Potential negative #effects of the #free use of #chloroquine to manage #COVID19 in #Colombia (J Med Virol., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Medical Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Potential negative effects of the free use of chloroquine to manage COVID‐19 in Colombia

Aníbal A. Teherán,  Gabriel Camero,  Carolina Hernández,  Luis Perez‐Garcia,  Renato Gúzman,  Alberto Paniz‐Mondolfi,  Juan David Ramírez

First published: 26 May 2020 | DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26059

This article has been accepted for publication and undergone full peer review but has not been through the copyediting, typesetting, pagination and proofreading process, which may lead to differences between this version and the Version of Record. Please cite this article as doi: 10.1002/jmv.26059

 

Abstract

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) pandemic has challenged healthcare systems around the world. Unfortunately, failure has ensued: high‐income countries have succumbed to the global emergency despite highly prepared human and technological assets. There is no current consensus on pharmacological management of COVID‐19, but chloroquine phosphate (CQ) has emerged as a possible therapeutical candidate. However, no conclusive evidence has been published on the efficacy of CQ against SARS‐CoV‐2 infection. The Colombian government has approved the use of CQ for COVID‐19, a measure that could negatively impact a large number of patients who depend on this drug for the treatment of other life‐threatening diseases such as malaria and rheumatic autoimmune diseases. Careful consideration should be taken by Colombian authorities regarding the use of CQ in context of the ongoing pandemic.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Colombia; Politics; Chloroquine.

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#Adverse #Consequences of #Rushing a #SARS-CoV-2 #Vaccine – Implications for Public Trust (JAMA, summary)

[Source: JAMA, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Adverse Consequences of Rushing a SARS-CoV-2 VaccineImplications for Public Trust

Brit Trogen, MD, MS1; David Oshinsky, PhD1; Arthur Caplan, PhD1

Author Affiliations: 1 NYU Langone Health, New York, New York

JAMA. Published online May 26, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.8917

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As the SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) pandemic persists across the US and the world, the spotlight on vaccine science has never been more intense. Researchers across the globe are working rapidly to produce a potential vaccine, and 7 candidates are already in clinical trials.1 Operation Warp Speed, the vaccine development project announced by President Trump, has advocated for a vaccine to be made available in the US by the beginning of 2021.1 But for scientists and physicians, the term “warp speed” should trigger concern. Good science requires rigor, discipline, and deliberate caution. Any medical therapy approved for public use in the absence of extensive safeguards has the potential to cause harm, not only for COVID-19 prevention efforts and vaccine recipients, but also for public trust in vaccination efforts worldwide.

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Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Society; Politics; USA.

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Where are the #ECDC and the #EU-wide #responses in the #COVID19 pandemic? (Lancet, summary)

[Source: Lancet, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Where are the ECDC and the EU-wide responses in the COVID-19 pandemic?

Jacint Jordana, Juan Carlos Triviño-Salazar

Published: May 13, 2020 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31132-6

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As the EU continues to face the COVID-19 pandemic, an unprecedented transboundary crisis, its member states resort to measures within the boundaries of the nation state. This situation questions the capacity of the EU to deploy public health instruments to cope with pandemics. One such instrument, the European Centre for Disease Control (ECDC), seems to show a discreet involvement in this crisis, suggesting emerging isolationist behaviours of the member states.

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Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Society; Politics; EU.

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#Answering the right #questions for #policymakers on #COVID19 (Lancet Glob Health, summary)

[Source: Lancet Global Health, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Answering the right questions for policymakers on COVID-19

Ellie Graeden, Colin Carlson, Rebecca Katz

Open Access | Published: April 20, 2020 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30191-1

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Effectively translating science into both operational and policy action is a nearly  universal challenge;1,  2  in an emergency, aligning the interests of scientists and policy  makers can be especially difficult. In an effort to minimise uncertainty and harness  existing knowledge, scientists often focus on predictive problems that are broad in scale  with quantifiable uncertainty; more often than not, this approach can leave policy  makers without clear answers for high-consequence decisions that have to be made  quickly, regardless of the available evidence base.

(…)

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Politics.

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The will of #Congress? Permissive #regulation and the #strategic use of #labeling for the anti- #influenza #drug #Relenza (Soc Stud Sci., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Soc Stud Sci. 2019 Nov 19:306312719890015. doi: 10.1177/0306312719890015. [Epub ahead of print]

The will of Congress? Permissive regulation and the strategic use of labeling for the anti-influenza drug Relenza.

Mulinari S1, Davis C2.

Author information: 1 Department of Sociology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden. 2 Department of Global Health and Social Medicine, King’s College London, UK.

 

Abstract

Through an analysis of the FDA’s approval of the controversial anti-influenza drug Relenza (zanamivir), we interrogate distinct social scientific theories of pharmaceutical regulation. We investigate why, despite internal negative opinions and an Advisory Committee’s non-approval recommendation, the FDA approved Relenza in the late 1990s. Based on a close reading of FDA documents, we show how agency officials guided the manufacturer’s analyses and participated in constructing a tenuous argument for approval. We show how regulators may strategically design drug labels that can justify their permissive regulation. We consider the explanatory power of official accounts and alternative, partially overlapping, theories of pharmaceutical regulation in the Relenza case, and develop new insights into the institutional dynamics of regulator-industry relations. We find little or no evidence that the FDA was primarily driven by public health concerns, pressure from disease-based patient activism, or a consumerist and neoliberal regulatory logic, although some of these explanations provided managers with convenient rhetoric to rationalize their actions. Rather, we argue that the Relenza case highlights contradictions between a scientific culture at FDA, conducive to rigorous product evaluations, and the agency’s attempts to accommodate higher-level political (i.e. Congress) and industry demands conducive of permissive regulation – consistent with some aspects of reputational and capture theories, as well as with corporate bias theory.

KEYWORDS: Food and Drug Administration; corporate bias; influenza; pharmaceutical industry; regulation; regulatory capture

PMID: 31739775 DOI: 10.1177/0306312719890015

Keywords: Society; Politics; Public Health; USA.

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The #publichealth #crisis of #underimmunisation: a global plan of action (Lancet Infect Dis., summary)

[Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

The public health crisis of underimmunisation: a global plan of action

Prof Lawrence O Gostin, JD, Prof James G Hodge Jr, JD, Prof Barry R Bloom, MD, Ayman El-Mohandes, MD, Prof Jonathan Fielding, MD, Prof Peter Hotez, MD, Dean Ann Kurth, PhD, Prof Heidi J Larson, PhD, Prof Walter A Orenstein, Kenneth Rabin, PhD, Prof Scott C Ratzan, MD, Prof Daniel Salmon, PhD

Published: November 06, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(19)30558-4

 

Summary

Vaccination is one of public health’s greatest achievements, responsible for saving billions of lives. Yet, 20% of children worldwide are not fully protected, leading to 1·5 million child deaths annually from vaccine-preventable diseases. Millions more people have severe disabling illnesses, cancers, and disabilities stemming from underimmunisation. Reasons for falling vaccination rates globally include low public trust in vaccines, constraints on affordability or access, and insufficient governmental vaccine investments. Consequently, an emerging crisis in vaccine hesitancy ranges from hyperlocal to national and worldwide. Outbreaks often originate in small, insular communities with low immunisation rates. Local outbreaks can spread rapidly, however, transcending borders. Following an assessment of underlying determinants of low vaccination rates, we offer an action based on scientific evidence, ethics, and human rights that spans multiple governments, organisations, disciplines, and sectors.

Keywords: Vaccines; Society; Politics; Public Health.

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#US #sanctions in #Venezuela: #help, hindrance, or #violation of #humanrights? (Lancet, summary)

[Source: The Lancet, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

US sanctions in Venezuela: help, hindrance, or violation of human rights?

Tanya L Zakrison, Carles Muntaner

Published: June 13, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)31397-2

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We read with interest the Review about Venezuela’s public health crisis1 and could not agree more emphatically with the authors. However, the root causes of this economic crisis, specifically, the impact of the US economic sanctions, deserve further inquiry. Since 2014, 43 unilateral, coercive measures have been applied against Venezuela by the US Administration. These have effectively paralysed the economy, blocked oil exportation globally, and frozen Venezuelan financial assets abroad while denying access to international financial systems. This loss in oil revenue and assets has amounted to a shortfall worth billions of US dollars, prohibiting the importation of essential, lifesaving products.

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We declare no competing interests.

Keywords: Public Health; Venezuela; USA; Wars; Politics; Society; Poverty.

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#Refugee and #migrant #health in the #European Region (Lancet, summary)

[Source: The Lancet, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Refugee and migrant health in the European Region

Ryoko Takahashi, Krista Kruja, Soorej Jose Puthoopparambil, Santino Severoni

Published: May 20, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30282-X

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WHO is the respected authority in leading the production and use of core evidence for public health decision making.1 The Health Evidence Network (HEN) is an information service for public health decision makers in the WHO European Region and supports them to use the best available evidence.

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We declare no competing interests.

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Article Info

Published: May 20, 2019

Identification: DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30282-X

Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Migrants; Society; Politics; European Region; Public Health.

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#Privatisation of #immigration #detention facilities (Lancet, summary)

[Source: The Lancet, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Privatisation of immigration detention facilities

Altaf Saadi, Lello Tesema

Published: May 20, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30351-4

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In December, 2018, two Guatemalan children, a 7-year-old girl and an 8-year-old boy, died while detained in immigration custody in the USA. Their tragic deaths should raise alarm about the dangerously substandard medical and mental health care at US immigration detention facilities.

(…)

We declare no competing interests.

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Article Info

Published: May 20, 2019

Identification: DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30351-4

Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: USA; Society; Politics; Migrants; Racism; Public Health.

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#Immigration in #Italy: the #medical #community’s role in #human #rights (Lancet, summary)

[Source: The Lancet, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Immigration in Italy: the medical community’s role in human rights

Raffaella Casolino

Published: May 20, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30216-8

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Italy has been witnessing a rapid escalation towards racism and xenophobia since the new government came into power in June, 2018. On Nov 27, 2018, the lower house of the Italian Parliament approved the Decree-Law on Immigration and Security, which includes measures that would abolish humanitarian protection status for migrants, block asylum seekers from accessing reception centres focusing on social inclusion, and extend the duration of detention in return centres and hotspots. These measures fundamentally undermine international human rights principles. The day after approval, the Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of the Interior declared that Italy would not sign the UN Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration or take part in an intergovernmental conference in Marrakech, Morocco, on Dec 10, 2018.

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I declare no competing interests.

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Reference

UN Human Rights, Office of the high commissioner. Legal changes and climate of hatred threaten migrants’ rights in Italy, say UN experts. URL: https://www.ohchr.org/en/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=23908&LangID=E | Date: Nov 21, 2018 | Date accessed: November 28, 2018

 

Article Info

Published: May 20, 2019

Identification: DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30216-8

Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Public Health; Society; Politics; Italy; Migrants; Racism.

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