Disproportionate #impact of #COVID19 among #pregnant and #postpartum #Black Women in  #Brazil through structural #racism lens (Clin Infect Dis., summary)

[Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Disproportionate impact of COVID-19 among pregnant and postpartum Black Women in  Brazil through structural racism lens

Debora de Souza Santos, RN, PhD, Nursing School, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, Brazil; Mariane de Oliveira Menezes, CM, MSc, Department of  Gynecology and Obstetrics, Botucatu Medical School, Universidade Estadual Paulista  (UNESP), Botucatu, Brazil; Carla Betina Andreucci, MD, PhD, Department of Medicine,  Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCAR), São Carlos, Brazil; Marcos Nakamura- Pereira, MD, PhD, Fernandes Figueira National Institute of Women, Adolescent and Child  Health, Fundação Osvaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Roxana Knobel, MD,  PhD, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina  (UFSC), Florianópolis, Brazil; Leila Katz, MD, PhD, Postgraduation Program, Instituto de  Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira (IMIP), Recife, Brazil; Heloisa de Oliveira  Salgado, MSc, PhD, Departament of Social Medicine, Ribeirão Preto Medical School,  Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Ribeirão Preto, Brazil; Melania Maria Ramos de  Amorim, MD, PhD, Postgraduation Program, Instituto de Medicina Integral; Prof.  Fernando Figueira (IMIP), Recife, Brazil; Maira LS Takemoto, CNM, PhD, Department of  Gynecology and Obstetrics, Botucatu Medical School, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, Brazil

Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/cid/article-abstract/doi/10.1093/cid/ciaa1066/5877027 by guest on 28 July 2020

Accepted Manuscript

Corresponding author: Maíra L S Takemoto, maira.libertad@unesp.br – Rua Carlos Guadanini, 2564, Botucatu-SP, Brazil – Postal code 18610-120, +55 21 971724103

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Dear Editor, Tai and collaborators raised important questions about the potential  biomedical factors and social determinants that play a role in the observed racial  disparities on COVID-19 outcomes in the US[1]. Evidence of such disproportionate impact  is also arising on historically oppressed ethnic groups in Brazil, current  worldwide pandemic epicenter [2]. Our group is closely monitoring an overwhelming number of SARS-CoV-2-related maternal deaths in the country[3]. Racial disparities  among childbearing women within the healthcare system have been widely described,  and already pose difficult challenges to improve maternal outcomes in the country[4,5].  Thus, it was expected that Black Brazilian pregnant and postpartum women would face  additional challenges during the pandemic. We searched the Brazilian Acute Respiratory  Distress Syndrome Surveillance System looking for COVID-19 cases among pregnant or  postpartum women with complete data on ethnicity until July 14, 2020 (n=1,860), then  selecting records of White and Black women (n=669, Table 1).

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Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Pregnancy; Society; Poverty; Racism; Brazil.

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Perceived #Discrimination and #Mental #Distress Amid the #COVID19 Pandemic: Evidence From the Understanding #America Study (Am J Prev Med., abstract)

[Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Perceived Discrimination and Mental Distress Amid the COVID-19 Pandemic: Evidence From the Understanding America Study

Ying Liu, PhD,  Brian Karl Finch, PhD, Savannah G. Brenneke, MPH, Kyla Thomas, PhD, PhuongThao D. Le, PhD, MPH

Published: July 06, 2020 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2020.06.007

 

Abstract

Introduction

This study examines coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) associated discrimination regardless of infection status. It evaluates the contribution of various risk factors (e.g., race/ethnicity, wearing a face mask) and the relationship with mental distress among U.S. adults in March and April 2020, when the pandemic escalated across the country.

Methods

Participants consisted of a probability-based, nationally representative sample of U.S. residents aged ≥18 years who completed COVID-19-related surveys online in March and April (n=3,665). Multivariable logistic regression was used to predict the probability of a person perceiving COVID-19 associated discrimination. Linear regression was used to analyze the association between discrimination and mental distress. Analyses were conducted in May 2020.

Results

Perception of COVID-19 associated discrimination increased from March (4%) to April (10%). Non-Hispanic blacks (absolute risk from 0.09 to 0.15 across months) and Asians (absolute risk from 0.11 to 0.17) were more likely to perceive discrimination than other racial/ethnic groups (absolute risk from 0.03 to 0.11). Individuals who wore face masks (absolute risk from 0.11 to 0.14) also perceived more discrimination compared with those who did not (absolute risk from 0.04 to 0.11). Perceiving discrimination was subsequently associated with increased mental distress (from 0.77 to 1.01 points on the 4-item Patient Health Questionnaire score).

Conclusions

Perception of COVID-19 associated discrimination was relatively low but increased with time. Perceived discrimination was associated with race/ethnicity and wearing face masks, and may contribute to greater mental distress during early stages of the pandemic. The long-term implications of this novel form of discrimination should be monitored.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Society; USA; Racism; Psychology; Psychiatry.

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#COVID19 Pandemic, #Unemployment, and #Civil #Unrest – Underlying Deep #Racial and #Socioeconomic #Divides (JAMA, summary)

[Source: JAMA, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

COVID-19 Pandemic, Unemployment, and Civil Unrest – Underlying Deep Racial and Socioeconomic Divides

Sandro Galea, MD, DrPH1; Salma M. Abdalla, MBBS, MPH2

Author Affiliations: 1 School of Public Health, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts; 2 Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts

JAMA. Published online June 12, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.11132

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More than 110 000 people have died in the US because of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, a pathogen that was unknown just 6 months ago. Ubiquitous fear and anxiety that accompanied the emergence of the new coronavirus led to widespread limits on physical contact in attempts to mitigate the spread of the virus. That in turn brought the US economy to a halt, resulting in more than 40 million people filing for unemployment, approximating numbers not seen since the Great Depression of the 1930s. In the past month, the killing of several unarmed black men and women—Ahmaud Arbery, Breonna Taylor, and George Floyd— has spurred widespread civil unrest, with night after night of demonstrations demanding reform of systems of policing that have disproportionately harmed black people for centuries.

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Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Society; Poverty; Racism; USA.

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Historical #Insights on #Coronavirus Disease 2019 (#COVID19), the 1918 #Influenza #Pandemic, and #Racial #Disparities: Illuminating a Path Forward (Ann Intern Med., abstract)

[Source: Annals of Internal Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Historical Insights on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), the 1918 Influenza Pandemic, and Racial Disparities: Illuminating a Path Forward

Lakshmi Krishnan, MD, PhD, S. Michelle Ogunwole, MD, Lisa A. Cooper, MD, MPH

DOI: https://doi.org/10.7326/M20-2223

 

Abstract

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is exacting a disproportionate toll on ethnic minority communities and magnifying existing disparities in health care access and treatment. To understand this crisis, physicians and public health researchers have searched history for insights, especially from a great outbreak approximately a century ago: the 1918 influenza pandemic. However, of the accounts examining the 1918 influenza pandemic and COVID-19, only a notable few discuss race. Yet, a rich, broader scholarship on race and epidemic disease as a “sampling device for social analysis” exists. This commentary examines the historical arc of the 1918 influenza pandemic, focusing on black Americans and showing the complex and sometimes surprising ways it operated, triggering particular responses both within a minority community and in wider racial, sociopolitical, and public health structures. This analysis reveals that critical structural inequities and health care gaps have historically contributed to and continue to compound disparate health outcomes among communities of color. Shifting from this context to the present, this article frames a discussion of racial health disparities through a resilience approach rather than a deficit approach and offers a blueprint for approaching the COVID-19 crisis and its afterlives through the lens of health equity.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Spanish Flu; USA; Society.

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#Inequity in #Crisis #Standards of #Care (N Engl J Med., summary)

[Source: The New England Journal of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Inequity in Crisis Standards of Care

Emily Cleveland Manchanda, M.D., M.P.H.,  Cheri Couillard, M.A.,  and Karthik Sivashanker, M.D., M.P.H.

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In Racism without Racists, Eduardo Bonilla-Silva articulates why “color blindness,” an  ethos based on the belief that race is no longer relevant, is contradictory and harmful.  Color-blind policies, such as race-neutral mortgage practices and Medicare and Medicaid  rules, have resulted in discrimination against black people and greater burdens on  communities of color. To insist on color blindness is to deny the experience of people of  color in a highly racialized society and to absolve oneself of any role in the process. Many  clinicians and policymakers are therefore alarmed by recent state-based crisis  standards of care (CSCs) that provide a color-blind process for determining whether a  patient with Covid-19 respiratory failure lives or dies.

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Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Society; Racism; USA; Bioethics.

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2019 novel #Coronavirus, #fakenews, and #racism (Lancet, summary)

[Source: The Lancet, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

2019-nCoV, fake news, and racism

Kazuki Shimizu

Published: February 11, 2020 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30357-3

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The novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) outbreak has had a significant impact on global health. As a neighbour country to China, Japan has been heavily affected by the spread of 2019-nCoV. As of Feb 10, 2020, 161 people (including 135 passengers and crew members on a cruise ship quarantined in Yokohama, Japan) have been confirmed to have the 2019-nCoV infection in Japan—the second largest number followed by mainland China.1, 2

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I declare no competing interests. I receive research support in the UK from The Rotary Foundation, the Japan Student Services Organization, and the British Council Japan Association.

Keywords: COVID-19; Society; Racism.

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#Refugee and #migrant #health in the #European Region (Lancet, summary)

[Source: The Lancet, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Refugee and migrant health in the European Region

Ryoko Takahashi, Krista Kruja, Soorej Jose Puthoopparambil, Santino Severoni

Published: May 20, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30282-X

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WHO is the respected authority in leading the production and use of core evidence for public health decision making.1 The Health Evidence Network (HEN) is an information service for public health decision makers in the WHO European Region and supports them to use the best available evidence.

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We declare no competing interests.

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Article Info

Published: May 20, 2019

Identification: DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30282-X

Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Migrants; Society; Politics; European Region; Public Health.

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#Privatisation of #immigration #detention facilities (Lancet, summary)

[Source: The Lancet, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Privatisation of immigration detention facilities

Altaf Saadi, Lello Tesema

Published: May 20, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30351-4

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In December, 2018, two Guatemalan children, a 7-year-old girl and an 8-year-old boy, died while detained in immigration custody in the USA. Their tragic deaths should raise alarm about the dangerously substandard medical and mental health care at US immigration detention facilities.

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We declare no competing interests.

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Article Info

Published: May 20, 2019

Identification: DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30351-4

Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: USA; Society; Politics; Migrants; Racism; Public Health.

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#Immigration in #Italy: the #medical #community’s role in #human #rights (Lancet, summary)

[Source: The Lancet, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Immigration in Italy: the medical community’s role in human rights

Raffaella Casolino

Published: May 20, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30216-8

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Italy has been witnessing a rapid escalation towards racism and xenophobia since the new government came into power in June, 2018. On Nov 27, 2018, the lower house of the Italian Parliament approved the Decree-Law on Immigration and Security, which includes measures that would abolish humanitarian protection status for migrants, block asylum seekers from accessing reception centres focusing on social inclusion, and extend the duration of detention in return centres and hotspots. These measures fundamentally undermine international human rights principles. The day after approval, the Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of the Interior declared that Italy would not sign the UN Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration or take part in an intergovernmental conference in Marrakech, Morocco, on Dec 10, 2018.

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I declare no competing interests.

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Reference

UN Human Rights, Office of the high commissioner. Legal changes and climate of hatred threaten migrants’ rights in Italy, say UN experts. URL: https://www.ohchr.org/en/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=23908&LangID=E | Date: Nov 21, 2018 | Date accessed: November 28, 2018

 

Article Info

Published: May 20, 2019

Identification: DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30216-8

Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Public Health; Society; Politics; Italy; Migrants; Racism.

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#Plague in #SanFrancisco: #rats, #racism and #reform (Nature, summary)

[Source: Nature, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Plague in San Francisco: rats, racism and reform

Tilli Tansey

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An urban outbreak of a deadly infectious disease with no known cause is a disaster planner’s worst nightmare. In his rousing book Black Death at the Golden Gate, journalist David Randall describes just that: the bubonic-plague epidemic that struck San Francisco, California, in 1900. The race to identify, isolate and halt the disease is set against a rich background of official complacency, financial malfeasance, political intrigues and scientific disputes.

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Nature 568, 454-455 (2019) / doi: 10.1038/d41586-019-01239-x

Keywords: Plague; USA; California; History.

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