#Children of #war: urgent #action is needed to save a #generation (Lancet, extract)

[Source: The Lancet, full page: (LINK). Extract.]

Correspondence

Children of war: urgent action is needed to save a generation

Zulfiqar A Bhuttaemail, William J Keenan, Susan Bennett

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31577-X

© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

 

Summary

Images, especially those published in mass and social media, paint a picture that no text or description can capture. Nowhere is this as evident as in recent wars where conflict has frequently had a child’s face, often going viral across the world. From the fear and intensity in the eyes of the war orphan Sharbat Gula from Afghanistan,1 to the sight of poor Alan Kurdi lying dead on a Turkish beach,2 to the ashen faced Omran Dagnish who was pulled from the debris following an airstrike in Aleppo,3 children have been the most egregious victims of conflict. The recent report from the UN Secretary General4 paints a bleak picture of systematic abuse and violation of every existing regulation for the protection and safeguarding of children and families across a wide range of countries that are experiencing acute and long-standing conflict. Children continue to be affected disproportionately by widespread conflict and, given their vulnerability, often bear much more long-term consequences than adults.

(…)

Keywords: Research; Society; Wars; Public Health.

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#Mosquito #guns and heavy #fines: how #Cuba kept #Zika at bay for so long (Nature, extract)

[Source: Nature, full page: (LINK). Extract.]

NATURE | NEWS

Mosquito guns and heavy fines: how Cuba kept Zika at bay for so long

Sara Reardon / 17 August 2016

It’s not uncommon to see clouds of pesticide wafting through Cuba’s houses and neighbour­hoods. It is largely because of such intensive measures by ordinary citizens that the country has been among the last in the Caribbean to succumb to local transmission of Zika. As of 11 August, Cuba has recorded three people who were infected by local mosquitoes rather than contracting the illness abroad, compared with 8,766 confirmed cases in nearby Puerto Rico (see ‘Zika in the Caribbean’).

 

(…)

Nature 536, 257–258 (18 August 2016) doi:10.1038/536257a

Keywords: Zika Virus; Cuba; Public Health.

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Pains and Gains from #China’s #Experiences with Emerging #Epidemics: From #SARS to #H7N9 (Biomed Res Int., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Biomed Res Int. 2016;2016:5717108. Epub 2016 Jul 20.

Pains and Gains from China’s Experiences with Emerging Epidemics: From SARS to H7N9.

Wei P1, Cai Z1, Hua J1, Yu W1, Chen J1, Kang K1, Qiu C1, Ye L1, Hu J1, Ji K1.

Author information: 1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Health Science Center of Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China.

 

Abstract

Over the recent decades, China experienced several emerging virus outbreaks including those caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome- (SARS-) coronavirus (Cov), H5N1 virus, and H7N9 virus. The SARS tragedy revealed faults in China’s infectious disease prevention system, propelling the Chinese government to enact reforms that enabled better combating of the subsequent H1N1 and H7N9 avian flu epidemics. The system is buttressed by three fundamental, mutually reinforcing components: (1) enduring government administration reforms, including legislation establishing a unified public health emergency management system; (2) prioritized funding for biotechnology and biomedicine industrialization, especially in the areas of pathogen identification, drug production, and the development of vaccines and diagnostics; and (3) increasing investment for public health and establishment of a rapid-response infectious diseases prevention and control system. China is now using its hard-gained experience to support the fight against Ebola in Africa and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome in its own country.

PMID: 27525272 DOI: 10.1155/2016/5717108

[PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Emerging Diseases; Infectious Diseases; H7N9; Avian Influenza; SARS; Public Health.

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#YellowFever Remains a Potential #Threat to #Public #Health (Vector Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases

Yellow Fever Remains a Potential Threat to Public Health

To cite this article: Vasconcelos Pedro F.C. and Monath Thomas P.. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. July 2016, ahead of print. doi:10.1089/vbz.2016.2031.

Online Ahead of Print: July 11, 2016

Author information: Pedro F.C. Vasconcelos1 and Thomas P. Monath2

1Evandro Chagas Institute, Ministry of Health, Ananindeua, Brazil. 2Infectious Disease Division, NewLink Genetics Corp., Devens, Massachusetts.

Address correspondence to: Pedro F.C. Vasconcelos, Evandro Chagas Institute, Ministry of Health, Rodovia BR-316, km-7, Ananindeua 67030-000, Brazil, E-mail: pedrovasconcelos@iec.pa.gov.br

 

ABSTRACT

Yellow fever (YF) remains a serious public health threat in endemic countries. The recent re-emergence in Africa, initiating in Angola and spreading to Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda, with imported cases in China and Kenya is of concern. There is such a shortage of YF vaccine in the world that the World Health Organization has proposed the use of reduced doses (1/5) during emergencies. In this short communication, we discuss these and other problems including the risk of spread of YF to areas free of YF for decades or never before affected by this arbovirus disease.

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Yellow Fever; Public Health.

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#Multicriteria #decision #analysis and core values for enhancing #vaccine-related decision-making (Science Transl Med., abstract)

[Source: Science Translational Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Perspective / PUBLIC HEALTH

Multicriteria decision analysis and core values for enhancing vaccine-related decision-making

Michèle A. Barocchi1, Steve Black2 and Rino Rappuoli1,*

Author Affiliations: 1GSK Vaccines, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy. 2Center for Global Health, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA.

*Corresponding author. Email: rino.r.rappuoli@gsk.com

Science Translational Medicine 29 Jun 2016: Vol. 8, Issue 345, pp. 345ps14 / DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aaf0756

 

Abstract

Vaccines have the potential to transform the health of all individuals and to reduce the health inequality between rich and poor countries. However, to achieve these goals, it is no longer sufficient to prioritize vaccine development using cost-effectiveness as the sole indicator. During a symposium entitled “Mission Grand Convergence—The Role of Vaccines,” held in Siena, Italy, in July 2015, key stakeholders agreed that the prioritization of vaccine development and deployment must use multicriteria decision-making based on the following core concepts: (i) mortality and severity of the disease, (ii) vaccine safety considerations, and (iii) economic evaluation that captures the full benefits of vaccination.

Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Vaccines; Public Health; Global Health.

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From #SARS to #Avian #Influenza: The Role of International Factors in #China’s Approach to Infectious Disease Control (Ann Glob Health, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Ann Glob Health. 2016 Jan-Feb;82(1):180-8. doi: 10.1016/j.aogh.2016.01.024.

From SARS to Avian Influenza: The Role of International Factors in China’s Approach to Infectious Disease Control.

Goldizen FC1.

Author information: 1Children’s Health and Environment Program, Child Health Research Centre, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. Electronic address: f.goldizen@uq.edu.au.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Over the past decades global environmental change, globalization, urbanization, and the rise in movement of people have increased the risk for pandemic disease outbreaks. As environmental exposures do not respect state borders, a globalist concept of global health response has developed, which requires transparency and cooperation for coordinated responses to disease outbreaks. Countries that avoid cooperation on health issues for social or political reasons can endanger the global community.

OBJECTIVES:

The aim of this study was to examine the rapid change in China’s infectious disease policy between 2000 and 2013, from actively rejecting the assistance of international health experts during the HIV/AIDS and severe acute respiratory syndrome crises to following best-practice disease response policies and cooperating with international health actors during the 2013 avian influenza outbreak.

METHODS:

Using international relations theory, I examined whether international political factors had a major influence on this change. Using the case studies of international reputation, socialization with international organizations, and the securitization of infectious disease, this study examined the influence of international and domestic pressures on Chinese infectious disease policy.

FINDINGS:

Although international relations theory, especially theories popular in global health diplomacy literature, provide valuable insight into the role of international factors and foreign policy interests in China’s changing approach to infectious disease control, it cannot provide viable explanations without considering the domestic interests of the Chinese government.

CONCLUSION:

Analysis of state responses to infectious disease using international relations theories must consider domestic political factors.

Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: China; SARS; global health diplomacy; infectious disease; influenza; international relations; securitization

PMID: 27325075 [PubMed – in process]

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; China; Public Health.

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Imported #infections: what #information should be collected by #surveillance #systems to inform #publichealth #policy? (SD, abstract)

[Source: Science Direct, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease / Available online 26 May 2016 / In Press, Accepted Manuscript

Imported infections: what information should be collected by surveillance systems to inform public health policy?

Penny E. Neave a, Anita E. Heywood b, Katherine B. Gibney c, Karin Leder c

doi:10.1016/j.tmaid.2016.05.007

 

Abstract

Background

International travel carries the risk of imported diseases, which are an increasingly significant public health problem. There is little guidance about which variables should be collected by surveillance systems for strategy-based surveillance.

Methods

Surveillance forms for dengue, malaria, hepatitis A, typhoid and measles were collected from Australia and New Zealand and information on these compared with national surveillance forms from the UK and Canada by travel health experts. Variables were categorised by information relating to recent travel, demographics and disease severity.

Results

Travel -related information most commonly requested included country of travel, vaccination status and travel dates. In Australia, ethnicity information requested related to indigenous status, whilst in New Zealand it could be linked to census categories. Severity of disease information most frequently collected were hospitalisation and death.

Conclusions

Reviewing the usefulness of variables collected resulted in the recommendation that those included should be: overseas travel, reason for travel, entry and departure dates during the incubation period, vaccination details, traveller’s and/or parents’ country of birth, country of usual residence, time resident in current country, postcode, hospitalisation and death details. There was no agreement about whether ethnicity details should be collected. The inclusion of these variables on surveillance forms could enable imported infection-related policy to be formulated nationally and internationally.

Keywords: Surveillance; imported infections; public health; policy

© 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Infectious Diseases; Public Health.

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