#WNV #Seroprevalence Among #Blood #Donors in #Hungary (Vector Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

West Nile Virus Seroprevalence Among Blood Donors in Hungary

Anna Nagy, Tímea Szöllősi, Mária Takács, Nóra Magyar, and Éva Barabás

Published Online: 11 Jun 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2018.2401



Background and Objectives:

West Nile virus (WNV) is one of the most important viral zoonotic infections in Hungary; however, no transfusion-transmitted WNV infections have been confirmed so far. In 2016, the number of clinical cases of WNV reported was 44, but the seasonal WNV screening of whole-blood donors has not yet been implemented. Our aims were to assess the WNV RNA reactivity and the prevalence of WNV-specific antibodies in the samples of blood donors collected in 2016.

Materials and Methods:

WNV RNA with Cobas TaqScreen and anti-WNV antibody determination from plasma samples of 2112 donors was performed. Cross-reactivity to tick-borne encephalitis virus was excluded. WNV neutralization test was used for the confirmation of anti-WNV IgG reactive results, and the presence of anti-WNV IgM antibodies was also determined.


None of the samples showed WNV RNA reactivity. The total weighted anti-WNV IgG prevalence was 2.34% (95% confidence interval 1.65–3.03), and in addition, three donors were found to be IgM positive. There was a comparable tendency between the data of WNV seroprevalence and cumulative incidence in six out of seven statistical regions in Hungary.


Our results show a comparable data with publications that estimated the WNV seroprevalence in some other European endemic areas. As protective measures, both the 30-day deferral of blood donors who spent at least 24 h in WNV-exposed areas and the exclusion of affected Hungarian territories from blood donation are enforced by the Hungarian National Blood Transfusion Service. Our study is the first comprehensive serological survey to obtain actual data about WNV seroprevalence in the Hungarian human population.

Keywords: WNV; Serology; Seroprevalence; Blood safety; Hungary.



#Serological #evidence of #Flavivirus #circulation in #human populations in Northern #Kenya: an assessment of disease risk 2016-2017 (Virol J., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Virol J. 2019 May 17;16(1):65. doi: 10.1186/s12985-019-1176-y.

Serological evidence of Flavivirus circulation in human populations in Northern Kenya: an assessment of disease risk 2016-2017.

Chepkorir E1,2, Tchouassi DP3, Konongoi SL4, Lutomiah J4, Tigoi C3, Irura Z5, Eyase F6, Venter M7, Sang R3.

Author information: 1 International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, P. O. Box 30772-00100, Nairobi, Kenya. echepkorir@icipe.org. 2 Center for Viral Zoonoses, Department of Medical Virology, University of Pretoria, P. O. Box 323, Arcadia, 0007, South Africa. echepkorir@icipe.org. 3 International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, P. O. Box 30772-00100, Nairobi, Kenya. 4 Center for Virus Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, P. O. Box 54628-00200, Nairobi, Kenya. 5 Division of Disease Surveillance and Response, Ministry of Health, P. O. Box 20781-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. 6 Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, P.O. Box 606, Village Market, Nairobi, Kenya. 7 Center for Viral Zoonoses, Department of Medical Virology, University of Pretoria, P. O. Box 323, Arcadia, 0007, South Africa.




Yellow fever, Dengue, West Nile and Zika viruses are re-emerging mosquito-borne Flaviviruses of public health concern. However, the extent of human exposure to these viruses and associated disease burden in Kenya and Africa at large remains unknown. We assessed the seroprevalence of Yellow fever and other Flaviviruses in human populations in West Pokot and Turkana Counties of Kenya. These areas border Uganda, South Sudan and Ethiopia where recent outbreaks of Yellow fever and Dengue have been reported, with possibility of spillover to Kenya.


Human serum samples collected through a cross-sectional survey in West Pokot and Turkana Counties were screened for neutralizing antibodies to Yellow fever, Dengue-2, West Nile and Zika virus using the Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test (PRNT). Seroprevalence was compared by county, site and important human demographic characteristics. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were estimated using Firth logistic regression model.


Of 877 samples tested, 127 neutralized with at least one of the four flaviviruses (14.5, 95% CI 12.3-17.0%), with a higher proportion in Turkana (21.1%, n = 87/413) than in West Pokot (8.6%, n = 40/464). Zika virus seroprevalence was significantly higher in West Pokot (7.11%) than in Turkana County (0.24%; χ2 P < 0.0001). A significantly higher Yellow fever virus seroprevalence was also observed in Turkana (10.7%) compared to West Pokot (1.29%; χ2 P < 0.0001). A high prevalence of West Nile virus was detected in Turkana County only (10.2%) while Dengue was only detected in one sample, from West Pokot. The odds of infection with West Nile virus was significantly higher in males than in females (aOR = 2.55, 95% CI 1.22-5.34). Similarly, the risk of Zika virus infection in West Pokot was twice higher in males than females (aOR = 2.01, 95% CI 0.91-4.41).


Evidence of neutralizing antibodies to West Nile and Zika viruses indicates that they have been circulating undetected in human populations in these areas. While the observed Yellow Fever prevalence in Turkana and West Pokot Counties may imply virus activity, we speculate that this could also be as a result of vaccination following the Yellow Fever outbreak in the Omo river valley, South Sudan and Uganda across the border.

KEYWORDS: Dengue virus; Flaviviruses risk assessment; Northern Kenya; Plaque reduction neutralization test; Seroprevalence; West Nile virus; Yellow fever virus; Zika virus

PMID: 31101058 DOI: 10.1186/s12985-019-1176-y

Keywords: Flavivirus; WNV; Zika Virus; Dengue Fever; Yellow Fever; Serology; Seroprevalence; Kenya.


Cross- #Protection of #Dengue Virus #Infection against #Congenital #Zika #Syndrome, Northeastern #Brazil (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 8—August 2019 / Research

Cross-Protection of Dengue Virus Infection against Congenital Zika Syndrome, Northeastern Brazil

Celia Pedroso1, Carlo Fischer1, Marie Feldmann1, Manoel Sarno, Estela Luz, Andrés Moreira-Soto, Renata Cabral, Eduardo Martins Netto, Carlos Brites, Beate M. Kümmerer, and Jan Felix Drexler

Author affiliations: Universidade Federal de Bahia, Salvador, Brazil (C. Pedroso, M. Sarno, E. Luz, R. Cabral, E. Martins Netto, C. Brites); Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin Humbolt-Universität zu Berlin and Berlin Institute of Health, Institute of Virology, Berlin, Germany (C. Fischer, A. Moreira-Soto, J.F. Drexler); University of Bonn Medical Centre, Bonn, Germany (M. Feldmann, B.M. Kümmerer); German Centre for Infection Research (B.M. Kümmerer, J.F. Drexler)



The Zika virus outbreak in Latin America resulted in congenital malformations, called congenital Zika syndrome (CZS). For unknown reasons, CZS incidence was highest in northeastern Brazil; one potential explanation is that dengue virus (DENV)–mediated immune enhancement may promote CZS development. In contrast, our analyses of historical DENV genomic data refuted the hypothesis that unique genome signatures for northeastern Brazil explain the uneven dispersion of CZS cases. To confirm our findings, we performed serotype-specific DENV neutralization tests in a case–control framework in northeastern Brazil among 29 Zika virus–seropositive mothers of neonates with CZS and 108 Zika virus–seropositive control mothers. Neutralization titers did not differ significantly between groups. In contrast, DENV seroprevalence and median number of neutralized serotypes were significantly lower among the mothers of neonates with CZS. Supported by model analyses, our results suggest that exposure to multitypic DENV infection may protect from, rather than enhance, development of CZS.

Keywords: Flavivirus; Dengue Fever; Zika Virus; A.D.E.; Congenital Zika Syndrome; Pregnancy; Brazil; Seroprevalence.


#Influenza D Virus #Infection in Dromedary #Camels, #Ethiopia (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 6—June 2019 / Research Letter

Influenza D Virus Infection in Dromedary Camels, Ethiopia

Shin Murakami, Tomoha Odagiri, Simenew Keskes Melaku, Boldbaatar Bazartseren, Hiroho Ishida, Akiko Takenaka-Uema, Yasushi Muraki, Hiroshi Sentsui, and Taisuke Horimoto

Author affiliations: University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan (S. Murakami, T. Odagiri, H. Ishida, A. Takenaka-Uema, T. Horimoto); Addis Ababa Science and Technology University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (S.K. Melaku); Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia (B. Bazartseren); Iwate Medical University, Iwate, Japan (Y. Muraki); Nihon University, Kanagawa, Japan (H. Sentsui)



Influenza D virus has been found to cause respiratory diseases in livestock. We surveyed healthy dromedary camels in Ethiopia and found a high seroprevalence for this virus, in contrast to animals co-existing with the camels. Our observation implies that dromedary camels may play an important role in the circulation of influenza D virus.

Keywords: Influenza D; Seroprevalence; Camels; Ethiopia.


#Zika virus #infection among symptomatic patients from two healthcare centers in #SaoPaulo State, #Brazil: prevalence, clinical characteristics, viral detection in body fluids and serodynamics (Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2019;61:e19. doi: 10.1590/S1678-9946201961019. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Zika virus infection among symptomatic patients from two healthcare centers in Sao Paulo State, Brazil: prevalence, clinical characteristics, viral detection in body fluids and serodynamics.

Tozetto-Mendoza TR1, Avelino-Silva VI2, Fonseca S3, Claro IM2, Paula AV1, Levin AS1,2, Sabino EC1,2, Mendes-Correa MC1,2, Figueiredo WM4, Felix AC1, Souza NCS1, Costa AA4, Inenami M4, Silva RMGD4, Levi JE1, Romano CM1, Paranhos-Baccalà G1,5, Segurado AC1,2, Mayaud P1,6.

Author information: 1 Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. 2 Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina, Departamento de Moléstias Infecciosas e Parasitárias, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. 3 Hospital São Francisco, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. 4 Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Serviço Especial de Saúde de Araraquara, Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil. 5 Medical Diagnostic Discovery Department (MD3), bioMérieux SA, Marcy l’Etoile, France. 6 London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London, United Kingdom.



Zika virus (ZIKV) clinical presentation and frequency/duration of shedding need further clarification. Symptomatic ZIKV-infected individuals identified in two hospitals in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, were investigated regarding clinical characteristics, shedding in body fluids, and serodynamics. Ninety-four of 235 symptomatic patients (Site A: 58%; Site B: 16%) had Real-Time PCR-confirmed ZIKV infection; fever, headache and gastrointestinal symptoms were less frequent, and rash was more frequent compared to ZIKV-negative patients. Real-Time PCR in serum had worse performance compared to plasma, while urine had the highest sensitivity. Shedding in genital fluids and saliva was rare. IgM positivity was the highest <14 days after the symptoms onset (86%), decreasing >28 days (24%); IgG positivity increased >14 days (96%) remaining positive in 94% of patients >28 days. ZIKV prevalence varied importantly in two neighboring cities during the same transmission season. Urine Real-Time PCR can improve diagnostic sensitivity; serum testing is less useful. Accurate serological tests are needed to improve diagnosis and surveillance.

PMID: 30970110 DOI: 10.1590/S1678-9946201961019

Keywords: Zika Virus; Brazil; Seroprevalence.


#Risk #Factors for #MERS-CoV #Seropositivity among #Animal #Market and #Slaughterhouse #Workers, Abu Dhabi, #UAE, 2014–2017 (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 5—May 2019 / Research

Risk Factors for MERS-CoV Seropositivity among Animal Market and Slaughterhouse Workers, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, 2014–2017

Ahmed Khudhair1, Marie E. Killerby1  , Mariam Al Mulla, Kheir Abou Elkheir, Wassim Ternanni, Zyad Bandar, Stefan Weber, Mary Khoury, George Donnelly, Salama Al Muhairi, Abdelmalik I. Khalafalla, Suvang Trivedi, Azaibi Tamin, Natalie J. Thornburg, John T. Watson, Susan I. Gerber, Farida Al Hosani1, and Aron J. Hall1

Author affiliations: Abu Dhabi Department of Health, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (A. Khudhair, M. Al Mulla, K.A. Elkheir, W. Ternanni, Z. Bandar, F. Al Hosani); Sheikh Khalifa Medical City, Abu Dhabi (M.E. Killerby, S. Weber, M. Khoury, G. Donnelly); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (M.E. Killerby, S. Trivedi, A. Tamin, N.J. Thornburg, J.T. Watson, S.I. Gerber, A.J. Hall); Abu Dhabi Food Control Authority, Abu Dhabi (S. Al Muhairi, A.I. Khalafalla)



Camel contact is a recognized risk factor for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection. Because specific camel exposures associated with MERS-CoV seropositivity are not fully understood, we investigated worker–camel interactions and MERS-CoV seroprevalence. We assessed worker seroprevalence in 2 slaughterhouses and 1 live-animal market in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, during 2014–2017 and administered an epidemiologic survey in 2016 and 2017. During 2014–2017, we sampled 100–235 workers, and 6%–19% were seropositive for MERS-CoV at each sampling round. One (1.4%) of 70 seronegative workers tested at multiple rounds seroconverted. On multivariable analyses, working as a camel salesman, handling live camels or their waste, and having diabetes were associated with seropositivity among all workers, whereas handling live camels combined with either administering medications or cleaning equipment was associated with seropositivity among market workers. Characterization of high-risk exposures is critical for implementation of preventive measures.

Keywords: MERS-CoV; Human; Camels; Seroprevalence; UAE.


#Epidemiological study of #MERS #coronavirus #infection in dromedary #camels in #Saudi Arabia, April-May 2015 (Rev Sci Tech., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Rev Sci Tech. 2018 Dec;37(3):985-997. doi: 10.20506/rst.37.3.2901.

Epidemiological study of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in dromedary camels in Saudi Arabia, April-May 2015.

Elfadil AA, Ahmed AG, Abdalla MO, Gumaa E, Osman OH, Younis AE, Al-Hafufi AN, Saif LJ, Zaki A, Al-Rumaihi A, Al-Harbi N, Kasem S, Al-Brahim RH, Al-Sahhaf A, Bayoumi FE, Qasim IA, Abu-Obeida A, Al-Dowairij A.


A cross-sectional study was conducted in five regions in Saudi Arabia to investigate the epidemiology of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) during April and May2015. Serum and nasal swab samples were tested for MERS-CoV antibodies and ribonucleic acid (RNA) using a recombinant enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (rELISA) and real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR), respectively. The overall MERS-CoV antibody seroprevalence was 80.5%, whereas the overall viral RNA prevalence was 2.4%. The associations of risk factors with each prevalence were quantified using univariate and multivariate analyses. The multivariate models identified region, age, grazing system, exposure to wild animals and dung removal as factors significantly associated with seroprevalence (p ??0.05). A higher seroprevalence was more likely to occur in camels from the Riyadh, Eastern, Northern and Makkah regions than those from the Jazan region; camels ??4 and 1-3 years of age (marginally significant) than calves < 1 year; and camels raised in zero grazing and semi-open grazing systems than those raised in an open grazing system. However, the presence of wild animals and daily dung removal were negatively associated with seroprevalence. On the other hand, region and sex were significantly associated with MERS-CoV RNA prevalence(p ??0.05). A higher viral RNA prevalence was more likely to occur in camels from the Riyadh region and Eastern region (marginally significant) than in those from the Makkah region, and in male camels than female camels. In conclusion, the risk factors identified in this study can be considered to be predictors of MERS-CoV infection in camels and should be taken into account when developing an efficient and cost-effective control strategy.

KEYWORDS: Camel; Dromedary camel; Epidemiology; MERS-CoV; Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; Prevalence; Risk factor; Saudi Arabia

PMID: 30964454 DOI: 10.20506/rst.37.3.2901

Keywords: MERS-CoV; Saudi Arabia; Camels; Seroprevalence.