On #lifestyle trends, #health and #mosquitoes: Formulating welfare levels for control of the Asian tiger mosquito in #Greece (PLoS Negl Trop Dis., abstract)

[Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

On lifestyle trends, health and mosquitoes: Formulating welfare levels for control of the Asian tiger mosquito in Greece

Antonios Kolimenakis , Kostas Bithas, Dionysis Latinopoulos, Clive Richardson

Published: June 4, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007467 / This is an uncorrected proof.

 

Abstract

The expansion of urban ecosystems and climate change, both outcomes of massive lifestyle changes, contribute to a series of side effects such as environmental deterioration, spread of diseases, increased greenhouse gas emissions and introduction of invasive species. In the case of the Athens metropolitan area, an invasive mosquito species—the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus)–has spread widely in the last decade. This spread is favoured within urban environments and is also affected by changing climatic trends. The Asian tiger mosquito is accompanied by risks of mosquito-borne diseases, greater nuisance levels, and increased expenses incurring for its confrontation. The main aims of this paper are (i) to estimate the various costs associated with their control of this invasive species, as well as its health and nuisance impacts, (ii) to evaluate the level of citizens’ well-being from averting these impacts and (iii) to record citizens’ and experts’ perceptions regarding alternative control measures. Evidence shows that experts tend to place a high value on mosquito control when associated with serious health risks, while citizens are more sensitive and concerned about the environmental impacts of control methods. The synthesis of results produced by the current study could act as a preliminary guide for the estimation of societal welfare from the confrontation of similar problems in the context of a complex ecosystem.

 

Author summary

This paper is based on several years’ collaboration among researchers from various disciplines, key health policy makers and stakeholders in an attempt to evaluate the economic dimensions related to the presence of the Asian Tiger Mosquito (Aedes albopictus) and the challenges of tackling mosquito-borne disease outbreaks in Greece and Southern Europe. Similar studies have been conducted and continue to be published in Europe and the USA examining the socioeconomic benefit from the implementation of relevant control and prevention strategies. These studies conclude that there are significant benefits related both to the reduction of nuisance levels and the reduction of the health risks posed by various mosquito species. In our case, the application of an updated economic analysis on the effectiveness of relevant public control and prevention programs provides essential information for public health decision-making, bearing in mind the significant restructuring of the public sector and the fiscal crisis apparent in the European South.

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Citation: Kolimenakis A, Bithas K, Latinopoulos D, Richardson C (2019) On lifestyle trends, health and mosquitoes: Formulating welfare levels for control of the Asian tiger mosquito in Greece. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(6): e0007467. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007467

Editor: Olaf Horstick, University of Heidelberg, GERMANY

Received: October 2, 2018; Accepted: May 14, 2019; Published: June 4, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Kolimenakis et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: Part of this research has been co-financed by the European Union (EU Environmental Funding Programme LIFE+ Environment Policy and Governance) and Greek national funds through the LIFE CONOPS project “Development & demonstration of management plans against—the climate change enhanced—invasive mosquitoes in S. Europe” (LIFE12ENV/GR/000466). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Climate change; Mosquitoes; Aedes albopictus; Society; Poverty; Greece.

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#Water and #Sanitation #Deficits Take a Toll in Armed #Conflict Regions (JAMA, summary)

[Source: Journal of American Medical Association, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Global Health / May 21, 2019

Water and Sanitation Deficits Take a Toll in Armed Conflict Regions

M.J. Friedrich

JAMA. 2019;321(19):1861. doi:10.1001/jama.2019.6186

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Diarrheal diseases resulting from scarce clean water and sanitation in countries with protracted armed conflicts take more children’s lives than the violence itself, according to a recent United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) report.

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Keywords: Society; Poverty; Public Health; Wars.

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#Refugee and #migrant #health in the #European Region (Lancet, summary)

[Source: The Lancet, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Refugee and migrant health in the European Region

Ryoko Takahashi, Krista Kruja, Soorej Jose Puthoopparambil, Santino Severoni

Published: May 20, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30282-X

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WHO is the respected authority in leading the production and use of core evidence for public health decision making.1 The Health Evidence Network (HEN) is an information service for public health decision makers in the WHO European Region and supports them to use the best available evidence.

(…)

We declare no competing interests.

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Article Info

Published: May 20, 2019

Identification: DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30282-X

Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Migrants; Society; Politics; European Region; Public Health.

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#Privatisation of #immigration #detention facilities (Lancet, summary)

[Source: The Lancet, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Privatisation of immigration detention facilities

Altaf Saadi, Lello Tesema

Published: May 20, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30351-4

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In December, 2018, two Guatemalan children, a 7-year-old girl and an 8-year-old boy, died while detained in immigration custody in the USA. Their tragic deaths should raise alarm about the dangerously substandard medical and mental health care at US immigration detention facilities.

(…)

We declare no competing interests.

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Article Info

Published: May 20, 2019

Identification: DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30351-4

Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: USA; Society; Politics; Migrants; Racism; Public Health.

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#Immigration in #Italy: the #medical #community’s role in #human #rights (Lancet, summary)

[Source: The Lancet, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Immigration in Italy: the medical community’s role in human rights

Raffaella Casolino

Published: May 20, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30216-8

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Italy has been witnessing a rapid escalation towards racism and xenophobia since the new government came into power in June, 2018. On Nov 27, 2018, the lower house of the Italian Parliament approved the Decree-Law on Immigration and Security, which includes measures that would abolish humanitarian protection status for migrants, block asylum seekers from accessing reception centres focusing on social inclusion, and extend the duration of detention in return centres and hotspots. These measures fundamentally undermine international human rights principles. The day after approval, the Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of the Interior declared that Italy would not sign the UN Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration or take part in an intergovernmental conference in Marrakech, Morocco, on Dec 10, 2018.

(…)

I declare no competing interests.

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Reference

UN Human Rights, Office of the high commissioner. Legal changes and climate of hatred threaten migrants’ rights in Italy, say UN experts. URL: https://www.ohchr.org/en/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=23908&LangID=E | Date: Nov 21, 2018 | Date accessed: November 28, 2018

 

Article Info

Published: May 20, 2019

Identification: DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30216-8

Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Public Health; Society; Politics; Italy; Migrants; Racism.

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How did #Ebola #information spread on #twitter: #broadcasting or #viral spreading? (BMC Public Health, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

BMC Public Health. 2019 Apr 25;19(1):438. doi: 10.1186/s12889-019-6747-8.

How did Ebola information spread on twitter: broadcasting or viral spreading?

Liang H1,2, Fung IC3,4,5, Tse ZTH6, Yin J3, Chan CH2, Pechta LE7, Smith BJ8, Marquez-Lameda RD7, Meltzer MI4, Lubell KM7, Fu KW9.

Author information: 1 School of Journalism and Communication, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong. 2 Journalism and Media Studies Centre, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong. 3 Jiann-Ping Hsu College of Public Health, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, USA. 4 Health Economics and Modeling Unit, Scientific and Program Service Branch, Division of Preparedness and Emerging Infections, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA. 5 IHRC, Inc., Atlanta, USA. 6 School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College of Engineering, The University of Georgia, Athens, USA. 7 Research and Evaluation Team, Emergency Response Communication Branch, Division of Emergency Operations, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA. 8 McKing Consulting Corporation, Atlanta, USA. 9 Journalism and Media Studies Centre, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong. kwfu@hku.hk.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Information and emotions towards public health issues could spread widely through online social networks. Although aggregate metrics on the volume of information diffusion are available, we know little about how information spreads on online social networks. Health information could be transmitted from one to many (i.e. broadcasting) or from a chain of individual to individual (i.e. viral spreading). The aim of this study is to examine the spreading pattern of Ebola information on Twitter and identify influential users regarding Ebola messages.

METHODS:

Our data was purchased from GNIP. We obtained all Ebola-related tweets posted globally from March 23, 2014 to May 31, 2015. We reconstructed Ebola-related retweeting paths based on Twitter content and the follower-followee relationships. Social network analysis was performed to investigate retweeting patterns. In addition to describing the diffusion structures, we classify users in the network into four categories (i.e., influential user, hidden influential user, disseminator, common user) based on following and retweeting patterns.

RESULTS:

On average, 91% of the retweets were directly retweeted from the initial message. Moreover, 47.5% of the retweeting paths of the original tweets had a depth of 1 (i.e., from the seed user to its immediate followers). These observations suggested that the broadcasting was more pervasive than viral spreading. We found that influential users and hidden influential users triggered more retweets than disseminators and common users. Disseminators and common users relied more on the viral model for spreading information beyond their immediate followers via influential and hidden influential users.

CONCLUSIONS:

Broadcasting was the dominant mechanism of information diffusion of a major health event on Twitter. It suggests that public health communicators can work beneficially with influential and hidden influential users to get the message across, because influential and hidden influential users can reach more people that are not following the public health Twitter accounts. Although both influential users and hidden influential users can trigger many retweets, recognizing and using the hidden influential users as the source of information could potentially be a cost-effective communication strategy for public health promotion. However, challenges remain due to uncertain credibility of these hidden influential users.

KEYWORDS: Broadcast model; Ebola; Network analysis; Social media; Viral diffusion model

PMID: 31023299 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-019-6747-8

Keywords: Ebola; Public Health; Society.

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#Climatechange and #lung #health: #presidential #failure, professional responsibility (Thorax, summary)

[Source: Thorax, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Editorial

Climate change and lung health: presidential failure, professional responsibility

Nicholas S Hopkinson 1, Nicholas Hart 2, Gisli Jenkins 3, Margaret Rosenfeld 4, Alan Robert Smyth 5, Alexander J K Wilkinson 6, Naftali Kaminski 7

Author affiliations: {1} National Heart and Lung Institute, Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Foundation Trust and Imperial College, London, UK; {2} Lane Fox Respiratory Service, Guy’s & St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK; {3} Centre for Respiratory Research, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK; {4} Pulmonary Medicine, Seattle Children’s Hospital, Seattle, Washington, USA; {5} Division of Child Health, Obstetrics & Gynaecology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK; {6} Respiratory Department, East and North Hertfordshire NHS Trust, Stevenage, UK; {7} Yale School of Medicine Shield Education Patient Care Research Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine Shield Education Patient Care Research, New Haven, Connecticut, USA

Correspondence to Dr Nicholas S Hopkinson, National Heart and Lung Institute, Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Foundation Trust and Imperial College, London SW3 6NP, UK; n.hopkinson@ic.ac.uk

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/thoraxjnl-2019-213184

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Ignorance, allied with power, is the most ferocious enemy justice can have. James Baldwin

On the eve of President Trump’s inauguration in 2017, we published an editorial setting out the threat that climate change poses to lung health. We urged the incoming President to face up to his responsibilities and take steps to address this growing existential threat.1 We drew a parallel with the actions of two conservative leaders in the 1980s, Ronald Reagan and Margaret Thatcher who, faced with unequivocal scientific evidence, led the decisive steps necessary to avert the destruction of the ozone layer.2 3 Rather than being contrary to his stated goals, acting on climate change, we wrote ‘is one way in which President Trump can make good on his promises to improve the wellbeing of Americans, increase America’s energy independence, and act with fiscal prudence. Investing in green infrastructure creates jobs. It reduces healthcare costs, as 1/4 – 1/3 of the costs of decarbonising come straight back as health economic gains’.4

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Copyright information:  © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

Keywords: Climate Change; Global Warmings; Public Health; Society.

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