Novel Recombinant #Seneca Valley Virus Isolated from Slaughtered #Pigs in #Guangdong Province (Virol Sin., abstract)

[Source: Virologica Sinica, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Novel Recombinant Seneca Valley Virus Isolated from Slaughtered Pigs in Guangdong Province

Authors: Jianxin Liu, Yunfeng Zha, Huizi Li, Yanwei Sun, Fuguang Wang, Rong Lu, Zhangyong Ning

Letter / First Online: 25 June 2019

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Dear Editor,

Since the first outbreak in Brazil in 2015, Seneca Valley virus (SVV) associated with porcine idiopathic vesicular disease, has shown increasing geographic distribution. Cases of SVV have been reported from several countries including the United States (US), Colombia, Thailand, Canada, and China (Pasma et al.2008; Zhang et al.2015; Sun et al.2017; Wu et al.2017; Liu et al.2018; Saeng-Chuto et al.2018). SVV was first identified in the US in 2002 and is the only member of the genus Senecavirus in the family Picornaviridae (Hales et al.2008; Leme et al.2017). The SVV genome contains a large open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polyprotein, which is cleaved into various mature viral proteins including the leader protein (L), structural proteins (VP1, VP2, VP3, and VP4), and non-structural proteins (2A, 2B, 2C, 3A, 3B, 3C, and 3D) (Hales et al.2008). Structural proteins bind to their receptor, anthrax toxin receptor 1, to mediate viral invasion and stimulate specific immunity…

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Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Key Research and Development Program of Guangdong Province (2019B020218004).

 

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Animal and Human Rights Statement

All institutional and national guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.

Keywords: Picornavirus; Seneca Valley Virus; Pigs; China; Guangdong.

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#Picornavirus #etiology of acute #infections among hospitalized #infants (J Clin Virol., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Clinical Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Journal of Clinical Virology / Available online 25 April 2019 / In Press, Accepted Manuscript

Picornavirus etiology of acute infections among hospitalized infants

Glen R.Abedi a, Kevin Messacar b, William Luong c, W. Allan Nix a, Shannon Rogers a, Krista Queen a, Suxiang Tong a, M. Steven Oberste a, James Watt c, Gretchen Rothrock c, Samuel Dominguez b, Susan I. Gerber a, John T. Watson a

{a} Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunizations and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Ga, United States; {b}
Colorado Emerging Infections Program, Denver, Colo., United States; {c} California Emerging Infections Program, Richmond, Calif., United States

Received 4 December 2018, Revised 17 April 2019, Accepted 23 April 2019, Available online 25 April 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2019.04.005

 

Highlights

  • Enteroviruses (EV) and parechoviruses (PeV) are ubiquitous viruses that cause a range of illness, including acute illness in children aged <1 year.
  • Of 319 patients aged <1 year, CSF specimens from 13 (4.1%) were positive for EV and from 11 (3.4%) for PeV.
  • Sequencing revealed a variety of EV types and the predominance of PeV-A3 among the PeV-positive case-patients.
  • Clinicians should consider EV and PeV infections in infants presenting with febrile illness.

 

Abstract

Background

Enteroviruses (EV) and parechoviruses (PeV) are ubiquitous viruses that cause a range of illness, including acute illness in children aged <1 year.

Objectives

We describe EV and PeV infections among children from 2 US study sites aged <1 year and hospitalized with acute infections. For EV- and PeV-negative case-patients, we explored other viral etiologies.

Methods

Participants were aged <1 year, hospitalized during 2016, and had cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collected for routine diagnostic testing. Demographic and clinical data were abstracted from medical charts, and residual specimens were sent to CDC for confirmatory testing and typing.

Results

Of 472 eligible case-patients, CSF specimen was available for 319 (67.6%). Among those, 13 (4.1%) were positive for EV and 11 (3.4%) for PeV. Most case-patients (86.8%, n = 277) were aged <2 months, as were all EV- or PeV-positive case-patients. None of the positive case-patients had underlying conditions, and the chief complaint for 91.7% (n = 22) was fever. Twelve positive case-patients were admitted to intensive care (ICU) and had brief hospital stays (median 2 days). Sequencing revealed a variety of EV types and the predominance of PeV-A3 among the PeV-positive case-patients.

Conclusions

A range of EVs and PeVs were associated with acute febrile illnesses leading to hospitalization in children aged <2 months. Approximately half of EV and PeV case-patients were admitted to ICU, but length of hospital stay was brief and illnesses were generally self-limiting. Clinicians should consider EV and PeV infections in infants presenting with febrile illness.

Keywords: enterovirus – parechovirus – infants – fever – sepsis – encephalitis – meningitis

{☆} The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by the authors do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors’ affiliated institutions.

© 2019 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Keywords: Enterovirus; Picornavirus; Parechovirus; Encephalitis; Meningitis; Sepsis; Pediatrics.

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#Genomic Characterization of the First #Parechovirus in #Bats (Virol Sin., abstract)

[Source: Virologica Sinica, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Genomic Characterization of the First Parechovirus in Bats

Authors: Chang Zhang, Jinliang Sheng, Zihan Zhao, Chao Yan, Changchun Tu, Biao He

Letter / First Online: 05 April 2019

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Dear Editor, Parechoviruses (PeVs) are non-enveloped, spherical viruses of genus Parechovirus and family Picornaviridae. Within the capsid is a naked monopartite, linear, single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome of 7.3 kb, comprising a single long open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polyprotein containing regions P1, P2, and P3. The P1 region encodes three structural proteins (VP0, VP3, and VP1); P2 and P3, non-structural proteins (P2 encoding proteins 2A, 2B, and 2C, and P3 encoding proteins 3A, 3B, 3C, and 3D) (ICTV 2018). PeVs are classified into four species: Parechovirus A, is composed of human parechoviruses (HPeVs) identified worldwide, causing gastrointestinal or respiratory diseases and being implicated in myocarditis and encephalitis (Harvala and Simmonds 2009); Parechovirus B and C have been reported in rodents, including Ljungan viruses (LVs) in bank voles and Sebokele virus (SEBV) in African wood mice (Niklasson et al.1999; Joffret et al.2013); Parechovirus Dcomprises a…

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Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article ( https://doi.org/10.1007/s12250-019-00108-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Chang Zhang and Jinliang Sheng have contributed equally to this work.

 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the NSFC-Xinjiang joint fund (U1503283).

 

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Animal and Human Rights Statement

The sampling of bats was approved by the Administrative Committee on Animal Welfare of the Military Veterinary Institute, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, China (Laboratory Animal Care and Use Committee Authorization, Permit No. JSY-DW-2015-01).

Keywords: Picornavirus; Parechovirus; Bats.

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Intertypic #recombination of #human #parechovirus 4 isolated from #infants with #sepsis-like disease (J Clin Virol., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Clinical Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Intertypic recombination of human parechovirus 4 isolated from infants with sepsis-like disease

Pekka Kolehmainen, Anu Siponen, Teemu Smura, Hannimari Kallio-Kokkoemail, Olli Vapalahti, Anne Jääskeläinen1, Sisko Tauriainen1

1These authors contributed equally.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2017.01.001

Publication History: Published online: January 03, 2017 – Accepted: January 2, 2017 – Received in revised form: December 30, 2016 – Received: October 13, 2016

 

Highlights

  • Three HPeV-4 complete coding sequences were determined.
  • The P1 and P2 regions were highly similar to an HPeV-4 from the Netherlands, 2002.
  • Sequence similarity with HPeV-4 was lost in the 3D region indicating recombination.
  • The 2 B to 3A region clustered together with several HPeV-3 strains.
  • A three nucleotide deletion, compared to other HPeV-4s, was found in the 1C region.

 

Abstract

Background

Human parechoviruses (HPeVs) (family Picornaviridae), are common pathogens in young children. Despite their high prevalence, research on their genetic identity, diversity and evolution have remained scarce.

Objectives

Complete coding regions of three previously reported HPeV-4 isolates from Finnish children with sepsis-like disease were sequenced in order to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships and potential recombination events during the evolution of these isolates.

Study design

The isolated viruses were sequenced and aligned with all HPeV complete genome sequences available in GenBank. Phylogenetic trees were constructed and similarity plot and bootscanning methods were used for recombination analysis.

Results

The three HPeV-4 isolates had 99.8% nucleotide sequence similarity. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that capsid-encoding sequences of these HPeV-4 isolates were closely related to other HPeV-4 strains (80.7-94.7% nucleotide similarity), whereas their non-structural region genes 2A to 3C clustered together with several HPeV-1 and HPeV-3 strains, in addition to the HPeV-4 strain K251176-02 (isolated 2002 in the Netherlands), but not with other HPeV-4 strains. However, in 3D-encoding sequence the Finnish HPeV-4 isolates did not cluster with the strain HPeV-4/K251176-02, but instead, formed a distinct group together with several HPeV-1 and HPeV-3 strains. Similarity plot and Bootscan analyses further confirmed intertypic recombination events in the evolution of the Finnish HPeV-4 isolates.

Conclusion

Intertypic recombination event(s) have occurred during the evolution of HPeV-4 isolates from children with sepsis-like disease. However, due to the low number of parechovirus complete genomes available, the precise recombination partners could not be detected. The results suggest frequent intratypic recombination among parechoviruses.

Abbreviations: CDS (coding sequences), HPeV (human parechovirus), NGS (next generation sequencing), nt (nucleotide(s)), UTR (untranslated region)

Keywords: Human parechovirus, HPeV-4, Complete coding sequence, Sepsis-like disease, Recombination, Phylogenetic analysis

Keywords: Parechovirus; Picornavirus; Sepsis.

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#ICAM-5/Telencephalin Is a Functional Entry #Receptor for #Enterovirus #D68 (Cell Host Microbe, abstract)

[Source: Cell Host & Microbe, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

ICAM-5/Telencephalin Is a Functional Entry Receptor for Enterovirus D68

Wei Wei, Haoran Guo, Junliang Chang, Yingzi Yu, Guanchen Liu, Nannan Zhang, Stephen H. Willard, Shu Zheng, Xiao-Fang Yu5

5Lead Contact

Publication stage: In Press Corrected Proof / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2016.09.013

Publication History

Published: October 27, 2016 – Accepted: September 21, 2016 – Received in revised form: August 5, 2016 – Received: May 13, 2016

 

Highlights

  • ICAM-5 expression is associated with host cell susceptibility to EV-D68
  • EV-D68 viruses bind specifically to ICAM-5
  • Soluble ICAM-5 fragments efficiently inhibit EV-D68 infection in vitro and in vivo
  • ICAM-5 mediates viral infection of prototype Fermon and circulating EV-D68 strains

 

Summary

Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is a member of the Picornaviridae family. Although EV-D68-associated infection was once considered rare, it has been increasing in recent years. EV-D68 infection is most frequently associated with respiratory illness. However, it has also been implicated in a polio-like neurological disorder, acute flaccid myelitis. Although sialic acid has been implicated in EV-D68 entry, the existence of a protein receptor has yet to be clarified. Here we identify neuron-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 5 (ICAM-5/telencephalin) as a cellular receptor for sialic acid-dependent and -independent EV-D68 viruses. EV-D68 bound specifically and efficiently to ICAM-5, and replication of EV-D68 in diverse cell types was inhibited by soluble ICAM-5 fragments. ICAM-5 silencing attenuated EV-D68 replication in permissive cells, and ICAM-5 expression in non-permissive cells allowed EV-D68 replication. The discovery of a neuron-specific adhesion molecule as an EV-D68 receptor has important implications for EV-D68 pathogenesis and may facilitate the development of novel intervention strategies.

Keywords: EV-D68, ICAM-5/telencephalin, entry receptor, acute flaccid myelitis, enterovirus, picornaviridae, respiratory illness

Received: May 13, 2016; Received in revised form: August 5, 2016; Accepted: September 21, 2016; Published: October 27, 2016

© 2016 Elsevier Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Keywords: EV-D68; Acute Flaccid Myelitis; Picornavirus.

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#Clinical #Manifestations of #Senecavirus A #Infection in Neonatal #Pigs, #Brazil, 2015 (@CDC_EIDjournal, abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 22, Number 7—July 2016 / Dispatch

Clinical Manifestations of Senecavirus A Infection in Neonatal Pigs, Brazil, 2015

Raquel A. Leme1, Thalita E.S. Oliveira1, Brígida K. Alcântara, Selwyn A. Headley, Alice F. Alfieri, Ming Yang, and Amauri A. Alfieri

Author affiliations: Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Paraná, Brazil (R.A. Leme, T.E.S. Oliveira, B.K. Alcântara, S.A. Headley, A.F. Alfieri, A.A. Alfieri); National Centre for Foreign Animal Disease, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada (M. Yang)

Suggested citation for this article: Leme RA, Oliveira TES, Alcântara BK, Headley SA, Alfieri AF, Yang M, et al. Clinical manifestations of Senecavirus A infection in neonatal pigs, Brazil, 2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016 Jul [date cited]. http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2207.151583

DOI: 10.3201/eid2207.151583

1These authors contributed equally to this article.

 

Abstract

We identified new clinical manifestations associated with Senecavirus A infection in neonatal piglets in Brazil in 2015. Immunohistochemical and molecular findings confirmed the association of Senecavirus A with these unusual clinical signs and more deaths. Other possible disease agents investigated were not associated with these illnesses.

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Senecavirus; Picornavirus; Pigs; Brazil.

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