Local #pesticide use intensity conditions #landscape effects on #biological #pest control (Proc Roy Soc B., abstract)

[Source: Proceedings of the Royal Society, Biological Sciences, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Local pesticide use intensity conditions landscape effects on biological pest control

B. Ricci, C. Lavigne, A. Alignier, S. Aviron, L. Biju-Duval, J. C. Bouvier, J.-P. Choisis,P. Franck, A. Joannon, S. Ladet, F. Mezerette, M. Plantegenest, G. Savary, C. Thomas, A. Vialatte and S. Petit

Published: 05 June 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2018.2898

 

Abstract

Complex landscapes including semi-natural habitats are expected to favour natural enemies thereby enhancing natural pest biocontrol in crops. However, when considering a large number of situations, the response of natural biocontrol to landscape properties is globally inconsistent, a possible explanation being that local agricultural practices counteract landscape effects. In this study, along a crossed gradient of pesticide use intensity and landscape simplification, we analysed the interactive effects of landscape characteristics and local pesticide use intensity on natural biocontrol. During 3 years, using a set of sentinel prey (weed seeds, aphids and Lepidoptera eggs), biocontrol was estimated in 80 commercial fields located in four contrasted regions in France. For all types of prey excepted weed seeds, the predation rate was influenced by interactions between landscape characteristics and local pesticide use intensity. Proportion of meadow and length of interface between woods and crops had a positive effect on biocontrol of aphids where local pesticide use intensity was low but had a negative effect elsewhere. Moreover, the landscape proportion of suitable habitats for crop pests decreased the predation of sentinel prey, irrespectively of the local pesticide use intensity for weed seeds, but only in fields with low pesticide use for Lepidoptera eggs. These results show that high local pesticide use can counteract the positive expected effects of semi-natural habitats, but also that the necessary pesticide use reduction should be associated with semi-natural habitat enhancement to guarantee an effective natural biocontrol.

 

Footnotes

Electronic supplementary material is available online at https://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.c.4516268

Keywords: Environmental pollution; Pesticides; Biodiversity.

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Increased #risk of #CNS #tumours with #carbamate #insecticide use in the prospective cohort #AGRICAN (Int J Epidemiol., abstract)

[Source: International Journal of Epidemiology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Increased risk of central nervous system tumours with carbamate insecticide use in the prospective cohort AGRICAN

Clément Piel,  Camille Pouchieu, Lucile Migault, Béatrix Béziat, Mathilde Boulanger, Mathilde Bureau, Camille Carles, Anne Grüber, Yannick Lecluse, Virginie Rondeau, Xavier Schwall, Séverine Tual, Pierre Lebailly, Isabelle Baldi, AGRICAN group

International Journal of Epidemiology, dyy246, https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyy246

Published:23 November 2018

Citation: Clément Piel, Camille Pouchieu, Lucile Migault, Béatrix Béziat, Mathilde Boulanger, Mathilde Bureau, Camille Carles, Anne Grüber, Yannick Lecluse, Virginie Rondeau, Xavier Schwall, Séverine Tual, Pierre Lebailly, Isabelle Baldi, AGRICAN group; Increased risk of central nervous system tumours with carbamate insecticide use in the prospective cohort AGRICAN, International Journal of Epidemiology, , dyy246, https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyy246

© 2018 Oxford University Press

 

Abstract

Background

Pesticide exposures are suspected to be implicated in the excess of central nervous system (CNS) tumours observed in farmers, but evidence concerning individual pesticides remains limited. Carbamate insecticides, used on a wide range of crops, have shown evidence of carcinogenicity in some experimental studies. In the cohort AGRICAN (AGRIculture & CANcer), we assessed the associations between potential exposures to carbamate insecticides and the incidence of CNS tumours, overall and by histological subtype.

Methods

AGRICAN enrolled 181 842 participants involved in agriculture. Incident CNS tumours were identified by linkage with cancer registries from enrolment (2005–07) until 2013. Carbamate exposure was assessed by combining information on lifetime periods of pesticide use on crop or livestock and the French crop-exposure matrix PESTIMAT, individually for each of the 19 carbamate insecticides registered in France since 1950. Associations were estimated using proportional hazards models with age as the underlying time scale, adjusting for gender, educational level and smoking.

Results

During a 6.9-year average follow-up, 381 incident cases of CNS tumours occurred, including 164 gliomas and 134 meningiomas. Analyses showed increased risks of CNS tumours with overall exposure to carbamate insecticides and linear trends with duration of use of each carbamate. Considering tumour subtypes, hazard ratios for gliomas ranged from 1.18 for thiofanox to 4.60 for formetanate, and for meningiomas from 1.51 for carbaryl to 3.67 for thiofanox.

Conclusions

Findings reinforce carcinogenicity evidence for already suspected active ingredients and draw attention to additional active ingredients, notably used on fruit trees, vineyards, potatoes and beets.

Carbamates, insecticides, CNS tumours, occupational exposure, risk factors, cohort studies, agriculture, pesticides, cancer, farmers

Topic: cancer – central nervous system neoplasms – exposure – agriculture – carbamates – carbaryl – avian crop – follow-up – glioma – insecticides – carbamate insecticide – meningioma – pesticides – gender – farm animals

Issue Section: Original Article

© The Author(s) 2018; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model)

Keywords: Cancer; Toxic chemicals; Carbamates; Insecticides; Pesticides.

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#Neonicotinoid #pesticide exposure impairs #crop #pollination services provided by #bumblebees (Nature, abstract)

[Source: Nature, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Nature | Letter

Neonicotinoid pesticide exposure impairs crop pollination services provided by bumblebees [   R   ]

Dara A. Stanley, Michael P. D. Garratt, Jennifer B. Wickens, Victoria J. Wickens, Simon G. Potts & Nigel E. Raine

Journal name: Nature – Volume: 528, Pages: 548–550 – Date published: (24 December 2015) – DOI: doi:10.1038/nature16167

Received 08 July 2015 – Accepted 23 October 2015 – Published online 18 November 2015

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Recent concern over global pollinator declines has led to considerable research on the effects of pesticides on bees. Although pesticides are typically not encountered at lethal levels in the field, there is growing evidence indicating that exposure to field-realistic levels can have sublethal effects on bees, affecting their foraging behaviour, homing ability and reproductive success. Bees are essential for the pollination of a wide variety of crops and the majority of wild flowering plants, but until now research on pesticide effects has been limited to direct effects on bees themselves and not on the pollination services they provide. Here we show the first evidence to our knowledge that pesticide exposure can reduce the pollination services bumblebees deliver to apples, a crop of global economic importance. Bumblebee colonies exposed to a neonicotinoid pesticide provided lower visitation rates to apple trees and collected pollen less often. Most importantly, these pesticide-exposed colonies produced apples containing fewer seeds, demonstrating a reduced delivery of pollination services. Our results also indicate that reduced pollination service delivery is not due to pesticide-induced changes in individual bee behaviour, but most likely due to effects at the colony level. These findings show that pesticide exposure can impair the ability of bees to provide pollination services, with important implications for both the sustained delivery of stable crop yields and the functioning of natural ecosystems.

(…)

Subject terms: Agroecology •  Plant ecology • Behavioural ecology • Ecosystem services

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Pesticides: Bumblebees.

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