[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]
J Infect Public Health. 2019 Jul – Aug;12(4):482-485. doi: 10.1016/j.jiph.2018.11.009. Epub 2018 Dec 18.
Seroprevalence and risk factors of avian influenza H9 virus among poultry professionals in Rawalpindi, Pakistan.
Tahir MF1, Abbas MA2, Ghafoor T3, Dil S4, Shahid MA5, Bullo MMH6, Ain QU7, Ranjha MA8, Khan MA9, Naseem MT10.
Author information: 1 Poultry Research Institute, Rawalpindi, Punjab, Pakistan; Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Islamabad, Pakistan. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org. 2 National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan. 3 Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Islamabad, Pakistan. 4 Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Islamabad, Pakistan; Livestock and Dairy Development Department, Punjab, Pakistan. 5 Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan. 6 Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Islamabad, Pakistan; Federal General Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan. 7 Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Islamabad, Pakistan; Veterinary Research Institute, Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan. 8 National Institute of Health, Islamabad, Pakistan. 9 Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Islamabad, Pakistan; National Institute of Health, Islamabad, Pakistan. 10 Poultry Research Institute, Rawalpindi, Punjab, Pakistan.
Avian influenza H9 is endemic in commercial and backyard poultry in Pakistan and is a serious occupational health hazard to industry workers. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of avian influenza H9 infection in people working with poultry in Rawalpindi, Pakistan and assess the measures they took to protect themselves from infection.
A cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2016 to May 2017 of 419 people working with poultry in Rawalpindi Division, including farm workers, vaccinators, field veterinarians, butchers and staff working in diagnostic laboratories. Potential participants were randomly approached and gave written consent to participate. Data were collected using a standardized questionnaire and serum samples were processed to detect H9 antibodies using the haemagglutination inhibition test.
Of the 419 participants, 406 (96.9%) were male. The mean age of the participants was 36.4 (SD 10.86) years. A total of 332 participants agreed to a blood test, 167 of whom were positive for A(H9) antibodies, giving an overall seroprevalence of 50.3%. Laboratory staff had the highest seroprevalence (100%) and veterinarians the lowest (38.5%). Vaccinators, butchers and farm workers had a seroprevalence of 83.3%, 52.4% and 45.5% respectively. Personals who used facemasks had significantly lower (P<0.002) seroprevalence (29.6%) than those who never used them (90.6%). Similarly, those who always used gloves and washed their hands with soap had a seroprevalence of 32.8% compared with 89.0% in those who never took these precautions. Of the participants who handled antigens, 92.3% were seropositive.
Laboratory staff and vaccinators are exposed to viral cultures and influenza vaccines respectively which may explain their high seroprevalence.
Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS: Avian influenza; Pakistan; Poultry; Seroprevalence
PMID: 30578143 DOI: 10.1016/j.jiph.2018.11.009 [Indexed for MEDLINE] Free full text
Keywords: Avian Influenza; H9N2; Human; Serology; Seroprevalence; Pakistan.