#H7N9 live attenuated #influenza #vaccine in healthy #adults: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1 trial (The Lancet Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Articles

H7N9 live attenuated influenza vaccine in healthy adults: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1 trial [      ]

Larisa Rudenko, Irina Isakova-Sivak, Anatoly Naykhin, Irina Kiseleva, Marina Stukova, Mariana Erofeeva, Daniil Korenkov, Victoria Matyushenko, Erin Sparrow, Marie-Paule Kieny

Published Online: 07 December 2015 / Publication stage: In Press Corrected Proof / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(15)00378-3

© 2015 World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Ltd/Inc/BV. All rights reserved.

 

Summary

Background

H7N9 avian influenza viruses characterised by high virulence and presence of mammalian adaptation markers have pandemic potential. Specific influenza vaccines remain the main defence. We assessed the safety and immunogenicity of an H7N9 live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) candidate in healthy adult volunteers.

Methods

We did a phase 1, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial in Saint Petersburg, Russia. Eligible participants were healthy adults aged 18–49 years. The participants were randomised 3:1 to receive live vaccine or placebo, according to a computer-generated randomisation scheme. Two doses of vaccine or placebo were administered intranasally 28 days apart, each followed by 7 day stays in hospital. Immune responses were assessed in nasal swabs, saliva, and serum specimens collected before and 28 days after each vaccine dose. The primary outcome was the safety profile. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02480101.

Findings

Between Oct 21, 2014, and Oct 31, 2014, 40 adults were randomised, of whom 39 (98%) were included in the per-protocol analysis (29 in the vaccine group and ten in the placebo group). The frequency of adverse events did not differ between the vaccine and placebo groups. Seroconversion of neutralising antibodies was seen in 14 participants after the first vaccine dose (48%, 95% CI 29·4–67·5) and 21 after the second vaccine dose (72%, 52·8–87·3). Immune responses were seen in 27 of 29 recipients (93%, 95% CI 77·2–99·2). Adverse effects were seen in 19 (63%) vaccine recipients and nine (90%) placebo recipients after the first dose and in nine (31%) and four (40%), respectively, after the second dose. These effects were mainly local and all were mild.

Interpretation

The H7N9 LAIV was well tolerated and safe and showed good immunogenicity.

Funding

WHO.

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; H7N9; Avian Influenza; Vaccines; Pandemic Preparedness.

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#Interventions to reduce #zoonotic and #pandemic #risks from #avian #influenza in #Asia (The Lancet Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Personal View

Interventions to reduce zoonotic and pandemic risks from avian influenza in Asia [      ]

J S Malik Peiris, Benjamin J Cowling, Joseph T Wu, Luzhao Feng, Yi Guan, Hongjie Yu, Gabriel M Leung

Published Online: 01 December 2015 / Publication stage: In Press Corrected Proof / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(15)00502-2

© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

 

Summary

Novel influenza viruses continue to emerge, posing zoonotic and potentially pandemic threats, such as with avian influenza A H7N9. Although closure of live poultry markets (LPMs) in mainland China stopped H7N9 outbreaks temporarily, closures are difficult to sustain, in view of poultry production and marketing systems in China. In this Personal View, we summarise interventions taken in mainland China, and provide evidence for other more sustainable but effective interventions in the live poultry market systems that reduce risk of zoonotic influenza including rest days, and banning live poultry in markets overnight. Separation of live ducks and geese from land-based (ie, non-aquatic) poultry in LPM systems can reduce the risk of emergence of zoonotic and epizootic viruses at source. In view of evidence that H7N9 is now endemic in over half of the provinces in mainland China and will continue to cause recurrent zoonotic disease in the winter months, such interventions should receive high priority in China and other Asian countries at risk of H7N9 through cross-border poultry movements. Such generic measures are likely to reduce known and future threats of zoonotic influenza.

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Avian Influenza; Asia; China; H7N9; Human; Poultry; Pandemic Influenza; Pandemic Preparedness.

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Better #outbreak #research #response needed (CMAJ, extract)

[Source: The Canadian Medical Association Journal, full page: (LINK). Extract.]

Better outbreak research response needed [      ]

First published November 30, 2015, doi: 10.1503/cmaj.109-5188 / CMAJ November 30, 2015 cmaj.109-5188

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The Canadian Institutes of Health Research’s (CIHR) recent announce ment of the winners of its $2.5-million Innovative Ebola Research Grants competition was the culmination of work undertaken since the 2003 SARS crisis to advance Canadian research on outbreaks. But Ebola made it patently obvious that there’s at least one lesson from SARS that Canada did not learn: scientists need to respond quickly.

(…)

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Pandemic Preparedness.

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#Ebola: #lessons learned and future #challenges for #Europe (The Lancet Infect Dis., summary)

[Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Summary.]

Personal View

Ebola: lessons learned and future challenges for Europe [      ]

GianLuca Quaglio, Charles Goerens, Giovanni Putoto, Paul Rübig, Pierre Lafaye, Theodoros Karapiperis, Claudio Dario, Paul Delaunois, Rony Zachariah

Published Online: 25 November 2015 / Publication stage: In Press Corrected Proof /  DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(15)00361-8

© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

 

Summary

The Ebola virus epidemic has topped media and political agendas for months; several countries in west Africa have faced the worst Ebola epidemic in history. At the beginning of the disease outbreak, European Union (EU) policies were notably absent regarding how to respond to the crisis. Although the epidemic is now receding from public view, this crisis has undoubtedly changed the European public perception of Ebola virus disease, which is no longer regarded as a bizarre entity confined in some unknown corner in Africa. Policy makers and researchers in Europe now have an opportunity to consider the lessons learned. In this Personal View, we discuss the EU’s response to the Ebola crisis in west Africa. Unfortunately, although ample resources and opportunities for humanitarian and medical action existed, the EU did not use them to promote a rapid and well coordinated response to the Ebola crisis. Lessons learned from this crisis should be used to improve the role of the EU in similar situations in the future, ensuring that European aid can be effectively deployed to set up an improved emergency response system, and supporting the establishment of sustainable health-care services in west Africa.

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Ebola; EU; Pandemic Preparedness.

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