#SARS to Novel #Coronavirus – Old Lessons and New Lessons (Epidemiol Infect., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Epidemiol Infect, 148, e22 2020 Feb 5

SARS to Novel Coronavirus – Old Lessons and New Lessons

Brian McCloskey 1, David L Heymann 2

Affiliations: 1 Centre on Global Health Security, Chatham House, Royal Institute of International Affairs, London, UK. 2 London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

PMID: 32019614  DOI: 10.1017/S0950268820000254

 

Abstract

The response to the novel coronavirus outbreak in China suggests that many of the lessons from the 2003 SARS epidemic have been implemented and the response improved as a consequence. Nevertheless some questions remain and not all lessons have been successful. The national and international response demonstrates the complex link between public health, science and politics when an outbreak threatens to impact on global economies and reputations. The unprecedented measures implemented in China are a bold attempt to control the outbreak – we need to understand their effectiveness to balance costs and benefits for similar events in the future.

Keywords: Emerging Infectious Diseases; SARS; coronavirus; epidemic Response; lessons learned; novel; outbreak Response.

Keywords: 2019-nCoV; China; Public Health.

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Recurrent #Ebolavirus disease in the #DRC: #update and #challenges (AIMS Public Health, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

AIMS Public Health. 2019 Nov 20;6(4):502-513. doi: 10.3934/publichealth.2019.4.502. eCollection 2019.

Recurrent Ebolavirus disease in the Democratic Republic of Congo: update and challenges.

Inungu J1, Iheduru-Anderson K2, Odio OJ3.

Author information: 1 Master of Public Health Program, College of Health Professions, Central Michigan University, Michigan, United States. 2 Nursing Program, Central Michigan University, Michigan, United States. 3 Department of Internal Medicine, Medical School Hospital, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Congo.

 

Abstract

The current Ebolavirus disease (EVD) outbreak in the provinces of North Kivu and Ituri is the tenth outbreak affecting the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC); the first outbreak occurring in a war context, and the second most deadly Ebolavirus outbreak on record following the 2014 outbreak in West Africa. The DRC government’s response consisted of applying a package of interventions including detection and rapid isolation of cases, contact tracing, population mapping, and identification of high-risk areas to inform a coordinated effort. The coordinated effort was to screen, ring vaccinate, and conduct laboratory diagnoses using GeneXpert (Cepheid) polymerase chain reaction. The effort also included ensuring safe and dignified burials and promoting risk communication, community engagement, and social mobilization. Following the adoption of the “Monitored Emergency Use of Unregistered Products Protocol,” a randomized controlled trial of four investigational treatments (mAb114, ZMapp, and REGN-EB3 and Remdesivir) was carried out with all consenting patients with laboratory-confirmed EVD. REGN-EB3 and mAb114 showed promise as treatments for EVD. In addition, one investigational vaccine (rVSV-ZEBOV-GP) was used first, followed by a second prophylactic vaccine (Ad26.ZEBOV/MVA-BN-Filo) to reinforce the prevention. Although the provision of clinical supportive care remains the cornerstone of EVD outbreak management, the DRC response faced daunting challenges including general insecurity, violence and community resistance, appalling poverty, and entrenched distrust of authority. Ebolavirus remains a public health threat. A fully curative treatment is unlikely to be a game-changer given the settings of transmission, zoonotic nature, limits of effectiveness of any therapeutic intervention, and timing of presentation.

© 2019 the Author(s), licensee AIMS Press.

KEYWORDS: Ebola outbreak; epidemiology; hemorrhagic fever; prevention; treatment

PMID: 31909070 PMCID: PMC6940573 DOI: 10.3934/publichealth.2019.4.502

Keywords: Ebola; DRC; Public Health.

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The will of #Congress? Permissive #regulation and the #strategic use of #labeling for the anti- #influenza #drug #Relenza (Soc Stud Sci., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Soc Stud Sci. 2019 Nov 19:306312719890015. doi: 10.1177/0306312719890015. [Epub ahead of print]

The will of Congress? Permissive regulation and the strategic use of labeling for the anti-influenza drug Relenza.

Mulinari S1, Davis C2.

Author information: 1 Department of Sociology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden. 2 Department of Global Health and Social Medicine, King’s College London, UK.

 

Abstract

Through an analysis of the FDA’s approval of the controversial anti-influenza drug Relenza (zanamivir), we interrogate distinct social scientific theories of pharmaceutical regulation. We investigate why, despite internal negative opinions and an Advisory Committee’s non-approval recommendation, the FDA approved Relenza in the late 1990s. Based on a close reading of FDA documents, we show how agency officials guided the manufacturer’s analyses and participated in constructing a tenuous argument for approval. We show how regulators may strategically design drug labels that can justify their permissive regulation. We consider the explanatory power of official accounts and alternative, partially overlapping, theories of pharmaceutical regulation in the Relenza case, and develop new insights into the institutional dynamics of regulator-industry relations. We find little or no evidence that the FDA was primarily driven by public health concerns, pressure from disease-based patient activism, or a consumerist and neoliberal regulatory logic, although some of these explanations provided managers with convenient rhetoric to rationalize their actions. Rather, we argue that the Relenza case highlights contradictions between a scientific culture at FDA, conducive to rigorous product evaluations, and the agency’s attempts to accommodate higher-level political (i.e. Congress) and industry demands conducive of permissive regulation – consistent with some aspects of reputational and capture theories, as well as with corporate bias theory.

KEYWORDS: Food and Drug Administration; corporate bias; influenza; pharmaceutical industry; regulation; regulatory capture

PMID: 31739775 DOI: 10.1177/0306312719890015

Keywords: Society; Politics; Public Health; USA.

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#Drug #Decriminalization: A Matter of #Justice and #Equity, Not Just Health (Am J Prev Med., abstract)

[Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Drug Decriminalization: A Matter of Justice and Equity, Not Just Health

Hakique N. Virani, MD1, Rebecca J. Haines-Saah, PhD2

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2019.08.012

Published online: November 15, 2019

 

Abstract

Since 2016, more than 10,300 Canadians have died of an apparent opioid-related overdose, with the majority involving fentanyl or fentanyl analogs.1 This unprecedented public health crisis has decreased life expectancy at birth in the country’s most affected provinces of Alberta and British Columbia.2 Concerned by this epidemic of overdoses, Canadian advocates for drug policy reform have welcomed the recent recommendation from British Columbia’s Provincial Health Officer that drug possession for personal use be decriminalized.

© 2019 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Opioids; Illicit drugs; Society; Canada.

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#TB, #HIV, and viral #hepatitis #diagnostics in eastern #Europe and central #Asia: high time for integrated and people-centred services (Lancet Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Tuberculosis, HIV, and viral hepatitis diagnostics in eastern Europe and central Asia: high time for integrated and people-centred services

Masoud Dara, MD  †, Soudeh Ehsani, MD, Antons Mozalevskis, MD, Elena Vovc, MD, Daniel Simões, MPH, Ana Avellon Calvo, PhD, Jordi Casabona i Barbarà, PhD, Otar Chokoshvili, MPH, Irina Felker, PhD, Sven Hoffner, PhD, Gulmira Kalmambetova, PhD, Ecatarina Noroc, MD, Natalia Shubladze, PhD, Alena Skrahina, MD, Rasim Tahirli, MD, Prof Tengiz Tsertsvadze, PhD,

Published: November 15, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(19)30524-9

 

Summary

Globally, high rates (and in the WHO European region an increasing prevalence) of co-infection with tuberculosis and HIV and HIV and hepatitis C virus exist. In eastern European and central Asian countries, the tuberculosis, HIV, and viral hepatitis programmes, including diagnostic services, are separate vertical structures. In this Personal View, we consider underlying reasons for the poor integration for these diseases, particularly in the WHO European region, and how to address this with an initial focus on diagnostic services. In part, this low integration has reflected different diagnostic development histories, global funding sources, and sample types used for diagnosis (eg, typically sputum for tuberculosis and blood for HIV and hepatitis C). Cooperation between services improved as patients with tuberculosis needed routine testing for HIV and vice versa, but financial, infection control, and logistical barriers remain. Multidisease diagnostic platforms exist, but to be used optimally, appropriate staff training and sensible understanding of different laboratory and infection control risks needs rapid implementation. Technically these ideas are all feasible. Poor coordination between these vertical systems remains unhelpful. There is a need to increase political and operational integration of diagnostic and treatment services and bring them closer to patients.

Keywords: Public Health; European Region; TB; HIV/AIDS; Viral hepatitis.

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#Development, #environmental #degradation, and #disease spread in the #Brazilian #Amazon (PLOS Biol., abstract)

[Source: PLOS Biology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS / PERSPECTIVE

Development, environmental degradation, and disease spread in the Brazilian Amazon

Marcia C. Castro , Andres Baeza, Cláudia Torres Codeço, Zulma M. Cucunubá, Ana Paula Dal’Asta, Giulio A. De Leo, Andrew P. Dobson, Gabriel Carrasco-Escobar, Raquel Martins Lana, Rachel Lowe, Antonio Miguel Vieira Monteiro, Mercedes Pascual, Mauricio Santos-Vega

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Published: November 15, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000526 / This is an uncorrected proof.

 

Abstract

The Amazon is Brazil’s greatest natural resource and invaluable to the rest of the world as a buffer against climate change. The recent election of Brazil’s president brought disputes over development plans for the region back into the spotlight. Historically, the development model for the Amazon has focused on exploitation of natural resources, resulting in environmental degradation, particularly deforestation. Although considerable attention has focused on the long-term global cost of “losing the Amazon,” too little attention has focused on the emergence and reemergence of vector-borne diseases that directly impact the local population, with spillover effects to other neighboring areas. We discuss the impact of Amazon development models on human health, with a focus on vector-borne disease risk. We outline policy actions that could mitigate these negative impacts while creating opportunities for environmentally sensitive economic activities.

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Citation: Castro MC, Baeza A, Codeço CT, Cucunubá ZM, Dal’Asta AP, De Leo GA, et al. (2019) Development, environmental degradation, and disease spread in the Brazilian Amazon. PLoS Biol 17(11): e3000526. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000526

Published: November 15, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Castro et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Funding: The National Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center (SESYNC) under funding from the National Science Foundation (DBI-1639145) supported this work. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Abbreviations: DETER, Detection of Deforestation in Real Time; EIA, environmental impact assessment; EMBRAPA, Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation; INPE, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais; NMCP, National Malaria Control Program; OTCA, Organización del Tratado de Cooperación Amazónica; PAHO, Pan American Health Organization

Provenance: Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

Keywords: Public Health; Environmental disasters; Emerging Diseases; Infectious Diseases; Brazil; Amazon.

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#Risk #factors, #awareness of disease and use of #medications in a deprived population: differences between #indigent natives and undocumented #migrants in #Italy (J Pub Health, abstract)

[Source: Journal of Public Health, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Risk factors, awareness of disease and use of medications in a deprived population: differences between indigent natives and undocumented migrants in Italy

Gianfrancesco Fiorini, Cesare Cerri, Flavia Magri, Luca Chiovato, Laura Croce, Antonello E Rigamonti, Alessandro Sartorio, Silvano G Cella

Journal of Public Health, fdz123, https://doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdz123

Published: 08 November 2019

 

Abstract

Background

Undocumented migrants experience many health problems; a comparison with a suitable control group of natives living in the same socio-economic conditions is still lacking.

Methods

Demographic data and data on risk factors, chronic conditions and dietary habits were obtained for 6933 adults (2950 Italians and 3983 undocumented migrants) receiving medical assistance from 40 non-governmental organizations all over the country.

Results

Attributed to the fact that these were unselected groups, differences were found in their demographic features, the main ones being their marital status (singles: 50.5% among Italians and 42.8% among migrants; P < 0.001). Smokers were more frequent among Italians (45.3% versus 42.7% P = 0.03); the same happened with hypertension (40.5% versus 34.5% P < 0.001). Migrants were more often overweight (44.1% versus 40.5% P < 0.001) and reporting a chronic condition (20.2% versus 14.4% P < 0.001). Among those on medications (n = 1354), Italians were fewer (n = 425) and on different medications. Differences emerged also in dietary habits.

Conclusions

Differences in health conditions exist between native-borns and undocumented migrants, not because of a bias related to socio-economic conditions. Further studies are needed to design sustainable health policies and tailored prevention plans.

chronic diseases, dispensation of medications, poverty, undocumented migrants

Topic: hypertension – diet – adult – chronic disease – demography – habits – health policy – italy – marital status – medical assistance – single person – socioeconomic factors – poverty – overweight – prevention – nongovernmental organizations – smokers

Issue Section: Original Article

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model)

Keywords: Public Health; Society; Poverty; Migrants; Italy.

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