Multisystem #inflammatory #syndrome associated with #COVID19 in #children in #Pakistan (Lancet Child Adolesc Health, summary)

[Source: Lancet Child and Adolescent Health, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome associated with COVID-19 in children in Pakistan

Masood Sadiq, Omeir Ali Aziz, Uzma Kazmi, Najam Hyder, Muhammad Sarwar, Nighat Sultana et al.

Published: August 10, 2020 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(20)30256-X

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The knowledge of COVID-19 is evolving with new aspects of the disease continuing to  emerge. Children and adolescents younger than 20 years of age constitute 10·6% (24 625  of 231 818) of the total reported confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Pakistan as of July 8,  2020, with a mortality of 0·3% for those aged 10 years or younger and 0·5% for those  aged 11–20 years. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), also known  as paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with severe  acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (PIMS-TS) is being reported primarily from  Europe and the USA. Many of these children meet the criteria for complete or incomplete  Kawasaki disease, but different clinical presentations of this inflammatory  disorder are being reported.  The ethnic origin of reported cases show that Black, Hispanic, and Asian children might be disproportionally affected.  Similarly, unlike  Kawasaki disease, these cases have occurred in older children and adolescents.  We  report our initial experience from The Children’s Hospital Lahore, Pakistan—the first  report of this new inflammatory syndrome from south Asia.

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Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome; Pediatrics.

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#SARS‐CoV‐2 Causes #Kawasaki like Disease in #children; Cases reported in #Pakistan (J Med Virol., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Medical Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

SARS‐CoV‐2 Causes Kawasaki like Disease in children; Cases reported in Pakistan

Kiran Shafiq Khan MBBS,  Irfan Ullah

First published: 24 July 2020 | DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26340

This article has been accepted for publication and undergone full peer review but has not been through the copyediting, typesetting, pagination and proofreading process, which may lead to differences between this version and the Version of Record. Please cite this article as doi: 10.1002/jmv.26340

 

Abstract

The pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2), causing coronavirus disease, has spread promptly globally. In adults, COVID‐19 shows classic symptoms that range from severe interstitial pneumonia to hyper‐activation of the inflammatory cascade. In children, respiratory involvement is mild and has a non‐threatening course, with almost no mortalities.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Pediatrics; Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome; Pakistan.

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#COVID19 and #dengue virus co‐epidemics in #Pakistan: A dangerous combination for overburdened healthcare system (J Med Virol., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Medical Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

COVID‐19 and dengue virus co‐epidemics in Pakistan: A dangerous combination for overburdened healthcare system

Aleena Haqqi,  Usman Ayub Awan,  Muhammad Ali,  Muhammad Arif Nadeem Saqib, Haroon Ahmed,  Muhammad Sohail Afzal

First published: 08 June 2020 | DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26144

This article has been accepted for publication and undergone full peer review but has not been through the copyediting, typesetting, pagination and proofreading process, which may lead to differences between this version and the Version of Record. Please cite this article as doi: 10.1002/jmv.26144

 

Abstract

We have read recent articles regarding co‐epidemics/co‐infections of COVID‐19 and other infectious diseases 1‐4, these reports highlights the impact of co‐infections on the health care system. The recent pandemic of COVID‐19 caused by a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus ‐ SARS‐CoV‐2 has taken 378K lives and has spread worldwide infecting over 6.3 million individuals.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Dengue Fever; Pakistan.

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#Spread of Novel #Coronavirus by Returning #Pilgrims from #Iran to #Pakistan (J Trav Med., summary)

[Source: Journal of Travel Medicine, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Spread of Novel Coronavirus by Returning Pilgrims from Iran to Pakistan

Syed Lal Badshah PhD1, *, Asad Ullah PhD1, Syed Hilal Badshah MBBS2, Irshad Ahmad PhD3

1 Department of Chemistry, Islamia College University Peshawar, Peshawar, Pakistan. 2 Department of Internal Medicine, Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar, Pakistan. 3 Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Khyber Medical University Peshawar, Pakistan.

Corresponding author: Syed Lal Badshah, shahbiochemist@gmail.com

© International Society of Travel Medicine 2020. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/jtm/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/jtm/taaa044/5817958 by guest on 09 April 2020

UNCORRECTED MANUSCRIPT

Key words: COVID-19, pilgrimage: travel; travel restrictions: Qom; border crossings

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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), first reported on 31 December 2019 in Wuhan,  China, has spread rapidly throughout the world, and was declared a global pandemic on  March 11, 2020. As of March 23, 2020, 372757 COVID-19 cases were reported to WHO  with 16231 deaths. In Iran, the first official announcement of deaths from COVID-19 was  made on Feb 19, 2020. The Iranian officials also confirmed that the COVID-19 spread  from Qom to other cities due to religious tourism.1. By 24 March 2020, Iran reported 23,049 cases and 1812 deaths.2

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Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Iran; Pakistan.

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Emergence of #Chikungunya Virus, #Pakistan, 2016–2017 (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 26, Number 2—February 2020 / Dispatch

Emergence of Chikungunya Virus, Pakistan, 2016–2017

Nazish Badar, Muhammad Salman, Jamil Ansari, Uzma Aamir, Muhammad Masroor Alam, Yasir Arshad, Nighat Mushtaq, Aamer Ikram, and Javaria Qazi

Author affiliations: National Institute of Health, Islamabad, Pakistan (N. Badar, M. Salman, J. Ansari, U. Aamir, M.M. Alam, Y. Arshad, N. Mushtaq, A. Ikram); Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad (N. Badar, J. Qazi)

 

Abstract

During December 2016–May 2017, an outbreak of chikungunya virus infection occurred across Pakistan. The East/Central/South African genotype was predominant. This study provides baseline data on the virus strain and emphasizes the need for active surveillance and implementation of preventive interventions to contain future outbreaks.

Keywords: Chikungunya fever; Pakistan.

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#HIV #infection predominantly affecting #children in #Sindh, #Pakistan, 2019: a cross-sectional study of an #outbreak (Lancet Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: Lancet Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

HIV infection predominantly affecting children in Sindh, Pakistan, 2019: a cross-sectional study of an outbreak

Fatima Mir, MSCR, Faisal Mahmood, MBBS, Prof Amna Rehana Siddiqui, PhD, Prof Shehla Baqi, MBBS, Syed Hani Abidi, PhD, Abdul Momin Kazi, MPH, Apsara Ali Nathwani, MSc, Amerta Ladhani, MSc, Farah Naz Qamar, MSCR, Sajid Bashir Soofi, MBBS, Sikander Ali Memon, MBBS, Jamila Soomro, MPH, Saqib Ali Shaikh, MSc, Victoria Simms, PhD, Palwasha Khan, PhD, Prof Rashida Abbas Ferrand, PhD

Published: December 19, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(19)30743-1

 

Summary

Background

In April 2019, an HIV screening camp for all ages was established in response to a report of an unusually large number of paediatric HIV diagnoses in Larkana, Pakistan. We aimed to understand the clinical profile of the children who registered for HIV care.

Methods

In this cross-sectional study, we review the outbreak response from the government, academia, and UN agencies in Larkana, Sindh, Pakistan. We report age-stratified and sex-stratified HIV prevalence estimated among individuals screened. For children who registered for HIV care, clinical history of previous injections and blood transfusions, HIV disease stage, hepatitis B and hepatitis C status, and CD4 count was abstracted from clinical records from Sindh AIDS Control Program HIV Clinic (Shaikh Zayed Childrens Hospital, Larkana, Pakistan) and analysed using percentages, χ 2 tests, and weight-for-age Z scores. We also analysed data for parents who were tested for HIV.

Findings

Between April 24, and July 15, 2019, 31 239 individuals underwent HIV testing, of whom 930 (3%) tested positive for HIV. Of these, 763 (82%) were younger than 16 years and 604 (79%) of these were aged 5 years and below. Estimated HIV prevalence was 3% overall; 7% (283 of 3803) in children aged 0–2 years, 6% (321 of 5412) in children aged 3–5 years, and 1% (148 of 11 251) in adults aged 16–49 years. Of the 591 children who registered for HIV care, 478 (81%) were 5 years or younger, 379 (64%) were boys, and 315 (53%) of 590 had a weight-for-age Z score of −3·2. Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen was 8% (48 of 574) and hepatitis C antibody positivity was 3% (15 of 574). Of children whose mothers tested for HIV, only 39 (11%) of 371 had HIV-positive mothers. Most children (404 [89%] of 453) reported multiple previous injections and 40 (9%) of 453 reported blood transfusions.

Interpretation

This HIV outbreak is unprecedented among children in Pakistan: a 54% increase in paediatric HIV diagnoses over the past 13 years. The outbreak was heavily skewed towards young children younger than 5 years, with a predominance of boys. Epidemiological and molecular studies are needed to understand the full extent of the outbreak and its drivers to guide HIV control strategies.

Funding

None.

Keywords: HIV/AIDS; Pediatrics; Pakistan.

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#Seroprevalence and #risk factors of #avian #influenza #H9 virus among #poultry #professionals in #Rawalpindi, #Pakistan (J Infect Public Health, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Infect Public Health. 2019 Jul – Aug;12(4):482-485. doi: 10.1016/j.jiph.2018.11.009. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Seroprevalence and risk factors of avian influenza H9 virus among poultry professionals in Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

Tahir MF1, Abbas MA2, Ghafoor T3, Dil S4, Shahid MA5, Bullo MMH6, Ain QU7, Ranjha MA8, Khan MA9, Naseem MT10.

Author information: 1 Poultry Research Institute, Rawalpindi, Punjab, Pakistan; Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Islamabad, Pakistan. Electronic address: drmftahir@gmail.com. 2 National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan. 3 Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Islamabad, Pakistan. 4 Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Islamabad, Pakistan; Livestock and Dairy Development Department, Punjab, Pakistan. 5 Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan. 6 Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Islamabad, Pakistan; Federal General Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan. 7 Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Islamabad, Pakistan; Veterinary Research Institute, Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan. 8 National Institute of Health, Islamabad, Pakistan. 9 Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Islamabad, Pakistan; National Institute of Health, Islamabad, Pakistan. 10 Poultry Research Institute, Rawalpindi, Punjab, Pakistan.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Avian influenza H9 is endemic in commercial and backyard poultry in Pakistan and is a serious occupational health hazard to industry workers. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of avian influenza H9 infection in people working with poultry in Rawalpindi, Pakistan and assess the measures they took to protect themselves from infection.

METHODS:

A cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2016 to May 2017 of 419 people working with poultry in Rawalpindi Division, including farm workers, vaccinators, field veterinarians, butchers and staff working in diagnostic laboratories. Potential participants were randomly approached and gave written consent to participate. Data were collected using a standardized questionnaire and serum samples were processed to detect H9 antibodies using the haemagglutination inhibition test.

RESULTS:

Of the 419 participants, 406 (96.9%) were male. The mean age of the participants was 36.4 (SD 10.86) years. A total of 332 participants agreed to a blood test, 167 of whom were positive for A(H9) antibodies, giving an overall seroprevalence of 50.3%. Laboratory staff had the highest seroprevalence (100%) and veterinarians the lowest (38.5%). Vaccinators, butchers and farm workers had a seroprevalence of 83.3%, 52.4% and 45.5% respectively. Personals who used facemasks had significantly lower (P<0.002) seroprevalence (29.6%) than those who never used them (90.6%). Similarly, those who always used gloves and washed their hands with soap had a seroprevalence of 32.8% compared with 89.0% in those who never took these precautions. Of the participants who handled antigens, 92.3% were seropositive.

CONCLUSION:

Laboratory staff and vaccinators are exposed to viral cultures and influenza vaccines respectively which may explain their high seroprevalence.

Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza; Pakistan; Poultry; Seroprevalence

PMID: 30578143 DOI: 10.1016/j.jiph.2018.11.009 [Indexed for MEDLINE] Free full text

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H9N2; Human; Serology; Seroprevalence; Pakistan.

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#MERS #Coronavirus #Seropositivity in #Camel #Handlers and Their #Families, #Pakistan (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 12—December 2019 / Dispatch

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Seropositivity in Camel Handlers and Their Families, Pakistan

Jian Zheng1, Sohail Hassan1  , Abdulaziz N. Alagaili, Abeer N. Alshukairi, Nabil M.S. Amor, Nadia Mukhtar, Iqra Maleeha Nazeer, Zarfishan Tahir, Nadeem Akhter, Stanley Perlman  , and Tahir Yaqub

Author affiliations: University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA (J. Zheng, S. Perlman); University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan (S. Hassan, I.M. Nazeer, T. Yaqub); King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (A.N. Alagaili, N.M.S. Amor); King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia (A.N. Alshukairi); Government of Punjab, Lahore (N. Mukhtar, Z. Tahir, N. Akhter); The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China (S. Perlman)

 

Abstract

A high percentage of camel handlers in Saudi Arabia are seropositive for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. We found that 12/100 camel handlers and their family members in Pakistan, a country with extensive camel MERS-CoV infection, were seropositive, indicating that MERS-CoV infection of these populations extends beyond the Arabian Peninsula.

Keywords: MERS-CoV; Serology; Seroprevalence; Human; Camels; Pakistan.

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Rapidly expanding #nuclear #arsenals in #Pakistan and #India portend #regional and #global #catastrophe (Sci Adv., abstract)

[Source: Science Advances, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Rapidly expanding nuclear arsenals in Pakistan and India portend regional and global catastrophe

Owen B. Toon1,*, Charles G. Bardeen2, Alan Robock3, Lili Xia3, Hans Kristensen4, Matthew McKinzie5, R. J. Peterson6, Cheryl S. Harrison7,8, Nicole S. Lovenduski9 and Richard P. Turco10

1 Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303, USA. 2 Atmospheric Chemistry Observations and Modeling Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO 80307, USA. 3  Department of Environmental Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA. 4 Federation of American Scientists, 1112 16th St., N.W. Suite 400, Washington, DC 20036, USA. 5 Natural Resources Defense Council, 40 West 20th St., 11th Floor, New York, NY 10011, USA.6 Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0390, USA. 7 School of Earth, Environmental, and Marine Sciences, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Port Isabel, TX 78597, USA. 8 Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0450, USA. 9 Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0450, USA. 10 Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

*Corresponding author. Email: toon@lasp.colorado.edu

Science Advances  02 Oct 2019: Vol. 5, no. 10, eaay5478 / DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aay5478

 

Abstract

Pakistan and India may have 400 to 500 nuclear weapons by 2025 with yields from tested 12- to 45-kt values to a few hundred kilotons. If India uses 100 strategic weapons to attack urban centers and Pakistan uses 150, fatalities could reach 50 to 125 million people, and nuclear-ignited fires could release 16 to 36 Tg of black carbon in smoke, depending on yield. The smoke will rise into the upper troposphere, be self-lofted into the stratosphere, and spread globally within weeks. Surface sunlight will decline by 20 to 35%, cooling the global surface by 2° to 5°C and reducing precipitation by 15 to 30%, with larger regional impacts. Recovery takes more than 10 years. Net primary productivity declines 15 to 30% on land and 5 to 15% in oceans threatening mass starvation and additional worldwide collateral fatalities.

Keywords: Environmental disasters; Environmental Pollution; Wars; Radiations; WMD.

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Acquisition of cross- #resistance to #Bedaquiline and #Clofazimine following #treatment for #Tuberculosis in #Pakistan (Antimicrob Agents Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Acquisition of cross-resistance to Bedaquiline and Clofazimine following treatment for Tuberculosis in Pakistan

Arash Ghodousi, Alamdar Hussain Rizvi, Aurangzaib Quadir Baloch, Abdul Ghafoor, Faisal Masood Khanzada, Mehmood Qadir, Emanuele Borroni, Alberto Trovato, Sabira Tahseen,Daniela Maria Cirillo

DOI: 10.1128/AAC.00915-19

 

ABSTRACT

We report on the first six cases of acquired-resistance to bedaquiline in Pakistan. Seventy sequential isolates from 30 drug-resistant tuberculosis patients on bedaquiline-containing regimens were retrospectively tested for bedaquiline resistance by MIC test and by detection of mutations in relevant genes. We documented cases failing therapy developed specific mutations in Rv0678 and increased MICs associated with cross-resistance to clofazimine during treatment. This study underlines the relevance of surveillance programs following the introduction of new drugs.

Copyright © 2019 Ghodousi et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Tuberculosis; Pakistan; Bedaquiline; Clofazimine.

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