#Epidemiology of #Chikungunya Virus #Outbreaks in #Guadeloupe and #Martinique, 2014: An Observational Study in Volunteer Blood Donors (PLoS Negl Trop Dis., abstract)

[Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS / PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Epidemiology of Chikungunya Virus Outbreaks in Guadeloupe and Martinique, 2014: An Observational Study in Volunteer Blood Donors

Pierre Gallian , Isabelle Leparc-Goffart, Pascale Richard, Françoise Maire, Olivier Flusin, Rachid Djoudi, Jacques Chiaroni, Remi Charrel, Pierre Tiberghien, Xavier de Lamballerie

Published: January 12, 2017 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0005254

 

Abstract

Background

During Dec-2013, a chikungunya virus (CHIKV) outbreak was first detected in the French-West Indies. Subsequently, the virus dispersed to other Caribbean islands, continental America and many islands in the Pacific Ocean. Previous estimates of the attack rate were based on declaration of clinically suspected cases.

Methods/Principal findings

Individual testing for CHIKV RNA of all (n = 16,386) blood donations between Feb-24th 2014 and Jan-31st 2015 identified 0·36% and 0·42% of positives in Guadeloupe and Martinique, respectively. The incidence curves faithfully correlated with those of suspected clinical cases in the general population of Guadeloupe (abrupt epidemic peak), but not in Martinique (flatter epidemic growth). No significant relationship was identified between CHIKV RNA detection and age-classes or blood groups. Prospective (Feb-2014 to Jan-2015; n = 9,506) and retrospective (Aug-2013 to Feb-2014; n = 6,559) seroepidemiological surveys in blood donors identified a final seroprevalence of 48·1% in Guadeloupe and 41·9% in Martinique. Retrospective survey also suggested the absence or limited “silent” CHIKV circulation before the outbreak. Parameters associated with increased seroprevalence were: Gender (M>F), KEL-1, [RH+1/KEL-1], [A/RH+1] and [A/RH+1/KEL-1] blood groups in Martiniquan donors. A simulation model based on observed incidence and actual seroprevalence values predicted 2·5 and 2·3 days of asymptomatic viraemia in Martiniquan and Guadeloupian blood donors respectively.

Conclusions/Significance

This study, implemented promptly with relatively limited logistical requirements during CHIKV emergence in the Caribbean, provided unique information regarding retrospective and prospective epidemiology, infection risk factors and natural history of the disease. In the stressful context of emerging infectious disease outbreaks, blood donor-based studies can serve as robust and cost-effective first-line tools for public health surveys.

 

Author Summary

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne arbovirus responsible of a large outbreak since December 2013 in the Americas from French islands in the Caribbean. Documentation of the epidemic was based on the survey of clinically suspected cases, providing limited information on the incidence of the disease overtime and the herd immunity of the general population at the end of the outbreak. Our study improved blood donors specimen collection and data obtained from the Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) screening implemented during the outbreak in order to prevent CHIKV transmission by blood products. After an 11 month follow up, we determine for Martinique and Guadeloupe islands the CHIKV-RNA positive rate: 0.42% and 0.36% respectively and the final IgG seroprevalence: 41.2% and 48.1%. Using a simulation model, we estimate the CHIKV duration of asymptomatic viremia to be between 2.3 and 2.5 days. Our findings will help in the comprehension of the natural history of infection and provide helpful data for prevention of Transfusion transmitted infections. Our study provides evidence that monitoring of Chikungunya infection based on NAT screening of voluntary blood donors can be implemented rapidly and provides real-time epidemiological information. This should be of specific relevance to the case of epidemics caused by viral infections with high numbers of asymptomatic forms such as observed with the currently emerging Zika virus.

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Citation: Gallian P, Leparc-Goffart I, Richard P, Maire F, Flusin O, Djoudi R, et al. (2017) Epidemiology of Chikungunya Virus Outbreaks in Guadeloupe and Martinique, 2014: An Observational Study in Volunteer Blood Donors. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 11(1): e0005254. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0005254

Editor: Marilia Sá Carvalho, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, BRAZIL

Received: June 9, 2016; Accepted: December 13, 2016; Published: January 12, 2017

Copyright: © 2017 Gallian et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: This work was supported by Etablissement Français du Sang (EFS), Alliance pour les sciences de la vie et de la santé (AVIESAN), Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) and in part by the European programmes PREDEMICS (FP7-n°278433), European Virus Archive goes Global (EVAg, H2020-n°653316) and European Network for Diagnostics of Imported Viral Diseases (ENIVD, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control). The work of RC was done under the frame of EurNegVec COST Action TD1303. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Chikungunya; Martinique; Guadeloupe.

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#Seroprevalence and #Transmission of #Human #Influenza A(#H5N1) Virus before and after Virus #Reassortment, #Cambodia, 2006–2014 (@CDC_EIDjournal, abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 23, Number 2—February 2017 / Dispatch

Seroprevalence and Transmission of Human Influenza A(H5N1) Virus before and after Virus Reassortment, Cambodia, 2006–2014

Sowath Ly, Paul Horwood, Malen Chan, Sareth Rith, Sopheak Sorn, Kunthea Oeung, Kunthy Nguon, Siam Chan, Phalla Y, Amy Parry, Reiko Tsuyuoka, Sovann Ly, Beat Richner, Denis Laurent, Sirenda Vong, Philippe Dussart, Philippe Buchy, and Arnaud Tarantola

Author affiliations: Institut Pasteur du Cambodge, Phnom Penh, Cambodia (S. Ly, P. Horwood, M. Chan, P. Y, S. Rith, S. Sorn, K. Oeung K. Nguon, S. Chan, S. Vong, P. Dussart,, P. Buchy, A. Tarantola); World Health Organization, Phnom Penh (A. Parry, R. Tsuyuoka); Ministry of Health, Phnom Penh (S. Ly); Kantha Bopha Children’s Hospitals, Siem Reap and Phnom Penh, Cambodia (B. Richner, D. Laurent); GSK Vaccines R&D, Singapore (P. Buchy)

 

Abstract

Thirty-five human influenza A(H5N1) cases were reported in Cambodia during 2013–2014 after emergence of a clade 1.1.2 reassortant virus. We tested 881 villagers and found 2 cases of pauci- or asymptomatic infection. Seroprevalence after emergence of the reassortant strain (0.2%) was lower than the aggregate seroprevalence of 1.3% reported in earlier studies.

Keywords: Avian Influenza, H5N1, Human, Cambodia.

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#Surveillance of the #MERS-CoV #Infection in #Healthcare #Workers after Contact with Confirmed MERS Patients: Incidence and #RiskFactors of MERS-CoV #Seropositivity (Clin Microbiol Infect., abstract)

[Source: Science Direct, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Clinical Microbiology and Infection / Available online 27 July 2016 / In Press, Accepted Manuscript  / Original Article

Surveillance of the MERS Coronavirus Infection in Healthcare Workers after Contact with Confirmed MERS Patients: Incidence and Risk Factors of MERS-CoV Seropositivity

Chung-Jong Kim, MD1, Won Suk Choi2, Younghee Jung3, Sungmin Kiem4, Hee Yun Seol5, Heung Jeong Woo6, Young Hwa Choi7, Jun Seong Son8, Kye-Hyung Kim9, Yeon-Sook Kim10, Eu Suk Kim11, Sun Hee Park12, Ji Hyun Yoon13, Su-Mi Choi14, Hyuck Lee15, Won Sup Oh16, Soo-Young Choi17, Nam-Joong Kim18, Jae-Phil Choi19, So Yeon Park20, Jieun Kim21, Su Jin Jeong22, Kkot Sil Lee23, Hee Chang Jang24, Ji Young Rhee25, Baek-Nam Kim26, Ji Hwan Bang27, Jae Hoon Lee28, ShinAe Park29, Hyo Youl Kim30, Jae Ki Choi31, Yu-Mi Wi32, Hee Jung Choi, MD PhD1,

1 Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine – 2 Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea – 3 Department of Internal Medicine, Konyang University Hospital – 4 Department of Internal Medicine, Inje University Haeundae Paik Hospital – 5 Department of Internal Medicine, Good GangAn Hospital – 6 Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University Dongtan Sacred Heart Hospital – 7 Department of Internal Medicine, Ajou University Hospital – 8 Department of Internal Medicine, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong – 9 Department of Internal Medicine, Pusan National University Hospital – 10 Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Chungnam National University School of Medicine – 11 Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital – 12 Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, the Catholic University of Korea, Daejeon St. Mary’s Hospital – 13 Department of Internal Medicine, Eulji University Hospital – 14 Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, the Catholic University of Korea, Yeouido St. Mary’s Hospital – 15 Division of Infectious Diseases, Dong-A University Hospital – 16 Department of Internal Medicine, Kangwon National University Hospital – 17 Department of Neurology, Dae Cheong Hospital – 18 Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital – 19 Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul Medical Center – 20 Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital – 21 Department of Internal Medicine, Hanyang University Guri Hospital – 22 Department of Internal Medicine, Gangnam Severance Hospital – 23 Department of Internal Medicine, Myongji Hospital – 24 Department of Internal Medicine, Chonnam National University Hospital – 25 Department of Internal Medicine, Dankook University Hospital – 26 Department of Internal Medicine, Inje University Sanggye Paik Hospital – 27 Department of Internal Medicine, Borame Medical Center – 28 Department of Internal Medicine, Wonkwang University Hospital – 29 Department of Family Medicine, Seobuk Hospital Seoul Metropolitan Government
30 Department of Internal Medicine, Wonju Severance Christian Hospital – 31 Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, the Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon St. Mary’s Hospital – 32 Department of Internal Medicine, Samsung Changwon Hospital

Received 25 March 2016, Revised 11 July 2016, Accepted 16 July 2016, Available online 27 July 2016

doi:10.1016/j.cmi.2016.07.017

 

Abstract

Objectives

Given the mode of transmission of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), healthcare workers (HCWs) in contact with MERS patients are expected to be at risk of MERS infections. We evaluated the prevalence of MERS coronavirus (CoV) immunoglobulin G (IgG) in HCWs exposed to MERS patients, and calculated the incidence of MERS-affected cases in HCWs.

Methods

We enrolled HCWs from hospitals where confirmed MERS patients had visited. Serum was collected 4–6 weeks after the last contact with a confirmed MERS patient. We performed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to screen for the presence of MERS-CoV IgG, and an indirect immunofluorescence test (IIFT) to confirm MERS-CoV IgG. We used a questionnaire to collect information regarding the exposure. We calculated the incidence of MERS-affected cases by dividing the sum of PCR-confirmed and serology-confirmed cases by the number of exposed HCWs in participating hospitals.

Results

In total 1169 HCWs in 31 hospitals had contact with 114 MERS patients, and among the HCWs 15 were PCR-confirmed MERS cases in study hospitals. Serologic analysis was performed for 737 participants. ELISA was positive in five participants and borderline for seven. IIFT was positive for two of these 12 participants (0.3%). Among the participants who did not use appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE), seropositivity was 0.7% (2/294), compared to 0% (0/443) in cases with appropriate PPE use.

Conclusions

The incidence of MERS infection in HCWs was 1.5% (17/1169). The seroprevalence of MERS-CoV IgG among HCWs was higher among participants who did not use appropriate PPE.

Keywords: Middle East Respiratory Syndrome;  Healthcare Personnel;  – Incidence;  IgG;  Personal protective equipment

Corresponding author. Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine 1071, Anyangcheon-ro, Yangcheon-gu, Seoul, Korea. Tel.: +82 2 2650 6008; fax: +82 2 2655 2076.

Corresponding author. Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine 1071, Anyangcheon-ro, Yangcheon-gu, Seoul, Korea. Tel.: +82 2 2650 5089; fax : +82 2 2655 2076.

© 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Nosocomial Outbreaks; MERS-CoV; Serosurveys; Seroprevalence.

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#Serological #Survey of #WestNile #Virus in #Pet #Dogs from #Saskatchewan, #Canada (Vector-Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases

Serological Survey of West Nile Virus in Pet Dogs from Saskatchewan, Canada  [      ]

To cite this article: Gaunt M. Casey, Waldner Cheryl, and Taylor Susan M.. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. -Not available-, ahead of print. doi:10.1089/vbz.2015.1780.

Online Ahead of Print: December 8, 2015

 

ABSTRACT

Serum samples collected from 143 dogs from Saskatchewan, Canada, between 2008 and 2010 were evaluated for seroprevalence of West Nile virus (WNV). WNV antibodies were identified in 40/143 dogs (28%). Dogs that were primarily housed in the yard were 6.2 times (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.6–14.5) more likely to have antibodies than dogs housed in the house or garage. Dogs were more likely to be positive with increasing time spent outside. The results of this study document WNV seroprevalence in dogs from Saskatchewan and suggest that pet dogs might be useful as a sentinel species for WNV surveillance.

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; West Nile Virus; Canada; Dogs.

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Ongoing #transmission of #avian #influenza A #viruses in #HK despite very comprehensive #poultry #control #measures: a prospective seroepidemiology study (J Infect., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Infect. 2015 Nov 26. pii: S0163-4453(15)00365-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2015.10.013. [Epub ahead of print]

Ongoing transmission of avian influenza A viruses in Hong Kong despite very comprehensive poultry control measures: a prospective seroepidemiology study. [      ]

To KK1, Hung IF2, Lui YM3, Mok FK3, Chan AS3, Li PT3, Wong TL3, Ho DT3, Chan JF1, Chan KH1, Yuen KY4.

Author information: 1State Key Laboratory for Emerging Infectious Diseases, The University of Hong Kong; Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China; Carol Yu Centre for Infection, The University of Hong Kong; Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China; Research Centre of Infection and Immunology, The University of Hong Kong; Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China; Department of Microbiology, The University of Hong Kong; Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China. 2Carol Yu Centre for Infection, The University of Hong Kong; Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China; Research Centre of Infection and Immunology, The University of Hong Kong; Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China; Department of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong; Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China. 3Department of Microbiology, The University of Hong Kong; Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China. 4State Key Laboratory for Emerging Infectious Diseases, The University of Hong Kong; Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China; Carol Yu Centre for Infection, The University of Hong Kong; Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China; Research Centre of Infection and Immunology, The University of Hong Kong; Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China; Department of Microbiology, The University of Hong Kong; Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China. Electronic address: kyyuen@hku.hk.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

Stringent measures have been implemented in Hong Kong to prevent human infections due to avian influenza viruses (AIVs). Here, we report the seroprevalence of AIVs among high risk population.

METHODS:

In this prospective study, blood samples were collected in October and November 2013 and in July 2014 from workers at live poultry market (LPM) and pig/cattle slaughterhouse (SH) in Hong Kong. Serum antibody titers against A(H5N1), A(H7N9) and A(H9N2) were determined.

RESULTS:

When an hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titer of 40 was used as the cutoff, the A(H5N1) seropositive rate among LPM workers increased from 0% in 2013 to 37.8% in 2014 (P<0.001) and the A(H9N2) seropositive rate increased from 10% to 55.6% (P<0.001). There was no significant increase in A(H7N9) seropositive rate for LPM workers irrespective of cutoff titer. For SH workers, there was no significant increase in HI titer for any AIVs. Significantly more LPM workers had a ≥4-fold increase in A(H5N1) HI titer from 2013 to 2014 than SH workers (60% vs 8.3%, P=0.020).

CONCLUSIONS:

There was a significant increase of serum A(H5N1) and A(H9N2) HI titers among Hong Kong LPM workers between 2013 and 2014, suggesting the occurrence of subclinical AIV infections in this population.

Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

KEYWORDS: H5N1; H7N9; H9N2; Hong Kong; avian influenza; epidemiology; seroprevalence

PMID: 26632329 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; H7N9; H5N1; H9N2; Avian Influenza; Poultry; HK PRC SAR; Human; Seroprevalence.

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