Impact of #Zika virus emergence in French #Guiana: A large general #population #seroprevalence survey (J Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Impact of Zika virus emergence in French Guiana: A large general population seroprevalence survey

Claude Flamand, Sarah Bailly, Camille Fritzell, Léna Berthelot, Jessica Vanhomwegen,Henrik Salje, Juliette Paireau, Séverine Matheus, Antoine Enfissi,Sandrine Fernandes-Pellerin, Félix Djossou, Sébastien Linares, Jean-François Carod,Mirdad Kazanji, Jean-Claude Manuguerra, Simon Cauchemez, Dominique Rousset

The Journal of Infectious Diseases, jiz396, https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiz396

Published: 16 August 2019

 

Abstract

Background

Since the identification of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Brazil in May 2015, the virus has spread throughout the Americas. However, ZIKV burden in the general population in affected countries remains unknown.

Methods

We conducted a general population survey in the different communities of French Guiana through individual interviews and serologic survey during June–October 2017. All serum samples were tested for anti ZIKV IgG antibodies using a recombinant antigen-based SGERPAxMap microsphere immunoassay while part of them were further evaluated through anti ZIKV microneutralization tests (MNTs).

Results

The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 23.3% [20.9%-25.9%] among 2,697 participants, varying from 0% to 45.6% according to municipalities. ZIKV circulated in a large majority of French Guiana but not in the most isolated forest areas. The proportion of reported symptomatic Zika infection was estimated at 25.5% [20.3% – 31.4%] in ZIKV-positive individuals.

Conclusions

This study described a large-scale representative ZIKV seroprevalence study in South America from the recent 2015-2016 Zika epidemic. Our findings reveal that the majority of the population remains susceptible to ZIKV, which could potentially allow future reintroductions of the virus.

Issue Section: Major Article

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© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial reproduction and distribution of the work, in any medium, provided the original work is not altered or transformed in any way, and that the work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com

Keywords: Zika Virus; Serology; Seroprevalence; French Guyana.

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#Seroprevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus #HTLV and its associated #factors in #donors of a #blood bank of Medellín – #Colombia, 2014-2018 (PLoS One, abstract)

[Source: PLoS One, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Seroprevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus HTLV and its associated factors in donors of a blood bank of Medellín-Colombia, 2014-2018

Jaiberth Antonio Cardona-Arias, Carolina Vélez-Quintero , Olga Victoria Calle-González , Jennifer Florez-Duque, Juan Carlos Zapata

Published: August 12, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0221060

 

Abstract

Background

Research on HTLV in Colombia is limited; despite being an endemic country there are few studies on the magnitude of this infection. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of HTLV I/II and its associated factors in donors to a blood bank of Medellín Colombia, 2014–2018.

Methods

This is a cross-sectional study of 52,159 donors with a secondary information source. Seroprevalence of HTLV I/II was determined with its confidence interval and the population characteristics were described by frequency and summary measures. To explore the associated factors, Pearson’s Chi square test, Mann-Whitney U test, crude odds ratios were used and they were adjusted by logistic regression in SPSS 25.0.

Results

88% of the population lived in the metropolitan area, 68.5% belonged to the University. 76.2% were altruistic donors (unpaid donors who did not donate to a specific patient). 24.5% were repetitive (paid) donors. 75% of the donors were under 41 years old. The seroprevalence of HTLV I/II was 0.176% (95% CI = 0.139% -0.213%), being statistically lower in repetitive donors and men.

Conclusion

The seroprevalence of HTLV I/II infection in the studied blood bank is lower than that reported in other blood banks at the departmental and national levels. In Medellín, it was associated with the frequency of donation and gender, which is useful information for the hemovigilance programs of the city.

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Citation: Cardona-Arias JA, Vélez-Quintero C, Calle-González OV, Florez-Duque J, Zapata JC (2019) Seroprevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus HTLV and its associated factors in donors of a blood bank of Medellín-Colombia, 2014-2018. PLoS ONE 14(8): e0221060. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0221060

Editor: Jason Blackard, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, UNITED STATES

Received: April 11, 2019; Accepted: July 29, 2019; Published: August 12, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Cardona-Arias et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: This research relies upon salary support for the authors. JAC-A was supported by University of Antioquia and Cooperative University of Colombia. CV-Q, OVC-G, and JF-D were supported, as students, by the University of Antioquia. JCZ salary was supported by the Institute of Human Virology (IHV), University of Maryland School of Medicine. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: HTLV-I/II; Seroprevalence; Blood safety; Colombia.

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Retrospective #investigation of #IgM #antibodies against #Zika virus in serum from febrile #patients in #Mozambique, 2009-2015 (BMC Res Notes, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

BMC Res Notes. 2019 Jul 31;12(1):469. doi: 10.1186/s13104-019-4511-x.

Retrospective investigation of IgM antibodies against Zika virus in serum from febrile patients in Mozambique, 2009-2015.

Chelene IR1, Ali S1, Mula FI1, Muianga AF1, Monteiro VO1, Oludele J1, Chongo IS1, José A1, Amade NA2, António VS3, Gudo ES1.

Author information: 1 Instituto Nacional de Saúde, Vila de Marracuene, EN1, Parcela nº3943, Maputo, Mozambique. 2 Centro de Colaboração em Saúde, Rua Damião de Gois, Maputo, Mozambique. 3 Instituto Nacional de Saúde, Vila de Marracuene, EN1, Parcela nº3943, Maputo, Mozambique. vsa.co.mz@gmail.com.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Zika virus (ZIKV) has emerged as an important health problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence, geographical distribution and trend of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies against ZIKV between 2009 and 2015 in Mozambique.

RESULTS:

The median age of participants was 3 years [interquartile range (IQR): 1.0-6.0 years)] and 56.5% (480/850) of them were male. Of the 850 samples, 42 (4.9%) were positive for IgM antibodies against ZIKV. Positive samples were found in 9 provinces of the country. Frequency of IgM antibodies against ZIKV was slightly higher in patients aged 5-9 years old, and in the north region of the country.

KEYWORDS: Febrile patient; Mozambique; Zika

PMID: 31366379 DOI: 10.1186/s13104-019-4511-x

Keywords: Serology; Seroprevalence; Zika Virus; Mozambique.

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#Serological #analysis of #Ebola virus #survivors and close #contacts in #SierraLeone: A cross-sectional study (PLoS Negl Trop Dis., abstract)

[Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Serological analysis of Ebola virus survivors and close contacts in Sierra Leone: A cross-sectional study

Peter J. Halfmann , Amie J. Eisfeld, Tokiko Watanabe, Tadashi Maemura, Makoto Yamashita, Satoshi Fukuyama, Tammy Armbrust, Isaiah Rozich, Alhaj N’jai, Gabriele Neumann, Yoshihiro Kawaoka , Foday Sahr

Published: August 1, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007654 / This is an uncorrected proof.

 

Abstract

The 2013–2016 Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa was the largest and deadliest outbreak to date. Here we conducted a serological study to examine the antibody levels in survivors and the seroconversion in close contacts who took care of Ebola-infected individuals, but did not develop symptoms of Ebola virus disease. In March 2017, we collected blood samples from 481 individuals in Makeni, Sierra Leone: 214 survivors and 267 close contacts. Using commercial, quantitative ELISAs, we tested the plasma for IgG-specific antibodies against three major viral antigens: GP, the only viral glycoprotein expressed on the virus surface; NP, the most abundant viral protein; and VP40, a major structural protein of Zaire ebolavirus. We also determined neutralizing antibody titers. In the cohort of Ebola survivors, 97.7% of samples (209/214) had measurable antibody levels against GP, NP, and/or VP40. Of these positive samples, all but one had measurable neutralizing antibody titers against Ebola virus. For the close contacts, up to 12.7% (34/267) may have experienced a subclinical virus infection as indicated by detectable antibodies against GP. Further investigation is warranted to determine whether these close contacts truly experienced subclinical infections and whether these asymptomatic infections played a role in the dynamics of transmission.

 

Author summary

As the causative agent of an often lethal hemorrhagic fever disease in humans and nonhuman primates, Zaire ebolavirus typically causes high fever, severe diarrhea, and vomiting which results in case fatality rates as high as 90%. The 2013–2016 outbreak in West Africa was the largest and most devastating Ebola outbreak to date resulting in over 28,600 identified human cases and 11,300 deaths. Though our knowledge of virus transmission is incomplete, we do know that transmission occurs through direct contact with virus-contaminated body fluids (blood, secretions, or other body fluids), materials such as bedding contaminated with these fluids, and through the handling and preparation of contaminated food. Asymptomatic Ebola virus infections that result in seroconversion in the absence of disease symptoms have been observed both in humans and experimentally in animal models. In the present serology study, we determined a majority of Ebola survivors in our cohort had measurable antibody levels against at least one viral antigen, as expected. In our cohort of close contacts, relatives and health care workers who took care of Ebola-infected individuals during the outbreak, we observed a rate of seroprevalence of 12.7% as indicated by detectable GP antibody levels. Given that Ebola virus is typically associated with a highly lethal disease in humans, it is of great interest to determine the host-virus interactions and transmission dynamics associated with asymptomatic cases.

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Citation: Halfmann PJ, Eisfeld AJ, Watanabe T, Maemura T, Yamashita M, Fukuyama S, et al. (2019) Serological analysis of Ebola virus survivors and close contacts in Sierra Leone: A cross-sectional study. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(8): e0007654. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007654

Editor: Benjamin Althouse, Institute for Disease Modeling, UNITED STATES

Received: January 23, 2019; Accepted: July 23, 2019; Published: August 1, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Halfmann et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript.

Funding: YK was was supported for this work by the Japanese agencies of J-PRIDE for Global Epidemic from AMED (JP17fm0208101j0001), by RPERID from AMED (JP17fk018029h002) and by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas from MEXT (no. 16H06429, 16K21723 and 16H06434). The funders had no role in the study design data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Ebola; Ebola-Makona; Serology; Seroprevalence; Sierra Leone.

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#Fatal Case of #Lassa Fever, Bangolo District, Côte d’Ivoire, 2015 (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 9—September 2019 / Research Letter

Fatal Case of Lassa Fever, Bangolo District, Côte d’Ivoire, 2015

Mathieu Mateo  , Caroline Picard, Yahaya Sylla, Emilie Kamo, Danielle Odegue, Alexandra Journeaux, Stéphane Kouassi Kan, Marcelle Money, David N’Golo Coulibaly, Eugène Koffi, Souleymane Meite, Véronique Akran, Hervé Kadjo, Edgard Adjogoua, Solange N’Gazoa Kakou, Sylvain Baize, and Mireille Dosso

Author affiliations: Institut Pasteur, Lyon, France (M. Mateo, C. Picard, A. Journeaux, S. Baize); Centre International de Recherche en Infectiologie, Lyon (M. Mateo, C. Picard, A. Journeaux, S. Baize); Institut Pasteur de Côte d’Ivoire, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire (Y. Sylla, E. Kamo, D. Odegue, S.K. Kan, M. Money, D. N’Golo Coulibaly, E. Koffi, S. Meite, V. Akran, H. Kadjo, E. Adjogoua, S. N’Gazoa Kakou, S. Baize, M. Dosso)

 

Abstract

Lassa fever has not been reported in Côte d’Ivoire. We performed a retrospective analysis of human serum samples collected in Côte d’Ivoire in the dry seasons (January–April) during 2015–2018. We identified a fatal human case of Lassa fever in the Bangolo District of western Côte d’Ivoire during 2015.

Keywords: Lassa fever; Seroprevalence; Ivory Coast.

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#Serological #evidence of #Ebola virus #exposure in #dogs from affected communities in #Liberia: A preliminary report (PLoS Negl Trop Dis., abstract)

[Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Serological evidence of Ebola virus exposure in dogs from affected communities in Liberia: A preliminary report

Brien K. Haun, Varney Kamara, Abigail S. Dweh , Kianalei Garalde-Machida , Saymajunkon S. E. Forkay , Melissa Takaaze , Madhuri Namekar, Teri Ann S. Wong, Ayesha E. R. Bell-Gam Woto, Peter Humphreys, Ophelia I. Weeks, Mosoka P. Fallah, John M. Berestecky, Vivek R. Nerurkar, Axel T. Lehrer

Published: July 22, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007614 / This is an uncorrected proof.

 

Abstract

Filoviruses such as Ebola virus (EBOV) cause outbreaks of viral hemorrhagic fevers for which no FDA-approved vaccines or drugs are available. The 2014–2016 EBOV outbreak in West Africa infected approximately 30,000 people, killing more than 11,000 and affecting thousands more in areas still suffering from the effects of civil wars. Sierra Leone and Liberia reported EBOV cases in every county demonstrating the efficient spread of this highly contagious virus in the well-connected societies of West Africa. In communities, canines are often in contact with people while scavenging for food, which may include sickly bush animals or, as reported from the outbreak, EBOV infected human bodies and excrement. Therefore, dogs may serve as sentinel animals for seroprevalence studies of emerging infectious viruses. Further, due to their proximity to humans, they may have important One Health implications while offering specimens, which may be easier to obtain than human serum samples. Previous reports on detecting EBOV exposure in canines have been limited. Herein we describe a pilot project to detect IgG-responses directed against multiple filovirus and Lassa virus (LASV) antigens in dogs from EBOV affected communities in Liberia. We used a multiplex Luminex-based microsphere immunoassay (MIA) to detect dog IgG binding to recombinant filovirus antigens or LASV glycoprotein (GP) in serum from dogs that were old enough to be present during the EBOV outbreak. We identified 47 (73%) of 64 dog serum samples as potentially exposed to filoviruses and up to 100% of the dogs from some communities were found to have elevated levels of EBOV antigen-binding IgG titers. The multiplex MIA described in this study provides evidence for EBOV IgG antibodies present in dogs potentially exposed to the virus during the 2014–16 outbreak in Liberia. These data support the feasibility of canines as EBOV sentinels and provides evidence that seroprevalence studies in dogs can be conducted using suitable assays even under challenging field conditions. Further studies are warranted to collect data and to define the role canines may play in transmission or detection of emerging infectious diseases.

 

Author summary

Ebola Virus (EBOV) and its related species cause hemorrhagic fevers for which there are no FDA- approved treatments. The 2014–2016 EBOV outbreak in West Africa infected over 30,000 people, killing more than 11,000. This was the largest outbreak to date and Liberia was the unfortunate epicenter. In Liberia, EBOV cases were reported in every county. While preventative and therapeutic agent developments have received much attention, prophylactic measures involving Liberian communities have seen much less attention. In Liberia, dogs may warrant surveillance as they routinely interact with animals of the forest and people within communities. Despite scavenging the excrements and even bodies of infected individuals during the outbreak, dogs reportedly remained asymptomatic for EBOV. In collaboration with the University of Liberia and the Leon Quist Ledlum Central Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory of Liberia, our team used a multiplex Luminex-based assay to detect dog antibodies (IgG) binding recombinant filovirus antigens or LASV glycoprotein in samples from animals that were present during the EBOV outbreak. We identified several communities in which 100% of dogs showed IgG responses reactive to one or more filovirus antigens. This preliminary report establishes the feasibility of conducting EBOV seroprevalence studies in resource poor outbreak sites in Africa using modern and economical serological assay techniques.

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Citation: Haun BK, Kamara V, Dweh AS, Garalde-Machida K, Forkay SSE, Takaaze M, et al. (2019) Serological evidence of Ebola virus exposure in dogs from affected communities in Liberia: A preliminary report. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(7): e0007614. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007614

Editor: Anne W. Rimoin, University of California, Los Angeles, UNITED STATES

Received: January 24, 2019; Accepted: July 8, 2019; Published: July 22, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Haun et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript.

Funding: This research was supported by institutional funds and research grants (R01AI119185 and R01AI132323) to ATL, infrastructure support by grant (P30GM114737) from the Centers of Biomedical Research Excellence, National Institute of General Medical Sciences to ATL and VRN, and grant (D71TW010434) to OIW and VRN from the Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health (NIH). KGM and MT were supported by the Minority Health International Research Training (MHIRT) program grant (T37MD008636) from the National Institute of Minority Health and Health Disparities, NIH. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Ebola; Filovirus; Serology; Seroprevalence; Dogs; Liberia.

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Low #seroprevalence rates of #Zika virus in Kuala Lumpur, #Malaysia (Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2019 Jul 11. pii: trz056. doi: 10.1093/trstmh/trz056. [Epub ahead of print]

Low seroprevalence rates of Zika virus in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Sam IC1, Montoya M2, Chua CL1, Chan YF1, Pastor A2, Harris E2.

Author information: 1 Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 2 Division of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Zika virus (ZIKV) is believed to be endemic in Southeast Asia. However, there have been few Zika cases reported to date in Malaysia, which could be due to high pre-existing levels of population immunity.

METHODS:

To determine Zika virus (ZIKV) seroprevalence in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 1085 serum samples from 2012, 2014-2015 and 2017 were screened for anti-ZIKV antibodies using a ZIKV NS1 blockade-of-binding assay. Reactive samples were confirmed using neutralization assays against ZIKV and the four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes. A sample was possible ZIKV seropositive with a ZIKV 50% neutralization (NT50) titre ≥20. A sample was probable ZIKV seropositive if, in addition, all DENV NT50 titres were <20 or the ZIKV NT50 titre was >4-fold greater than the highest DENV NT50 titre.

RESULTS:

We found low rates of possible ZIKV seropositivity (3.3% [95% confidence interval {CI} 2.4 to 4.6]) and probable ZIKV seropositivity (0.6% [95% CI 0.3 to 1.4]). Possible ZIKV seropositivity was independently associated with increasing age (odds ratio [OR] 1.04 [95% CI 1.02 to 1.06], p<0.0001) and male gender (OR 3.5 [95% CI 1.5 to 8.6], p=0.005).

CONCLUSIONS:

The low ZIKV seroprevalence rate, a proxy for population immunity, does not explain the low incidence of Zika in dengue-hyperendemic Kuala Lumpur. Other factors, such as the possible protective effects of pre-existing flavivirus antibodies or reduced transmission by local mosquito vectors, should be explored. Kuala Lumpur is at high risk of a large-scale Zika epidemic.

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

KEYWORDS: Malaysia; NS1 blockade-of-binding ELISA; Zika virus; dengue virus; neutralization test; seroprevalence

PMID: 31294807 DOI: 10.1093/trstmh/trz056

Keywords: Zika Virus; Malaysia; Seroprevalence.

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