Early Administration of #Oseltamivir Within 48 Hours After Onset of Flulike Symptoms Can Reduce the #Risk of Influenza B Virus-Associated #Pneumonia in Hospitalized #Pediatric Patients with Influenza B Virus Infection (Pediatr Infect Dis J., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2020 Feb;39(2):e20-e22. doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000002528.

Early Administration of Oseltamivir Within 48 Hours After Onset of Flulike Symptoms Can Reduce the Risk of Influenza B Virus-Associated Pneumonia in Hospitalized Pediatric Patients with Influenza B Virus Infection.

Dai Z1, Zhang L, Yu Q, Liu L, Yang M, Fan K.

Author information: 1 From the Department of Accident and Emergency, The University of Hong Kong-Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, China.

 

Abstract

We conducted a retrospective study to identify the risk factors for pneumonia in hospitalized pediatric patients with influenza B infection. Receiving oseltamivir within the first 48 hours of onset and frequent cough was respectively considered as a protective factor and a risk factor for the influenza B virus-associated pneumonia in hospitalized pediatric patients. Early administration of oseltamivir can reduce the risk of influenza B virus-associated pneumonia.

PMID: 31929434 DOI: 10.1097/INF.0000000000002528

Keywords: Seasonal Influenza; Influenza B; Antivirals; Oseltamivir; Pneumonia; Pediatrics.

——

Low-temperature #laminar #flow #ward for the #treatment of #MDR #Acinetobacter baumannii #pneumonia (Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2020 Jan 2. doi: 10.1007/s10096-019-03790-x. [Epub ahead of print]

Low-temperature laminar flow ward for the treatment of multidrug resistance Acinetobacter baumannii pneumonia.

Gong Z1,2, Li J, Luo H1,2, Zhan D2,3, Liu X1,2, Gao C1,2, Huang J1,2, Qian Y1,2, Song Y1,2, Quan W1,2, An S1,2, Tian Y1,2, Hu Z4, Sun J1,2, Yuan H5,6, Jiang R7,8.

Author information: 1 Department of Neurosurgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, 300052, China. 2 Tianjin Neurological Institute, Key Laboratory of Post-neurotrauma Neuro-repair and Regeneration in Central Nervous System, Ministry of Education and Tianjin City, Tianjin, 300052, China. 3 Department of Pharmacy, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, 300052, China. 4 Department of clinical laboratories, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, 300052, China. 5 Tianjin Neurological Institute, Key Laboratory of Post-neurotrauma Neuro-repair and Regeneration in Central Nervous System, Ministry of Education and Tianjin City, Tianjin, 300052, China. hengjieyuan@163.com. 6 Department of Pharmacy, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, 300052, China. hengjieyuan@163.com. 7 Department of Neurosurgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, 300052, China. jiang116216@163.com. 8 Tianjin Neurological Institute, Key Laboratory of Post-neurotrauma Neuro-repair and Regeneration in Central Nervous System, Ministry of Education and Tianjin City, Tianjin, 300052, China. jiang116216@163.com.

 

Abstract

This study was designed to investigate the effect of low-temperature laminar flow ward (LTLFW) on the Acinetobacter baumannii pneumonia (MDR-ABP) in neurosurgical intensive care unit (NICU) patients. We evaluated whether patients in a LTLFW had significantly improved clinical outcomes as compared to those in nonconstant-temperature NICU (room temperature). The association of temperature with the prevalence of ABP and A. baumannii isolates (ABI) found in NICU patients was specifically investigated. In vitro microbiological experiments were conducted to measure the proliferation, antibiotic sensitivity, and genomic profiles of A. baumannii (AB) that grew in variable temperatures. MDR-ABP patients in LTLFW had significantly improved outcomes than those in the room temperature NICU. In addition, the numbers of ABI were positively associated with mean ambient outdoor temperatures (P = 0.002), with the incidence of ABP and average numbers of ABI among NICU patients being substantially lower in the winter as compared to other seasons. However, there were no significant seasonal variations in the other strains of the top five bacteria. Consistent with these clinical observations, AB growing at 20°C and 25°C had significantly reduced viability and antibiotic resistance compared to those growing at 35°C. The expression of genes related to AB survival ability, drug resistance, and virulence also differed between AB growing at 20°C and those at 35°C. LTLFW is effective in promoting the recovery of MDR-ABP patients because low temperatures reduced the density and virulence of AB and enhanced the efficacy of antibiotics, likely at the genetic level.

KEYWORDS: Acinetobacter baumannii; Pneumonia; Temperature; Treatment; Variation

PMID: 31898800 DOI: 10.1007/s10096-019-03790-x

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Acinetobacter baumannii; Nosocomial outbreaks; Pneumonia; Intensive care.

——

#Clinical #Features of Fatal Pandemic #Influenza A/ #H1N1 #Infection Complicated by Invasive #Pulmonary #Fungal Infection (Mycopathologia, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Mycopathologia. 2019 Dec 27. doi: 10.1007/s11046-019-00421-z. [Epub ahead of print]

Clinical Features of Fatal Pandemic Influenza A/H1N1 Infection Complicated by Invasive Pulmonary Fungal Infection.

Yu Z1, Gu Q1, Zhang B1, Chen X1, Tang J1, Hou Y1, Yu W2.

Author information: 1 Nanjing University Medical School Affiliated Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, Nanjing, China. 2 Nanjing University Medical School Affiliated Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, Nanjing, China. yudrnj@163.com.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Severe pneumonia caused by influenza virus infection can be secondary to invasive pulmonary fungal (IPF) infection.

OBJECTIVES:

This study aimed to summarize the incidence of IPF infection secondary to influenza virus infection and further explore its etiologic mechanism and high-risk factors.

METHODS:

All adult patients with confirmed influenza A (H1N1) virus infection admitted to the intensive care units (ICUs) of Nanjing Drum Hospital from November 2017 to March 2018 were retrospectively selected. The differences in baseline factors, risk factors, immune function and outcome parameters were studied between patients with and without IPF.

RESULTS:

Of the 19 critically ill patients with H1N1 infection, 11 (57.9%) developed IPF infection after 7 days of ICU admission. Two patients had proven and nine probable IPF infection. A difference in human leukocyte antigen-DR isotype (△HLA-DR; day 7-day 1) was found between the two groups. △HLA-DR (day 7-day 1) was higher in patients with no IPF infection than in those with IPF infection [(14.52 ± 14.21)% vs ( - 11.74 ± 20.22)%, P = 0.019]. The decline in HLA-DR indicated impaired immune function secondary to fungal infection in patients with H1N1 infection.

CONCLUSIONS:

IPF infection was diagnosed in 57.9% of critically ill patients with H1N1 virus infection after a median of 7 days following ICU admission. A continuous decline in immune function could lead to the development of IPF infections. Dynamic monitoring of immune function may help in the early detection of IPF infection.

KEYWORDS: H1N1; Human leukocyte antigen-DR isotype (HLA-DR); Invasive pulmonary fungal infection; Severe pneumonia

PMID: 31883036 DOI: 10.1007/s11046-019-00421-z

Keywords: Seasonal Influenza; Fungal infections; Pneumonia; SARI.

——-

#Epidemiology and clinical #outcomes of hospitalizations for acute respiratory or febrile illness and laboratory-confirmed #influenza among #pregnant women during six influenza seasons, 2010-2016 (J Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Epidemiology and clinical outcomes of hospitalizations for acute respiratory or febrile illness and laboratory-confirmed influenza among pregnant women during six influenza seasons, 2010-2016

Fatimah S Dawood, Shikha Garg, Rebecca V Fink, Margaret L Russell, Annette K Regan, Mark A Katz, Stephanie Booth, Hannah Chung, Nicola P Klein, Jeffrey C Kwong, Avram Levy, Allison Naleway, Dan Riesel, Mark G Thompson, Brandy E Wyant, Deshayne B Fell on behalf of the PREVENT workgroup

The Journal of Infectious Diseases, jiz670, https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiz670

Published: 26 December 2019

 

Abstract

Background

Pregnant women are at increased risk of seasonal influenza hospitalizations, but data about the epidemiology of severe influenza among pregnant women remain largely limited to pandemics.

Methods

To describe the epidemiology of hospitalizations for acute respiratory infection or febrile illness (ARFI) and influenza-associated ARFI among pregnant women, administrative and electronic health record data were analyzed from retrospective cohorts of pregnant women hospitalized with ARFI who had testing for influenza viruses by RT-PCR in Australia, Canada, Israel and the United States during 2010-2016.

Results

Of 18,048 ARFI-coded hospitalizations, 1,064 (6%) included RT-PCR testing for influenza viruses, of which 614 (58%) were influenza-positive. Of 614 influenza-positive ARFI hospitalizations, 35% were in women with low socioeconomic status, 20% with underlying conditions, and 67% in their third trimesters. The median length of influenza-positive hospitalizations was 2 days (IQR 1-4), 18% (95% confidence interval (CI) 15-21%) resulted in delivery, 10% (95% CI 8-12%) included a pneumonia diagnosis, 5% (95% CI 3-6%) required intensive care, 2% (95% CI 1-3%) included a sepsis diagnosis, and <1% (95% CI 0-1%) resulted in respiratory failure.

Conclusions

Our findings characterize seasonal influenza hospitalizations among pregnant women and can inform assessments of the public health and economic impact of seasonal influenza on pregnant women.

Influenza, Pregnant, Hospitalization

This content is only available as a PDF.

Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2019. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

Keywords: Seasonal Influenza; Pregnancy; Pneumonia; Intensive care; Sepsis.

——

Spontaneous #pneumomediastinum in #H1N1 #infection: uncommon complication of a common infection (J R Coll Physicians Edinb., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J R Coll Physicians Edinb. 2019 Dec;49(4):298-300. doi: 10.4997/JRCPE.2019.409.

Spontaneous pneumomediastinum in H1N1 infection: uncommon complication of a common infection.

Chekkoth SM1, Supreeth RN2, Valsala N1, Kumar P1, Raja RS1.

Author information: 1 Baby Memorial Hospital, Calicut, India. 2 C/o M.N Ramesh, 30-276/14/21&22, Dwarakamayee Colony, Old Safilguda, Secunderabad – 500056, Telangana state, India, supreeth22@gmail.com.

 

Abstract

H1N1 viral infection leads to complications, such as pneumonia, respiratory failure, myocarditis and encephalitis. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SPM) is an extremely rare consequence of H1N1 infection and such cases have been sparsely reported. SPM is identified only by a careful clinical examination and obtaining a timely roentgenogram. We report a case of a young male admitted with H1N1 infection complicated by pneumomediastinum. He was treated successfully with oseltamivir, high-flow oxygen and prompt care in the intensive care unit.

KEYWORDS: H1N1 influenza; acute severe asthma; respiratory infections; spontaneous pneumomediastinum; subcutaneous emphysema

PMID: 31808456 DOI: 10.4997/JRCPE.2019.409

Keywords: Seasonal Influenza; H1N1pdm09; Pneumonia.

——