#MERS #Coronavirus #Seropositivity in #Camel #Handlers and Their #Families, #Pakistan (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 12—December 2019 / Dispatch

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Seropositivity in Camel Handlers and Their Families, Pakistan

Jian Zheng1, Sohail Hassan1  , Abdulaziz N. Alagaili, Abeer N. Alshukairi, Nabil M.S. Amor, Nadia Mukhtar, Iqra Maleeha Nazeer, Zarfishan Tahir, Nadeem Akhter, Stanley Perlman  , and Tahir Yaqub

Author affiliations: University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA (J. Zheng, S. Perlman); University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan (S. Hassan, I.M. Nazeer, T. Yaqub); King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (A.N. Alagaili, N.M.S. Amor); King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia (A.N. Alshukairi); Government of Punjab, Lahore (N. Mukhtar, Z. Tahir, N. Akhter); The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China (S. Perlman)



A high percentage of camel handlers in Saudi Arabia are seropositive for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. We found that 12/100 camel handlers and their family members in Pakistan, a country with extensive camel MERS-CoV infection, were seropositive, indicating that MERS-CoV infection of these populations extends beyond the Arabian Peninsula.

Keywords: MERS-CoV; Serology; Seroprevalence; Human; Camels; Pakistan.


No #evidence of #avian #influenza #antibodies in two species of #raptor nestlings inhabiting #Norway (BMC Vet Res., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

BMC Vet Res. 2019 Oct 28;15(1):375. doi: 10.1186/s12917-019-2133-0.

No evidence of avian influenza antibodies in two species of raptor nestlings inhabiting Norway.

Lee MM1,2, Jaspers VLB1, Løseth ME1, Briels N1, Nygård T3, Bustnes JO3, Waugh CA4,5.

Author information: 1 Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Høgskoleringen 5, NO-7491, Trondheim, Norway. 2 Biological Sciences Program, Goucher College, 1021 Dulaney Valley Road, Baltimore, MD, 21204, USA. 3 Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Høgskoleringen 9, 7034, Trondheim, Norway. 4 Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Høgskoleringen 5, NO-7491, Trondheim, Norway. courtney.waugh@nord.no. 5 Faculty of Biosciences and Aquaculture, Nord University, Steinkjer, Norway. courtney.waugh@nord.no.




Since 2016, incursions of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N8 clade have caused unprecedented clinical signs and mortality in white-tailed eagles (WTE; Haliaeetus albicilla) across Europe and have been found to be infecting other raptor species, such as the northern goshawk (NG; Accipiter gentilis). Before this study, no screening of Norwegian raptors had been undertaken.


Plasma samples from 43 white-tailed eagle and 29 northern goshawk nestlings, from several locations across Norway were screened for antibodies to avian influenza viruses. No antibodies, and thus, no evidence of AIV exposure, were found in these Norwegian raptors. No clinical signs of AIV were observed in 43 white tailed eagles and 29 northern goshawks.


There are currently no indications that white-tailed eagles and northern goshawks inhabiting Norway are threatened by the recent HPAIV outbreaks in other areas of Europe. Ongoing monitoring should, however, be maintained to detect potential future outbreaks.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza; Birds of prey; Epizootic event; Norway

PMID: 31660964 DOI: 10.1186/s12917-019-2133-0

Keywords: Avian Influenza; Seroprevalence; Wild Birds; Norway.


#Avian #Influenza A Viruses among Occupationally Exposed #Populations, #China, 2014–2016 (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 12—December 2019 / Research

Avian Influenza A Viruses among Occupationally Exposed Populations, China, 2014–2016

Chuansong Quan1, Qianli Wang1, Jie Zhang, Min Zhao, Qigang Dai, Ting Huang, Zewu Zhang, Shenghua Mao, Yifei Nie, Jun Liu, Yun Xie, Baorong Zhang, Yuhai Bi, Weifeng Shi, Peipei Liu, Dayan Wang, Luzhao Feng, Hongjie Yu, William J. Liu  , and George F. Gao

Author affiliations: Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China (C. Quan, J. Zhang, P. Liu, D. Wang, L. Feng, W.J. Liu, G.F. Gao); Shandong First Medical University & Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, China (C. Quan, W. Shi); Fudan University, Shanghai, China (Q. Wang, H. Yu); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (M. Zhao, Y. Bi, G.F. Gao); Jiangsu Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing, China (Q. Dai); Sichuan Provincial Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Chengdu, China (T. Huang); Dongguan Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Dongguan, China (Z. Zhang); Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai (S. Mao); Henan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Zhengzhou, China (Y. Nie); Zaozhuang Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Zaozhuang, China (J. Liu); Jiangxi Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanchang, China (Y. Xie); Aviation General Hospital, Beijing (B. Zhang)



To determine the seroprevalence and seroconversion of avian influenza virus (AIV) antibodies in poultry workers, we conducted a seroepidemiologic study in 7 areas of China during December 2014–April 2016. We used viral isolation and reverse transcription PCR to detect AIVs in specimens from live poultry markets. We analyzed 2,124 serum samples obtained from 1,407 poultry workers by using hemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization assays. We noted seroprevalence of AIV antibodies for subtypes H9N2, H7N9, H6N1, H5N1-SC29, H5N6, H5N1-SH199, and H6N6. In serum from participants with longitudinal samples, we noted seroconversion, with >4-fold rise in titers, for H9N2, H7N9, H6N1, H5N1-SC29, H6N6, H5N6, and H5N1-SH199 subtypes. We found no evidence of H10N8 subtype. The distribution of AIV antibodies provided evidence of asymptomatic infection. We correlated AIV antibody prevalence in live poultry markets with increased risk for H7N9 and H9N2 infection among poultry workers.

Keywords: Avian Influenza; Human; China; Serology; Seroprevalence; H5N1; H5N6; H6N1; H6N6; H7N9; H9N2; Live poultry Markets.


Low #seroprevalence of #Zika virus #infection among #adults in Southern #Taiwan (BMC Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

BMC Infect Dis. 2019 Oct 23;19(1):884. doi: 10.1186/s12879-019-4491-4.

Low seroprevalence of Zika virus infection among adults in Southern Taiwan.

Chien YW1,2, Ho TC3, Huang PW1, Ko NY4, Ko WC5, Perng GC6,7,8.

Author information: 1 Department of Public Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan. 2 Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan. 3 Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan. 4 Department of Nursing, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan. 5 Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan. 6 Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan. gperng@mail.ncku.edu.tw. 7 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan, 70101, Taiwan. gperng@mail.ncku.edu.tw. 8 Center of Infectious Disease and Signaling Research, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan. gperng@mail.ncku.edu.tw.




We recently conducted a serosurvey of newly arrived workers in Taiwan from four Southeast Asian countries which revealed that 1% of the migrant workers had laboratory-confirmed recent Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. Taiwan, where Aedes mosquitoes are prevalent, has a close relationship with Southeast Asian countries. Up to now, 21 imported cases of ZIKV infection have been reported in Taiwan, but there has been no confirmed indigenous case. The aim of this serosurvey was to assess whether there was unrecognized ZIKV infections in Taiwan.


A total of 212 serum samples collected in a cross-sectional seroepidemiologic study conducted during the end of the 2015 dengue epidemic in Tainan, Taiwan, were analyzed. Anti-ZIKV IgM and IgG were tested using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNTs) for ZIKV and four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes were performed for samples with positive anti-ZIKV antibodies. A confirmed case of ZIKV infection was defined by ZIKV PRNT90 titer ratio ≥ 4 compared to four DENV serotypes.


The mean age of the 212 participants was 54.0 years (standard deviation 13.7 years), and female was predominant (67.0%). Anti-ZIKV IgM and IgG were detected in 0 (0%) and 9 (4.2%) of the 212 participants, respectively. For the 9 samples with anti-ZIKV IgG, only 1 sample had 4 times higher ZIKV PRNT90 titers compared to PRNT90 titers against four dengue virus serotypes; this individual denied having traveled abroad.


The results suggest that undetected indigenous ZIKV transmission might have occurred in Taiwan. The findings also suggest that the threat of epidemic transmission of ZIKV in Taiwan does exist due to extremely low-level of herd immunity. Our study also indicates that serological tests for ZIKV-specific IgG remain a big challenge due to cross-reactivity, even in dengue non-endemic countries.

KEYWORDS: Flaviviruses; Neutralization tests; Plaque reduction neutralization tests; Seroprevalence; Zika virus

PMID: 31646973 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-019-4491-4

Keywords: Zika virus; Serology; Seroprevalence; Taiwan.


#Serological Evidence of #Exposure to #Ebolaviruses in Domestic #Pigs from #Guinea (Tranbsound Emerg Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Transbound Emerg Dis. 2019 Oct 18. doi: 10.1111/tbed.13391. [Epub ahead of print]

Serological Evidence of Exposure to Ebolaviruses in Domestic Pigs from Guinea.

Fischer K1, Camara A2, Troupin C2, Fehling SK3, Strecker T3, Groschup MH1, Tordo N2, Diederich S1.

Author information: 1 Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Institute of Novel and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Greifswald – Insel Riems, Germany. 2 Institut Pasteur de Guineé, Conakry, Guinea. 3 Institute of Virology, Philipps University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany.



The genus Ebolavirus comprises several virus species with zoonotic potential and varying pathogenicity for humans. Ebolaviruses are considered to circulate in wildlife with occasional spillover events into the human population which then often leads to severe disease outbreaks. Several studies indicate a significant role of bats as reservoir hosts in the ebolavirus ecology. However, pigs from the Philippines have been found to be naturally infected with Reston virus (RESTV), an ebolavirus that is thought to only cause asymptomatic infections in humans. The recent report of ebolavirus-specific antibodies in pigs from Sierra Leone further supports natural infection of pigs with ebolaviruses. However, susceptibility of pigs to highly pathogenic Ebola virus (EBOV) was only shown under experimental settings and evidence for natural infection of pigs with EBOV is currently lacking. Between October and December 2017, we collected 308 serum samples from pigs in Guinea, West Africa, and tested for the presence of ebolavirus-specific antibodies with different serological assays. Besides reactivity to EBOV nucleoproteins in ELISA and Western Blot for 19 (6.2%) and 13 (4.2%) samples respectively, four sera recognized Sudan virus (SUDV) NP in Western blot. Furthermore, four samples specifically detected EBOV or SUDV glycoprotein (GP) in an indirect immunofluorescence assay under native conditions. Virus neutralization assay based on EBOV (Mayinga isolate) revealed five weakly neutralizing sera. The finding of (cross-) reactive and weakly neutralizing antibodies suggests the exposure of pigs from Guinea to ebolaviruses or ebola-like viruses with their pathogenicity as well as their zoonotic potential remaining unknown. Future studies should investigate whether pigs can act as an amplifying host for ebolaviruses and whether there is a risk for spillover events.

© 2019 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

KEYWORDS: ELISA; Ebola; West Africa; antibodies; ebolaviruses; neutralization test; pigs; serology

PMID: 31627257 DOI: 10.1111/tbed.13391

Keywords: Ebola; Sudan Virus; Serology; Seroprevalence; Pigs; Guinea.


#EV-71 #seroepidemiology in #Taiwan in 2017 and comparison of those rates in 1997, 1999 and 2007 (PLoS One, abstract)

[Source: PLoS One, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]


Enterovirus 71 seroepidemiology in Taiwan in 2017 and comparison of those rates in 1997, 1999 and 2007

Jian-Te Lee, Ting-Yu Yen, Wei-Liang Shih, Chun-Yi Lu, Ding-Ping Liu, Yi-Chuan Huang, Luan-Yin Chang , Li-Min Huang, Tzou-Yien Lin

Published: October 17, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0224110




During recent 20 years, enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as a major concern among children, particularly in the Asia-Pacific region. To understand current EV71 serostatus, to find risk factors associated with EV71 infection and to establish future EV71 vaccine policy, we performed a seroepidemiology study in Taiwan in 2017.


After informed consent was obtained, we enrolled preschool children, 6–15-year-old students, 16–50-year-old people. They received a questionnaire and a blood sample was collected to measure the EV71 neutralization antibody.


Altogether, 920 subjects were enrolled with a male-to-female ratio of 1.03. The EV71 seropositive rate was 10% (8/82) in infants, 4% (6/153) in 1-year-old children, 8% (7/83) in 2-year-old children, 8% (13/156) in 3–5-year-old children, 31% (38/122) in 6–11-year-old primary school students, 45% (54/121) in 12–15-year-old high school students and 75% (152/203) in 16-50-year-old people. Risk factors associated with EV71 seropositivity in preschool children were female gender, having siblings, more siblings, and contact with herpangina or hand-foot-and-mouth disease. The risk factor with EV71 seropositivity in 16–50-year-old people was having children in their families in addition to older age (p<0.001). Compared with the rates in 1997, 1999 and 2007, the rates in children were significantly lower in 2017.


EV71 seropositive rates were very low, at 4% to 10%, in preschool children and not high, at 31%, in primary school students. Preschool children are highly susceptible and need EV71 vaccine most.


Citation: Lee J-T, Yen T-Y, Shih W-L, Lu C-Y, Liu D-P, Huang Y-C, et al. (2019) Enterovirus 71 seroepidemiology in Taiwan in 2017 and comparison of those rates in 1997, 1999 and 2007. PLoS ONE 14(10): e0224110. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0224110

Editor: Dong-Yan Jin, University of Hong Kong, HONG KONG

Received: August 13, 2019; Accepted: October 4, 2019; Published: October 17, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Lee et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: This study was supported by grants from the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control, the Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taiwan (grant number MOHW 106-CDC-C-114-000117 to L-YC) and the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan (grant numbers MOST 105-2320-B-002-016 and 105-2314-B-002-139-MY3) to L-YC. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Enterovirus; EV-71; Taiwan; Serology; Seroprevalence.


#Serosurvey for #Influenza D Virus Exposure in #Cattle, #USA, 2014–2015 (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 11—November 2019 / Research

Serosurvey for Influenza D Virus Exposure in Cattle, United States, 2014–2015

Simone Silveira, Shollie M. Falkenberg  , Bryan S. Kaplan, Beate Crossley, Julia F. Ridpath, Fernando B. Bauermann, Charles P. Fossler, David A. Dargatz, Rohana P. Dassanayake, Amy L. Vincent, Cláudio W. Canal, and John D. Neill

Author affiliations: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil (S. Silveira, C.W. Canal); US Department of Agriculture, Ames, Iowa, USA (S.M. Falkenberg, B.S. Kaplan, J.F. Ridpath, R.P. Dassanayake, A.L. Vincent, J.D. Neill); University of California, Davis, California, USA (B. Crossley); Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma, USA (F.B. Bauermann); US Department of Agriculture, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA (C.P. Fossler, D.A. Dargatz)



Influenza D virus has been detected predominantly in cattle from several countries. In the United States, regional and state seropositive rates for influenza D have previously been reported, but little information exists to evaluate national seroprevalence. We performed a serosurveillance study with 1,992 bovine serum samples collected across the country in 2014 and 2015. We found a high overall seropositive rate of 77.5% nationally; regional rates varied from 47.7%–84.6%. Samples from the Upper Midwest and Mountain West regions showed the highest seropositive rates. In addition, seropositive samples were found in 41 of the 42 states from which cattle originated, demonstrating that influenza D virus circulated widely in cattle during this period. The distribution of influenza D virus in cattle from the United States highlights the need for greater understanding about pathogenesis, epidemiology, and the implications for animal health.

Keywords: Influenza D; Cattle; Seroprevalence; USA.