Heterogeneity of #penicillin-non-susceptible group B #streptococci isolated from a single patient in #Germany (J Antimicrob Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Heterogeneity of penicillin-non-susceptible group B streptococci isolated from a single patient in Germany

Mark van der Linden, Rafael Mamede, Natascha Levina, Peter Helwig, Pedro Vila-Cerqueira, João André Carriço, José Melo-Cristino, Mário Ramirez, Elisabete R Martins

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, dkz465, https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz465

Published: 18 November 2019

 

Abstract

Objectives

Streptococcus agalactiae [group B streptococci (GBS)] have been considered uniformly susceptible to penicillin. However, increasing reports from Asia and North America are documenting penicillin-non-susceptible GBS (PRGBS) with mutations in pbp genes. Here we report, to the best of our knowledge, the first two PRGBS isolates recovered in Europe (AC-13238-1 and AC-13238-2), isolated from the same patient.

Methods

Two different colony morphologies of GBS were noted from a surgical abscess drainage sample. Both were serotyped and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by different methodologies. High-throughput sequencing was done to compare the isolates at the genomic level, to identify their capsular type and ST, to evaluate mutations in the pbp genes and to compare the isolates with the genomes of other PRGBS isolates sharing the same serotype and ST.

Results

Isolates AC-13238-1 and AC-13238-2 presented MICs above the EUCAST and CLSI breakpoints for penicillin susceptibility. Both shared the capsular type Ia operon and ST23. Genomic analysis uncovered differences between the two isolates in seven genes, including altered pbp genes. Deduced amino acid sequences revealed critical substitutions in PBP2X in both isolates. Comparison with serotype Ia clonal complex 23 PRGBS from the USA reinforced the similarity between AC-13238-1 and AC-13238-2, and their divergence from the US strains.

Conclusions

Our results support the in-host evolution of β-lactam-resistant GBS, with two PRGBS variants being isolated from one patient.

Topic: mutation – penicillin – heterogeneity – amino acid sequence – asia – genes – genome – germany – lactams – operon – surgical procedures, operative – streptococcus group b – antimicrobial susceptibility test – abscess drainage – malnutrition-inflammation-cachexia syndrome – serotype

Issue Section: ORIGINAL RESEARCH

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model)

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Streptococcus agalactiae; Beta-lactams; Penicillin; Germany.

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#Antibiotic use in #mandarin #production (Citrus reticulata Blanco) in major mandarin-producing areas in #Thailand: A survey assessment (PLOS One, abstract)

[Source: PLOS One, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Antibiotic use in mandarin production (Citrus reticulata Blanco) in major mandarin-producing areas in Thailand: A survey assessment

Sunicha Chanvatik , Siriporn Donnua , Angkana Lekagul , Wanwisa Kaewkhankhaeng , Vuthiphan Vongmongkol , Pornpimon Athipunyakom , Saenchai Khamlar , Maitree Prommintara , Viroj Tangcharoensathien

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Published: November 13, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0225172

 

Abstract

Background

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR), one of the major global threats to human security, has serious negative consequences for both health and economies. Excessive and inappropriate uses of antibiotics are the main drivers of the emergence of resistant bacterial strains. In Thailand, antibiotics have been used in citrus production since 2012 to treat citrus greening disease or Huanglongbing disease, despite no antibiotics being registered for use in mandarin. This raises concerns about irrational use of antibiotics, which can cause AMR.

Objective

To assess the status of greening disease and the use of antibiotics in mandarin production.

Method

A face-to-face interview survey in 2017 with 221 mandarin growers in two major mandarin-producing areas.

Findings

Greening disease is one of the most serious diseases in mandarins and farmers in the two major mandarin-producing areas in Thailand used ampicillin, amoxicillin, tetracycline and penicillin to treat it. As no antibiotics are registered for use in plants, farmers used antibiotics (registered with the Thai Food and Drug Administration) for human use, either active pharmaceutical ingredients or finished products. They commonly purchased them from retail pharmacies or agrochemical suppliers. Farmers were influenced to use antibiotics by their orchard neighbours and advice from a few academics. The farmers injected antibiotics into the tree trunks approximately three to four times a year and stopped for more than two months before harvesting for in-season fruits.

Conclusion

Antibiotics registered for human use are being applied to control greening diseases. We recommend scaling up sustainable disease control measures and curtail the use of antibiotics through close and effective dialogue among ‘One Health’ partners.

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Citation: Chanvatik S, Donnua S, Lekagul A, Kaewkhankhaeng W, Vongmongkol V, Athipunyakom P, et al. (2019) Antibiotic use in mandarin production (Citrus reticulata Blanco) in major mandarin-producing areas in Thailand: A survey assessment. PLoS ONE 14(11): e0225172. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0225172

Editor: Richard Mankin, US Department of Agriculture, UNITED STATES

Received: July 9, 2019; Accepted: October 30, 2019; Published: November 13, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Chanvatik et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: This study was supported by funding from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (Grant number: LOA/RAP/2017/17). The funder had no role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of this manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Amoxicillin; Tetracyclines; Ampicillin; Penicillin; Plant diseases; Thailand.

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#Neisseria meningitidis isolated from #patients in #MSMs (Rev Argent Microbiol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Rev Argent Microbiol. 2019 Oct 15. pii: S0325-7541(19)30079-3. doi: 10.1016/j.ram.2019.03.009. [Epub ahead of print]

[Neisseria meningitidis isolated from patients in men who have sex with men].

[Article in Spanish]

García SD1, Sorhuet-Pereira C2, Perazzi BE3, Losada ME3, Cabellos Astorga G3, Casco RH4, Vay CA3, Mollerach ME5, Famiglietti ÁMR3.

Author information: 1 Cátedra de Microbiología Clínica, Departamento de Bioquímica Clínica, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Hospital de Clínicas José de San Martín, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address: biosgarcia@yahoo.com.ar. 2 Cátedra de Microbiología, Departamento de Microbiología, Inmunología y Genética, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. 3 Cátedra de Microbiología Clínica, Departamento de Bioquímica Clínica, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Hospital de Clínicas José de San Martín, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. 4 Programa de ETS, Hospital de Clínicas, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. 5 Cátedra de Microbiología, Departamento de Microbiología, Inmunología y Genética, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina; CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

 

Abstract

During the periods 2000-2004 and 2014-2015, Neisseria meningitidis was investigated in men who have sex with men, 1143 and 544 respectively, who consulted in the sexually-transmitted disease program. Prevalence, serogroup distribution and susceptibility to antibiotics were determined. Pharyngeal, rectal and urethral swabs were cultivated on selective Thayer-Martin modified medium. The identification was performed by biochemical tests and mass spectrometry by MALDI-TOF. Serogroups B, C, W and Y were investigated by PCR in 85 isolates recovered from the pharynx belonging to the second period. MICs of penicillin, ceftriaxone, rifampicin, azithromycin and ciprofloxacin were determined for 66 and 102 isolates from periods 1 and 2 respectively, according to CLSI. The prevalence of N. meningitidis was 17.8% and 28.1%, in periods 1 and 2 respectively; the isolates were mainly recovered from the pharynx. The distribution of serogroups was B 31.5%; Y 7.6%; W 3.3% and 9.8% non-capsulated and the rest would belong to other serogroups. Isolates classified as intermediate to penicillin were 34.8% and 63.7% (first and second periods, respectively); moreover, 11.8% of the isolates from the second period were resistant. All isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone, to ciprofloxacin (except 3 isolates with MIC values between 0.25 and 0.5μg/ml), 3% were resistant to rifampicin and 2% were not susceptible to azithromicin. The prevalence of N. meningitidis carriage in men who have sex with men was high with a high rate of penicillin non-susceptible isolates. B was the prevalent serogroup.

Copyright © 2019 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Neisseria meningitidis; Resistance; Resistencia; Serogroup; Serogrupo

PMID: 31628000 DOI: 10.1016/j.ram.2019.03.009

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Penicillin; Neisseria meningitidis; Argentina.

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#Pneumococcal susceptibility to #antibiotics in #carriage: a 17 year time series analysis of the adaptive #evolution of non-vaccine emerging #serotypes to a new selective pressure environment (J Antimicrob Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Pneumococcal susceptibility to antibiotics in carriage: a 17 year time series analysis of the adaptive evolution of non-vaccine emerging serotypes to a new selective pressure environment

Naim Ouldali, Robert Cohen, Corinne Levy, Nathalie Gelbert-Baudino, Elisa Seror. François Corrard, François Vie Le Sage, Anne-Sylvestre Michot, Olivier Romain, Stéphane Bechet, Stéphane Bonacorsi, François Angoulvant, Emmanuelle Varon

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, dkz281, https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz281

Published: 06 July 2019

 

Abstract

Background

Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) implementations led to major changes in serotype distribution and antibiotic resistance in carriage, accompanied by changes in antibiotic consumption.

Objectives

To assess the dynamic patterns of antimicrobial non-susceptibility across non-PCV13 serotypes following PCV implementations.

Methods

We conducted a quasi-experimental interrupted time series analysis based on a 17 year French nationwide prospective cohort. From 2001 to 2018, 121 paediatricians obtained nasopharyngeal swabs from children with acute otitis media who were aged 6 months to 2 years. The main outcome was the rate of penicillin-non-susceptible pneumococci (PNSP), analysed by segmented regression.

Results

We enrolled 10 204 children. After PCV13 implementation, the PNSP rate decreased (−0.5% per month; 95% CI −0.9 to −0.1), then, after 2014, the rate slightly increased (+0.7% per month; 95% CI +0.2 to +1.2). Global antibiotic use within the previous 3 months decreased over the study period (−22.2%; 95% CI −33.0 to −11.3), but aminopenicillin use remained high. Among the main non-PCV13 serotypes, four dynamic patterns of penicillin susceptibility evolution were observed, including unexpected patterns of serotypes emerging while remaining or even becoming penicillin susceptible. In contrast to PNSP strains, for these latter patterns, the rate of co-colonization with Haemophilus influenzae increased concomitant with their emergence.

Conclusions

In a context of continuing high antibiotic selective pressure, a progressive increase in PNSP rate was observed after 2014. However, we highlighted an unexpected variability in dynamic patterns of penicillin susceptibility among emerging non-PCV13 serotypes. Antibiotic resistance may not be the only adaptive mechanism to antimicrobial selective pressure, and co-colonization with H. influenzae may be involved.

Issue Section: ORIGINAL RESEARCH

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model)

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Penicillin; Streptococcus pneumoniae; Vaccines; Haemophilus Influenzae.

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The #history, #genome and #biology of NCTC 30: a non-pandemic #Vibrio cholerae isolate from #WW1 (Proc Roy Soc Biosci., abstract)

[Source: Proceedings of the Royal Society, Biological Sciences, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

The history, genome and biology of NCTC 30: a non-pandemic Vibrio cholerae isolate from World War One

Matthew J. Dorman, Leanne Kane, Daryl Domman, Jake D. Turnbull, Claire Cormie,Mohammed-Abbas Fazal, David A. Goulding, Julie E. Russell, Sarah Alexander
and Nicholas R. Thomson

Published: 10 April 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2018.2025

 

Abstract

The sixth global cholera pandemic lasted from 1899 to 1923. However, despite widespread fear of the disease and of its negative effects on troop morale, very few soldiers in the British Expeditionary Forces contracted cholera between 1914 and 1918. Here, we have revived and sequenced the genome of NCTC 30, a 102-year-old Vibrio cholerae isolate, which we believe is the oldest publicly available live V. cholerae strain in existence. NCTC 30 was isolated in 1916 from a British soldier convalescent in Egypt. We found that this strain does not encode cholera toxin, thought to be necessary to cause cholera, and is not part of V. cholerae lineages responsible for the pandemic disease. We also show that NCTC 30, which predates the introduction of penicillin-based antibiotics, harbours a functional β-lactamase antibiotic resistance gene. Our data corroborate and provide molecular explanations for previous phenotypic studies of NCTC 30 and provide a new high-quality genome sequence for historical, non-pandemic V. cholerae.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Penicillin; Beta-lactams; Vibrio cholerae.

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#WGS #analysis of #MDR #serotype 15A #Streptococcus pneumoniae in #Japan and the emergence of a highly resistant serotype 15A-ST9084 clone (Antimicrob Agents Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Whole-genome sequencing analysis of multidrug-resistant serotype 15A Streptococcus pneumoniae in Japan and the emergence of a highly resistant serotype 15A-ST9084 clone

Satoshi Nakano, Takao Fujisawa, Yutaka Ito, Bin Chang, Yasufumi Matsumura, Masaki Yamamoto, Shigeru Suga, Makoto Ohnishi, Miki Nagao

DOI: 10.1128/AAC.02579-18

 

ABSTRACT

Since the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, an increase in the incidence of disease attributable to serotype 15A-ST63 pneumococci has been observed in many regions worldwide. We conducted a nationwide pediatric pneumococcal infection surveillance study between 2012 and 2014 in Japan. In the surveillance study, we detected multidrug-resistant serotype 15A-CC63 strains (resistant to macrolides, penicillin, cefotaxime and meropenem); in this study, we analyzed these resistant isolates to determine the dynamics and mechanism of resistance using whole-genome sequencing. In most of the penicillin-, cefotaxime- and meropenem-resistant strains, recombination occurred in the pbp2x region resulting in the acquisition of additional cefotaxime resistance to penicillin and meropenem. In the multidrug-resistant serotype 15A-CC63 strains, we identified a specific clone with ST9084, and all of the isolates were recovered from Yamaguchi prefecture in Japan. All of the serotype 15A-ST9084 isolates had a novel pbp2x-43 that was inserted by recombination events. The conserved amino acid motif profiles of pbp1a, pbp2b and pbp2x of the strains were identical to those in serotype 19A-ST320. A Bayesian analysis-based date estimation suggested that this clone emerged in approximately 2002 before the introduction of PCV in Japan. This clone should be monitored because serotype 15A is not contained in the currently used PCV13 and it was resistance to beta-lactams, which are often use in a clinical setting.

Copyright © 2019 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Beta-lactams; Penicillin; Cefotaxime; Meropenem; S. pneumoniae; Japan.

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Y229W substitution in #NDM-1/L209F variant restores the hydrolytic activity of the enzyme towards #penicillins, #cephalosporins and #carbapenems: kinetic profile and molecular dynamic studies (Antimicrob Agents Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Y229W substitution in NDM-1/L209F variant restores the hydrolytic activity of the enzyme towards penicillins, cephalosporins and carbapenems: kinetic profile and molecular dynamic studies

Alessandra Piccirilli, Fabrizia Brisdelli, Massimiliano Aschi, Giuseppe Celenza, Gianfranco Amicosante, Mariagrazia Perilli

DOI: 10.1128/AAC.02270-18

 

ABSTRACT

NDM-1 enzyme is the most common metallo-β-lactamase identified in many Gram-negative bacteria causing severe nosocomial infections. The aim of this study was to focus the attention on non-active site residues, L209 and Y229, of NDM-1 and to investigate their role in the catalytic mechanism. Specifically, the effect of Y229W substitution in L209F variant was evaluated by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, kinetic and molecular dynamic (MD) studies. The Y229W single mutant and L209F/Y229W double mutant were generated by site-directed mutagenesis. The Km, kcat and kcat/Km kinetic constants, calculated for the two mutants, were compared with those of NDM-1 and L209F variants. Compared to L209F single mutant, L209F/Y229W mutant showed a remarkable increase of kcat values of 100-, 240-, 250- and 420-fold for imipenem, meropenem, benzylpenicillin and cefepime, respectively. In L209F/Y229W enzyme we observed a remarkable increase of kcat/Km of 370-, 140- and 80-fold for cefepime, meropenem and cefazolin, respectively. The same behavior was stated by antimicrobial susceptibility test. MD simulations were carried out on both L209F and L209F/Y229W enzymes complexed with benzylpenicillin focusing the attention on the overall mechanical features and on the differences between the two systems. With respect to L209F variant, the L209F/Y229W double mutant showed a mechanical stabilization of Loop 10 and N-terminal region but a destabilization of C-terminal and 149-154 regions. The epistatic effect of Y229W mutation jointly with stabilization of Loop 10 lead to a better catalytic efficiency of β-lactams. NDM numbering is used in order to facilitate the comparison with other NDM-1 studies.

Copyright © 2019 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Carbapenem; Beta-lactams; NDM1; Imipenem; Meropenem; Penicillins.

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