#SARS-CoV-2 Neutralizing #Antibody #Titers in #Convalescent #Plasma and Recipients in New Mexico: An Open #Treatment Study in #COVID19 Patients (J Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

SARS-CoV-2 Neutralizing Antibody Titers in Convalescent Plasma and Recipients in New Mexico: An Open Treatment Study in COVID-19 Patients

Steven B Bradfute, PhD, Ivy Hurwitz, PhD, Alexandra V Yingling, MSc, Chunyan Ye, MSc, Qiuying Cheng, PhD, Timothy P Noonan, MD, Jay S Raval, MD, Nestor R Sosa, MD, Gregory J Mertz, MD, Douglas J Perkins, PhD, Michelle S Harkins, MD

The Journal of Infectious Diseases, jiaa505, https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa505

Published: 11 August 2020

 

Abstract

Background

Convalescent plasma (CP) is a potentially important therapy for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, knowledge regarding neutralizing antibody (NAb) titers in donor plasma and their impact in acute COVID-19 patients remains largely undetermined. We measured NAb titers in CP and in acute COVID-19 patients before and after transfusion through the traditional FDA IND pathway.

Methods

We performed a single-arm interventional trial measuring NAb and total antibody titers before and after CP transfusion over a 14-day period in hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT04434131 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04434131)

Results

NAb titers in the donor CP units were low (<1:40 to 1:160) and had no effect on recipient neutralizing activity one day after transfusion. NAb titers were detected in 6/12 patients upon enrollment and in 11/12 patients during at least two timepoints. Average titers peaked on day 7 and declined towards day 14 (P=0.004). NAb and IgG titers were correlated in donor plasma units (ρ=0.938, P<0.0001) and in the cumulative patient measures (ρ=0.781, P<0.0001).

Conclusions

CP infusion did not alter recipient NAb titers. Pre-screening of CP may be necessary for selecting donors with high levels of neutralizing activity for infusion into patients with COVID-19.

SARS-CoV-2, coronavirus, antibodies, neutralizing, convalescent, plasma

Issue Section: Major Article

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Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Serotherapy; New Mexico; USA.

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Serious Adverse #Health #Events, Including #Death, Associated with #Ingesting #Alcohol-Based #HandSanitizers Containing #Methanol — #Arizona and #NewMexico, May–June 2020 (MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Serious Adverse Health Events, Including Death, Associated with Ingesting Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers Containing Methanol — Arizona and New Mexico, May–June 2020

Early Release / August 5, 2020 / 69

Luke Yip, MD1; Danae Bixler, MD1; Daniel E. Brooks, MD2; Kevin R. Clarke, MD1; S. Deblina Datta, MD1; Steven Dudley Jr., PharmD3; Kenneth K. Komatsu4; Jennifer N. Lind, PharmD1; Annaliese Mayette, PhD5; Michael Melgar, MD1; Talia Pindyck, MD1; Kristine M. Schmit, MD1; Steven A. Seifert, MD6; Farshad Mazda Shirazi, MD, PhD3; Susan C. Smolinske, PharmD7; Brandon J. Warrick, MD6; Arthur Chang, MD1

Corresponding author: Luke Yip, lyip@cdc.gov.

1CDC COVID-19 Response Team; 2Banner Poison and Drug Information Center, Phoenix, Arizona; 3Arizona Poison and Drug Information Center, Tucson, Arizona; 4Division of Public Health Preparedness, Arizona Department of Health Services; 5Epidemiology and Response Division, New Mexico Department of Health; 6University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, New Mexico; 7New Mexico Poison and Drug Information Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

All authors have completed and submitted the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors form for disclosure of potential conflicts of interest. Steven Seifert reports personal fees from Taylor & Francis as Editor-in-Chief of Clinical Toxicology and from UpToDate as a paid author. Susan Smolinske reports grants from Health Resources and Services Administration for poison centers. No other potential conflicts of interest were disclosed.

Suggested citation for this article: Yip L, Bixler D, Brooks DE, et al. Serious Adverse Health Events, Including Death, Associated with Ingesting Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers Containing Methanol — Arizona and New Mexico, May–June 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. ePub: 5 August 2020. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6932e1

 

Summary

  • What is already known about this topic?
    • Alcohol-based hand sanitizers should only contain ethanol or isopropanol, but some products imported into the United States have been found to contain methanol.
  • What is added by this report?
    • From May 1 through June 30, 2020, 15 cases of methanol poisoning were reported in Arizona and New Mexico, associated with swallowing alcohol-based hand sanitizers. Four patients died, and three were discharged with visual impairment.
  • What are the implications for public health practice?
    • Alcohol-based hand sanitizer products should never be ingested. In patients with compatible signs and symptoms or after having swallowed hand sanitizer, prompt evaluation for methanol poisoning is required. Health departments in all states should coordinate with poison centers to identify cases of methanol poisoning.

 

 

Abstract

Alcohol-based hand sanitizer is a liquid, gel, or foam that contains ethanol or isopropanol used to disinfect hands. Hand hygiene is an important component of the U.S. response to the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). If soap and water are not readily available, CDC recommends the use of alcohol-based hand sanitizer products that contain at least 60% ethyl alcohol (ethanol) or 70% isopropyl alcohol (isopropanol) in community settings (1); in health care settings, CDC recommendations specify that alcohol-based hand sanitizer products should contain 60%–95% alcohol (≥60% ethanol or ≥70% isopropanol) (2). According to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which regulates alcohol-based hand sanitizers as an over-the-counter drug, methanol (methyl alcohol) is not an acceptable ingredient. Cases of ethanol toxicity following ingestion of alcohol-based hand sanitizer products have been reported in persons with alcohol use disorder (3,4). On June 30, 2020, CDC received notification from public health partners in Arizona and New Mexico of cases of methanol poisoning associated with ingestion of alcohol-based hand sanitizers. The case reports followed an FDA consumer alert issued on June 19, 2020, warning about specific hand sanitizers that contain methanol. Whereas early clinical effects of methanol and ethanol poisoning are similar (e.g., headache, blurred vision, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, loss of coordination, and decreased level of consciousness), persons with methanol poisoning might develop severe anion-gap metabolic acidosis, seizures, and blindness. If left untreated methanol poisoning can be fatal (5). Survivors of methanol poisoning might have permanent visual impairment, including complete vision loss; data suggest that vision loss results from the direct toxic effect of formate, a toxic anion metabolite of methanol, on the optic nerve (6). CDC and state partners established a case definition of alcohol-based hand sanitizer–associated methanol poisoning and reviewed 62 poison center call records from May 1 through June 30, 2020, to characterize reported cases. Medical records were reviewed to abstract details missing from poison center call records. During this period, 15 adult patients met the case definition, including persons who were American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN). All had ingested an alcohol-based hand sanitizer and were subsequently admitted to a hospital. Four patients died and three were discharged with vision impairment. Persons should never ingest alcohol-based hand sanitizer, avoid use of specific imported products found to contain methanol, and continue to monitor FDA guidance (7). Clinicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for methanol poisoning when evaluating adult or pediatric patients with reported swallowing of an alcohol-based hand sanitizer product or with symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings (e.g., elevated anion-gap metabolic acidosis) compatible with methanol poisoning. Treatment of methanol poisoning includes supportive care, correction of acidosis, administration of an alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor (e.g., fomepizole), and frequently, hemodialysis.

(…)

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Toxic chemicals; Arizona; New Mexico; USA.

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#Wolbachia pipientis occurs in #Aedes aegypti populations in #NM and #Florida, #USA (Ecol Evol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Ecol Evol. 2019 Apr 26;9(10):6148-6156. doi: 10.1002/ece3.5198. eCollection 2019 May.

Wolbachia pipientis occurs in Aedes aegypti populations in New Mexico and Florida, USA.

Kulkarni A1, Yu W1, Jiang J1, Sanchez C1, Karna AK1, Martinez KJL1, Hanley KA1, Buenemann M2, Hansen IA1, Xue RD3, Ettestad P4, Melman S4, Duguma D5, Debboun M5, Xu J1.

Author information: 1 Biology Department New Mexico State University Las Cruces New Mexico. 2 Department of Geography New Mexico State University Las Cruces New Mexico. 3 Anastasia Mosquito Control District St. Augustine Florida. 4 New Mexico Department of Health Santa Fe New Mexico. 5 Harris County Public Health Mosquito and Vector Control Division Houston Texas.

 

Abstract

The mosquitoes Aedes aegypti (L.) and Ae. albopictus Skuse are the major vectors of dengue, Zika, yellow fever, and chikungunya viruses worldwide. Wolbachia, an endosymbiotic bacterium present in many insects, is being utilized in novel vector control strategies to manipulate mosquito life history and vector competence to curb virus transmission. Earlier studies have found that Wolbachia is commonly detected in Ae. albopictus but rarely detected in Ae. aegypti. In this study, we used a two-step PCR assay to detect Wolbachia in wild-collected samples of Ae. aegypti. The PCR products were sequenced to validate amplicons and identify Wolbachia strains. A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed and used for detecting Wolbachia in selected mosquito specimens as well. We found Wolbachiain 85/148 (57.4%) wild Ae. aegypti specimens from various cities in New Mexico, and in 2/46 (4.3%) from St. Augustine, Florida. Wolbachiawas not detected in 94 samples of Ae. aegypti from Deer Park, Harris County, Texas. Wolbachia detected in Ae. aegypti from both New Mexico and Florida was the wAlbB strain of Wolbachia pipientis. A Wolbachia-positive colony of Ae. aegypti was established from pupae collected in Las Cruces, New Mexico, in 2018. The infected females of this strain transmitted Wolbachia to their progeny when crossed with males of Rockefeller strain of Ae. aegypti, which does not carry Wolbachia. In contrast, none of the progeny of Las Cruces males mated to Rockefeller females were infected with Wolbachia.

KEYWORDS: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Florida; New Mexico; Texas; Wolbachia; wAlbB

PMID: 31161026 PMCID: PMC6540660 DOI: 10.1002/ece3.5198

Keywords: Arbovirus; Mosquitoes; Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; New Mexico; Florida; USA.

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#SARI Associated with Human #Metapneumovirus in Nursing Home, #NM, #USA (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 2—February 2019 / Research Letter

Severe Respiratory Illness Associated with Human Metapneumovirus in Nursing Home, New Mexico, USA

Sandra A. Peña1, Sarah Shrum Davis, Xiaoyan Lu, Senthil Kumar K. Sakthivel, Teresa C.T. Peret, Erica Billig Rose, Chad Smelser, Eileen Schneider  , Nimalie D. Stone, and John Watson

Author affiliations: New Mexico Department of Health, Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA (S.A. Peña, S. Shrum Davis, C. Smelser); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (X. Lu, S.K.K. Sakthivel, T.C.T. Peret, E. Billig Rose, E. Schneider, N.D. Stone, J. Watson)

 

Abstract

Human metapneumovirus is an emerging pathogen that causes upper and lower respiratory illness. Nursing home outbreaks of infection with this virus can cause severe illness and lead to poor patient outcomes. We report an outbreak investigation in a nursing home during 2018 and infection control guidelines to assist in disease control.

Keywords: Metapneumovirus; SARI; USA; New Mexico; Nosocomial outbreaks.

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Small-Scale Die-Offs in #Woodrats Support Long-Term Maintenance of #Plague in the #US Southwest (Vector Borne Zoo Dis, abstract)

[Source: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases

Small-Scale Die-Offs in Woodrats Support Long-Term Maintenance of Plague in the U.S. Southwest

To cite this article:

Kosoy Michael, Reynolds Pamela, Bai Ying, Sheff Kelly, Enscore Russell E., Montenieri John, Ettestad Paul, and Gage Kenneth. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. August 2017, ahead of print. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2017.2142

Online Ahead of Print: August 9, 2017

Author information: Michael Kosoy,1 Pamela Reynolds,2 Ying Bai,1 Kelly Sheff,1 Russell E. Enscore,1 John Montenieri,1 Paul Ettestad,2 and Kenneth Gage1

1Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado. 2New Mexico Department of Health, Santa Fe, New Mexico.

© Michael Kosoy et al. 2017; Published by Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Address correspondence to: Michael Kosoy, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO 80521, E-mail: mck3@cdc.gov

 

ABSTRACT

Our longitudinal study of plague dynamics was conducted in north-central New Mexico to identify which species in the community were infected with plague, to determine the spatial and temporal patterns of the dynamics of plague epizootics, and to describe the dynamics of Yersinia pestis infection within individual hosts. A total of 3156 fleas collected from 535 small mammals of 8 species were tested for Y. pestis DNA. Nine fleas collected from six southern plains woodrats (Neotoma micropus) and from one rock squirrel (Otospermophilus variegatus) were positive for the pla gene of Y. pestis. None of 127 fleas collected from 17 woodrat nests was positive. Hemagglutinating antibodies to the Y. pestis-specific F1 antigen were detected in 11 rodents of 6 species. All parts of the investigated area were subjected to local disappearance of woodrats. Despite the active die-offs, some woodrats always were present within the relatively limited endemic territory and apparently were never exposed to plague. Our observations suggest that small-scale die-offs in woodrats can support maintenance of plague in the active U.S. Southwestern focus.

Keywords: Plague; Yersinia Pestis; USA; New Mexico; Wildlife.

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