#Refugee and #migrant #health in the #European Region (Lancet, summary)

[Source: The Lancet, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Refugee and migrant health in the European Region

Ryoko Takahashi, Krista Kruja, Soorej Jose Puthoopparambil, Santino Severoni

Published: May 20, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30282-X

___

WHO is the respected authority in leading the production and use of core evidence for public health decision making.1 The Health Evidence Network (HEN) is an information service for public health decision makers in the WHO European Region and supports them to use the best available evidence.

(…)

We declare no competing interests.

___

Article Info

Published: May 20, 2019

Identification: DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30282-X

Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Migrants; Society; Politics; European Region; Public Health.

——

Advertisements

#Privatisation of #immigration #detention facilities (Lancet, summary)

[Source: The Lancet, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Privatisation of immigration detention facilities

Altaf Saadi, Lello Tesema

Published: May 20, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30351-4

___

In December, 2018, two Guatemalan children, a 7-year-old girl and an 8-year-old boy, died while detained in immigration custody in the USA. Their tragic deaths should raise alarm about the dangerously substandard medical and mental health care at US immigration detention facilities.

(…)

We declare no competing interests.

___

Article Info

Published: May 20, 2019

Identification: DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30351-4

Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: USA; Society; Politics; Migrants; Racism; Public Health.

—–

#Immigration in #Italy: the #medical #community’s role in #human #rights (Lancet, summary)

[Source: The Lancet, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Immigration in Italy: the medical community’s role in human rights

Raffaella Casolino

Published: May 20, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30216-8

___

Italy has been witnessing a rapid escalation towards racism and xenophobia since the new government came into power in June, 2018. On Nov 27, 2018, the lower house of the Italian Parliament approved the Decree-Law on Immigration and Security, which includes measures that would abolish humanitarian protection status for migrants, block asylum seekers from accessing reception centres focusing on social inclusion, and extend the duration of detention in return centres and hotspots. These measures fundamentally undermine international human rights principles. The day after approval, the Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of the Interior declared that Italy would not sign the UN Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration or take part in an intergovernmental conference in Marrakech, Morocco, on Dec 10, 2018.

(…)

I declare no competing interests.

___

 

Reference

UN Human Rights, Office of the high commissioner. Legal changes and climate of hatred threaten migrants’ rights in Italy, say UN experts. URL: https://www.ohchr.org/en/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=23908&LangID=E | Date: Nov 21, 2018 | Date accessed: November 28, 2018

 

Article Info

Published: May 20, 2019

Identification: DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30216-8

Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Public Health; Society; Politics; Italy; Migrants; Racism.

—–

#Plague in #SanFrancisco: #rats, #racism and #reform (Nature, summary)

[Source: Nature, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Plague in San Francisco: rats, racism and reform

Tilli Tansey

___

An urban outbreak of a deadly infectious disease with no known cause is a disaster planner’s worst nightmare. In his rousing book Black Death at the Golden Gate, journalist David Randall describes just that: the bubonic-plague epidemic that struck San Francisco, California, in 1900. The race to identify, isolate and halt the disease is set against a rich background of official complacency, financial malfeasance, political intrigues and scientific disputes.

(…)

___

Nature 568, 454-455 (2019) / doi: 10.1038/d41586-019-01239-x

Keywords: Plague; USA; California; History.

——

The #Eighteen of 1918-1919: #Black #Nurses and the Great #Flu #Pandemic in the #USA (Am J Public Health, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Am J Public Health. 2019 Apr 18:e1-e8. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2019.305003. [Epub ahead of print]

The Eighteen of 1918-1919: Black Nurses and the Great Flu Pandemic in the United States.

Jones MM1, Saines M1.

Author information: 1 At the time of the study, Marian Moser Jones and Matilda Saines were with the University of Maryland School of Public Health, College Park.

 

Abstract

This article examines the role of Black American nurses during the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic and the aftermath of World War I. The pandemic caused at least 50 million deaths worldwide and 675 000 in the United States. It occurred during a period of pervasive segregation and racial violence, in which Black Americans were routinely denied access to health, educational, and political institutions. We discuss how an unsuccessful campaign by Black leaders for admission of Black nurses to the Red Cross, the Army Nurse Corps, and the Navy Nurse Corps during World War I eventually created opportunities for 18 Black nurses to serve in the army during the pandemic and the war’s aftermath. Analyzing archival sources, news reports, and published materials, we examine these events in the context of nursing and early civil rights history. This analysis demonstrates that the pandemic incrementally advanced civil rights in the Army Nurse Corps and Red Cross, while providing ephemeral opportunities for Black nurses overall. This case study reframes the response to epidemics and other public health emergencies as potential opportunities to advance health equity.

(Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print April 18, 2019; e1-e8. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2019.305003).

PMID: 30998410 DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2019.305003

Keywords: USA; Society; Pandemic Influenza; Spanish Flu; Racism; History.

——

“#SpanishFlu”: When #Infectious Disease #Names Blur #Origins and Stigmatize Those Infected (Am J Public Health, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Am J Public Health. 2018 Sep 25:e1-e3. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2018.304645. [Epub ahead of print]

“Spanish Flu”: When Infectious Disease Names Blur Origins and Stigmatize Those Infected.

Hoppe T1.

Author information: 1 Trevor Hoppe is assistant professor of sociology at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro.

 

Abstract

Despite not originating in Spain, the 1918 influenza pandemic is commonly known as the “Spanish flu”-a name that reflects a tendency in public health history to associate new infectious diseases with foreign nationals and foreign countries. Intentional or not, an effect of this naming convention is to communicate a causal relationship between foreign populations and the spread of infectious disease, potentially promoting irrational fear and stigma. I address two relevant issues to help contextualize these naming practices. First is whether, in an age of global hyperinterconnectedness, fear of the other is truly irrational or has a rational basis. The empirical literature assessing whether restricting global airline travel can mitigate the global spread of modern epidemics suggests that the role of travel may be overemphasized. Second is the persistence of xenophobic responses to infectious disease in the face of contrary evidence. To help explain this, I turn to the health communication literature. Scholars argue that promoting an association between foreigners and a particular epidemic can be a rhetorical strategy for either promoting fear or, alternatively, imparting a sense of safety to the public. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print September 25, 2018: e1-e3. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2018.304645).

PMID: 30252513 DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2018.304645

Keywords: Pandemic Influenza; Society.

——

#Fear of #Ebola: The #Influence of #Collectivism on #Xenophobic #Threat Responses (Psychol Sci., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Psychol Sci. 2016 May 20. pii: 0956797616642596. [Epub ahead of print]

Fear of Ebola: The Influence of Collectivism on Xenophobic Threat Responses.

Kim HS1, Sherman DK2, Updegraff JA3.

Author information: 1Department of Psychological & Brain Sciences, University of California, Santa Barbara. 2Department of Psychological & Brain Sciences, University of California, Santa Barbara heejung.kim@psych.ucsb.edu. 3Department of Psychological Sciences, Kent State University.

 

Abstract

In response to the Ebola scare in 2014, many people evinced strong fear and xenophobia. The present study, informed by the pathogen-prevalence hypothesis, tested the influence of individualism and collectivism on xenophobic response to the threat of Ebola. A nationally representative sample of 1,000 Americans completed a survey, indicating their perceptions of their vulnerability to Ebola, ability to protect themselves from Ebola (protection efficacy), and xenophobic tendencies. Overall, the more vulnerable people felt, the more they exhibited xenophobic responses, but this relationship was moderated by individualism and collectivism. The increase in xenophobia associated with increased vulnerability was especially pronounced among people with high individualism scores and those with low collectivism scores. These relationships were mediated by protection efficacy. State-level collectivism had the same moderating effect on the association between perceived vulnerability and xenophobia that individual-level value orientation did. Collectivism-and the set of practices and rituals associated with collectivistic cultures-may serve as psychological protection against the threat of disease.

© The Author(s) 2016.

KEYWORDS: Ebola; collectivism-individualism; open data; open materials; risk perceptions; threat; xenophobia

PMID: 27207872 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Society; Ebola; USA.

—–