#Coronaviruses Detected in #Bats in Close Contact with Humans in #Rwanda (Ecohealth, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Ecohealth. 2019 Dec 6. doi: 10.1007/s10393-019-01458-8. [Epub ahead of print]

Coronaviruses Detected in Bats in Close Contact with Humans in Rwanda.

Nziza J1, Goldstein T2, Cranfield M3, Webala P4, Nsengimana O5, Nyatanyi T6, Mudakikwa A7, Tremeau-Bravard A2, Byarugaba D8, Tumushime JC3, Mwikarago IE9, Gafarasi I10, Mazet J3,2, Gilardi K3,2.

Author information: 1 Gorilla Doctors, P.O. Box 115, Musanze, Rwanda. nzizavet@gmail.com. 2 Karen C. Drayer Wildlife Health Center, One Health Institute, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, CA, USA. 3 Gorilla Doctors, P.O. Box 115, Musanze, Rwanda. 4 Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Maasai Mara University, P.O. Box 861, Narok, 20500, Kenya. 5 Rwanda Wildlife Conservation Association, P.O. Box 5427, Kigali, Rwanda. 6 Department of Global Health and Social Medicine, School of Medicine, Harvard University, Boston, USA. 7 Rwanda Development Board, P.O. Box 6932, Kigali, Rwanda. 8 Makerere University Walter Reed Project, College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Biosecurity, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. 9 National Reference Laboratory, Rwanda Biomedical Center, P.O. Box 83, Kigali, Rwanda. 10 Rwanda Agriculture Board, P.O. Box 5016, Kigali, Rwanda.



Bats living in close contact with people in Rwanda were tested for evidence of infection with viruses of zoonotic potential. Mucosal swabs from 503 bats representing 17 species were sampled from 2010 to 2014 and screened by consensus PCR for 11 viral families. Samples were negative for all viral families except coronaviruses, which were detected in 27 bats belonging to eight species. Known coronaviruses detected included the betacorona viruses: Kenya bat coronaviruses, Eidolon bat coronavirus, and Bat coronavirus HKU9, as well as an alphacoronavirus, Chaerephon Bat coronavirus. Novel coronaviruses included two betacorona viruses clustering with SARS-CoV, a 2d coronavirus, and an alphacoronavirus.

KEYWORDS: Bats; Coronaviruses; Human–wildlife interfaces; Rwanda

PMID: 31811597 DOI: 10.1007/s10393-019-01458-8

Keywords: Coronavirus; Alphacoronavirus; Betacoronavirus; Bats; Rwanda.


#Paramyxo- and #Coronaviruses in #Rwandan #Bats (Trop Med Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Trop Med Infect Dis. 2019 Jul 2;4(3). pii: E99. doi: 10.3390/tropicalmed4030099.

Paramyxo- and Coronaviruses in Rwandan Bats.

Markotter W1, Geldenhuys M2, Jansen van Vuren P2,3, Kemp A3, Mortlock M2, Mudakikwa A4, Nel L5, Nziza J6, Paweska J2,3, Weyer J2,3.

Author information: 1 Centre for Viral Zoonoses, Department of Medical Virology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, Gauteng 0001, South Africa. wanda.markotter@up.ac.za. 2 Centre for Viral Zoonoses, Department of Medical Virology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, Gauteng 0001, South Africa. 3 Centre for Emerging Zoonotic and Parasitic diseases, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, National Health laboratory Services, Sandringham, Johannesburg 2131, South Africa. 4 Rwanda Development Board, Department of tourism and Conservation, P.O Box 6239, Kigali, Rwanda. 5 Centre for Viral Zoonoses, Department of Biochemistry, Genetics and Microbiology, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, Gauteng 0001, South Africa. 6 Mountain Gorilla Veterinary Project, P.O Box 115, Musanze, Rwanda.



A high diversity of corona- and paramyxoviruses have been detected in different bat species at study sites worldwide, including Africa, however no biosurveillance studies from Rwanda have been reported. In this study, samples from bats collected from caves in Ruhengeri, Rwanda, were tested for the presence of corona- and paramyxoviral RNA using reverse transcription PCR assays. Positive results were further characterized by DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. In addition to morphological identification of bat species, we also did molecular confirmation of species identities, contributing to the known genetic database available for African bat species. We detected a novel Betacoronavirus in two Geoffroy’s horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus clivosus) bats. We also detected several different paramyxoviral species from various insectivorous bats. One of these viral species was found to be homologous to the genomes of viruses belonging to the Jeilongvirus genus. Additionally, a Henipavirus-related sequence was detected in an Egyptian rousette fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus). These results expand on the known diversity of corona- and paramyxoviruses and their geographical distribution in Africa.

KEYWORDS: Rwanda; barcoding; bat; caves; coronavirus; henipavirus; jeilongvirus; paramyxovirus; surveillance

PMID: 31269631 DOI: 10.3390/tropicalmed4030099

Keywords: Coronavirus; Betacoronavirus; Paramyxovirus; Henipavirus; Bats; Rwanda.


#Seroreactivity to #Chikungunya and #WNV Viruses in #Rwandan #Blood Donors (Vector Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Seroreactivity to Chikungunya and West Nile Viruses in Rwandan Blood Donors

Eric Seruyange, Karl Ljungberg, Claude Mambo Muvunyi, Jean Bosco Gahutu, Swaibu Katare, José Nyamusore, Yong-Dae Gwon, Magnus Evander, Heléne Norder, Peter Liljeström, and Tomas Bergström

Published Online: 27 Jun 2019




Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and West Nile virus (WNV) have previously been reported from several African countries, including those bordering Rwanda where they may have originated. However, there have been no serosurveillance reports from Rwanda regarding these two viral pathogens.

In this article, we present the first study of immunoglobulin G (IgG) seroreactivity of CHIKV and WNV in Rwandan blood donor samples.


Blood donors from Rwanda (n = 874) and Sweden (n = 199) were tested for IgG reactivity against CHIKV, using an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with the E1 envelope protein fused with p62 as antigen, and against WNV using a commercial kit. Data on mosquito distribution were obtained from the 2012 assessment of yellow fever virus circulation in Rwanda.


Seroreactivity to CHIKV was high in Rwanda (63.0%), when compared with Swedish donors, where only 8.5% were IgG positive. However, a cross-reactivity to O’nyong’nyong virus in neutralization test was noted in Rwandan donors. No significant difference in WNV seroreactivity was found (10.4% for Rwandan and 14.1% for Swedish donors). The relatively high seroreactivity to WNV among Swedish donors could partly be explained by cross-reactivity with tick-borne encephalitis virus prevalent in Sweden. Donors from the Eastern Province of Rwanda had the highest IgG reactivity to the two investigated viruses (86.7% for CHIKV and 33.3% for WNV). Five genera of mosquitoes were found in Rwanda where Culex was the most common (82.5%). The vector of CHIKV, Aedes, accounted for 9.6% of mosquitoes and this species was most commonly found in the Eastern Province.


Our results showed high seroreactivity to CHIKV in Rwandan donors. The highest IgG reactivity to CHIKV, and to WNV, was found in the Eastern Province, the area reporting the highest number of mosquito vectors for these two viruses. Infection control by eliminating mosquito-breeding sites in population-dense areas is recommended, especially in eastern Rwanda.

Keywords: Arbovirus; Chikungunya virus; WNV; Serology; Seroprevalence; Rwanda.


#Seroprevalence of #Zika Virus and #Rubella Virus #IgG among #blood donors in #Rwanda and in #Sweden (J Med Virol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Med Virol. 2018 Apr 12. doi: 10.1002/jmv.25090. [Epub ahead of print]

Seroprevalence of Zika Virus and Rubella Virus IgG among blood donors in Rwanda and in Sweden.

Seruyange E1,2,3, Gahutu JB1, Muvunyi CM1, Katare S4, Ndahindwa V5, Sibomana H6, Nyamusore J7, Rutagarama F2, Hannoun C3, Norder H3, Bergström T3.

Author information: 1 Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Rwanda, Rwanda. 2 Rwanda Military Hospital, Kigali, Rwanda. 3 Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. 4 National Centre for Blood Transfusion, Rwanda Biomedical Centre, Kigali, Rwanda. 5 School of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Rwanda, Rwanda. 6 Expanded Program on Immunization, Rwanda Biomedical Centre, Kigali, Rwanda. 7 Division of Epidemic Surveillance and Response, Rwanda Biomedical Centre, Kigali, Rwanda.



Statement of the problem

Seroprevalence studies provide information on the susceptibility to infection of certain populations, including women of childbearing age. Such data from Central Africa are scarce regarding two viruses that cause congenital infections: Zika virus (ZIKV), an emerging mosquito-borne infection, and rubella virus (RuV), a vaccine-preventable infection. We report on the seroprevalence of both ZIKV and RuV from Rwanda, a country without any known cases of ZIKV, but bordering Uganda where this virus was isolated in 1947.


Anti-ZIKV-specific and anti-RuV-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in serum samples from 874 Rwandan and 215 Swedish blood donors. Samples positive for IgG antibodies against ZIKV were examined for viral RNA using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR).


The seroprevalence of ZIKV IgG in Rwanda was 1.4% (12/874), of which the predominance of positive findings came from the Southeastern region. All anti-ZIKV IgG-positive samples were PCR-negative. Among 297 female blood donors of childbearing age, 295 (99.3%) were seronegative and thus susceptible to ZIKV. All Swedish blood donors were IgG-negative to ZIKV. In contrast, blood donors from both countries showed high seroprevalence of IgG to RuV: 91.2% for Rwandan and 92.1% for Swedish donors. Only 10.5% (31/294) of female donors of childbearing age from Rwanda were seronegative for RuV.


In Rwanda, seroprevalence for ZIKV IgG antibodies was low, but high for RuV. Hence, women of childbearing age were susceptible to ZIKV. These data may be of value for decision-making regarding prophylactic measures.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: ELISA; Rubella virus; Rwanda; Seroprevalence; Zika virus

PMID: 29645295 DOI: 10.1002/jmv.25090

Keywords: Zika Virus; Rubella; Rwanda; Sweden; Seroprevalence.