the levels of neutralizing antibodies against SFTSV in general population were currently unclear. In the present study, we tested 1375 healthy persons from Penglai County, eastern China, for SFTSV neutralizing antibodies; 0.58% (8/1,375) was positive and the positive rates were not significantly different among people at different age groups, occupations and genders. Besides, a follow-up study was conducted and the titer of neutralizing antibodies decreased over time in all eight people but one, and the neutralizing antibodies of five lasted for the entire study period of seven years. Our results suggesting that subclinical infection or a relatively mild form of SFTS illness is occurring in this population, but a small percentage of sera have neutralizing capacity to SFTSV. Hence, most people are just susceptible to SFTSV infection.

Keywords: SFTS; Neutralizing antibodies; Seroprevalence; China; Shandong.