Novel Recombinant #Seneca Valley Virus Isolated from Slaughtered #Pigs in #Guangdong Province (Virol Sin., abstract)

[Source: Virologica Sinica, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Novel Recombinant Seneca Valley Virus Isolated from Slaughtered Pigs in Guangdong Province

Authors: Jianxin Liu, Yunfeng Zha, Huizi Li, Yanwei Sun, Fuguang Wang, Rong Lu, Zhangyong Ning

Letter / First Online: 25 June 2019

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Dear Editor,

Since the first outbreak in Brazil in 2015, Seneca Valley virus (SVV) associated with porcine idiopathic vesicular disease, has shown increasing geographic distribution. Cases of SVV have been reported from several countries including the United States (US), Colombia, Thailand, Canada, and China (Pasma et al.2008; Zhang et al.2015; Sun et al.2017; Wu et al.2017; Liu et al.2018; Saeng-Chuto et al.2018). SVV was first identified in the US in 2002 and is the only member of the genus Senecavirus in the family Picornaviridae (Hales et al.2008; Leme et al.2017). The SVV genome contains a large open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polyprotein, which is cleaved into various mature viral proteins including the leader protein (L), structural proteins (VP1, VP2, VP3, and VP4), and non-structural proteins (2A, 2B, 2C, 3A, 3B, 3C, and 3D) (Hales et al.2008). Structural proteins bind to their receptor, anthrax toxin receptor 1, to mediate viral invasion and stimulate specific immunity…

(…)

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Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Key Research and Development Program of Guangdong Province (2019B020218004).

 

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Animal and Human Rights Statement

All institutional and national guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.

Keywords: Picornavirus; Seneca Valley Virus; Pigs; China; Guangdong.

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Adaptive immune responses following #Senecavirus A #infection in #pigs (J Virol., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Adaptive immune responses following Senecavirus A infection in pigs

Mayara F. Maggioli1,2,  Steve Lawson1,2, Marcelo de Lima1,3, Lok R. Joshi1,2, Tatiane C. Faccin1,4, Fernando V. Bauermann1,2 and Diego G. Diel1,2#

Author Affiliations:  1Animal Disease Research and Diagnostic Laboratory (ADRDL), Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, College of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, USA. 2Center for Biologics Research and Commercialization (CBRC), South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, USA. 3Laboratório de Virologia e Imunologia Animal Faculdade de Veterinária Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brazil. 4Programa de Pós-Graduação em Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil.

 

ABSTRACT

Senecavirus A (SVA), an emerging picornavirus of swine, causes vesicular disease (VD) that is clinically indistinguishable from foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in pigs. Many aspects of SVA interactions with the host and the host immune responses to infection, however, remain unknown. In the present study, humoral and cellular immune responses to SVA were evaluated following infection in pigs. We show that SVA infection elicited an early and robust neutralizing antibody (NA) response, which coincided with and was strongly correlated with VP2- and VP3-specific IgM responses. Notably, NA responses paralleled with reduction of viremia and resolution of the disease. Analysis of the major porcine T cell subsets revealed that during the acute/clinical phase of SVA infection (14 days post-infection; pi) T cell responses were characterized by an increased frequency of αβ T cells, especially CD4+ T cells which were initially detected by day 7 pi and increased in frequency until day 14 pi. Additionally, the frequency of CD8+ and double-positive CD4+CD8+ T cells (effector/memory T cells) expressing IFN-γ or proliferating in response to SVA-antigen stimulation increased after day 10 pi. Results here show that SVA elicits B and T cell activation early upon infection, with IgM antibody levels being associated with early neutralizing activity against the virus and peak B and T-cell responses paralleling clinical resolution of the disease. The work provides important insights on the immunological events that follow SVA infection in the natural host.

 

Importance

Senecavirus A (SVA) has recently emerged in swine causing outbreaks of vesicular disease (VD) in major swine producing countries around the world, including the US, Brazil, China, Thailand and Colombia. Notably, SVA-induced disease is clinically indistinguishable from other high consequence VDs of swine such as FMD, swine vesicular disease, vesicular stomatitis and vesicular exanthema of swine. Despite the clinical relevance of SVA caused VD, many aspects of the virus infection biology remain unknown. Here, we assessed host immune responses to SVA infection. Results show that SVA infection elicits early B and T cell responses, with the levels of NA and CD4+ T cell responses paralleling with reduction of viremia and resolution of the disease. SVA-specific CD8+ T cells are detected later during infection. A better understanding of SVA interactions with the host immune system may allow the design and implementation of improved control strategies for this important pathogen of swine.

 

FOOTNOTES

#Corresponding author: D.G. Diel. E-mail: diego.diel@sdstate.edu.

Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Keywords: Senecavirus A; Pigs.

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#Anthrax #toxin receptor 1 is the cellular receptor for #Seneca Valley virus (J Clin Invest., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Clinical Investigations, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Research Article / Virology / Free access | 10.1172/JCI93472

Anthrax toxin receptor 1 is the cellular receptor for Seneca Valley virus

Linde A. Miles,1 Laura N. Burga,2 Eric E. Gardner,1 Mihnea Bostina,2,3 John T. Poirier,1,4 and Charles M. Rudin1,4,5

First published June 26, 2017

J Clin Invest. doi:10.1172/JCI93472.

Copyright © 2017, The American Society for Clinical Investigation.

Published June 26, 2017  – Received: February 16, 2017 ; Accepted: May 4, 2017

 

Abstract

Seneca Valley virus (SVV) is an oncolytic picornavirus with selective tropism for neuroendocrine cancers. It has shown promise as a cancer therapeutic in preclinical studies and early-phase clinical trials. Here, we have identified anthrax toxin receptor 1 (ANTXR1) as the receptor for SVV using genome-wide loss-of-function screens. ANTXR1 is necessary for permissivity in vitro and in vivo. However, robust SVV replication requires an additional innate immune defect. We found that SVV interacts directly and specifically with ANTXR1, that this interaction is required for SVV binding to permissive cells, and that ANTXR1 expression is necessary and sufficient for infection in cell lines with decreased expression of antiviral IFN genes at baseline. Finally, we identified the region of the SVV capsid that is responsible for receptor recognition using cryoelectron microscopy of the SVV-ANTXR1-Fc complex. These studies identify ANTXR1, a class of receptor that is shared by a mammalian virus and a bacterial toxin, as the cellular receptor for SVV.

Keywords: Anthrax; Seneca Valley Virus.

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#Clinical #Manifestations of #Senecavirus A #Infection in Neonatal #Pigs, #Brazil, 2015 (@CDC_EIDjournal, abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 22, Number 7—July 2016 / Dispatch

Clinical Manifestations of Senecavirus A Infection in Neonatal Pigs, Brazil, 2015

Raquel A. Leme1, Thalita E.S. Oliveira1, Brígida K. Alcântara, Selwyn A. Headley, Alice F. Alfieri, Ming Yang, and Amauri A. Alfieri

Author affiliations: Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Paraná, Brazil (R.A. Leme, T.E.S. Oliveira, B.K. Alcântara, S.A. Headley, A.F. Alfieri, A.A. Alfieri); National Centre for Foreign Animal Disease, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada (M. Yang)

Suggested citation for this article: Leme RA, Oliveira TES, Alcântara BK, Headley SA, Alfieri AF, Yang M, et al. Clinical manifestations of Senecavirus A infection in neonatal pigs, Brazil, 2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016 Jul [date cited]. http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2207.151583

DOI: 10.3201/eid2207.151583

1These authors contributed equally to this article.

 

Abstract

We identified new clinical manifestations associated with Senecavirus A infection in neonatal piglets in Brazil in 2015. Immunohistochemical and molecular findings confirmed the association of Senecavirus A with these unusual clinical signs and more deaths. Other possible disease agents investigated were not associated with these illnesses.

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Senecavirus; Picornavirus; Pigs; Brazil.

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