#Serological evidence of #infection with #dengue and #Zika viruses in #horses on French #Pacific Islands (PLoS Negl Trop Dis., abstract)

[Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]


Serological evidence of infection with dengue and Zika viruses in horses on French Pacific Islands

Cécile Beck , Isabelle Leparc-Goffart, Denise Desoutter, Estelle Debergé, Hervé Bichet, Steeve Lowenski, Marine Dumarest, Gaelle Gonzalez, Camille Migné, Jessica Vanhomwegen, Stéphan Zientara, Benoit Durand , Sylvie Lecollinet

Published: February 7, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007162 / This is an uncorrected proof.



New Caledonia and French Polynesia are areas in which arboviruses circulate extensively. A large serological survey among horses from New Caledonia and French Polynesia was carried out to investigate the seroprevalence of flaviviruses in the horse population. Here, 293 equine sera samples were screened for flaviviruses using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). The positive sera were then confirmed using a flavivirus-specific microsphere immunoassay (MIA) and seroneutralization tests. This serosurvey showed that 16.6% (27/163) and 30.8% (40/130) of horses were positive for cELISA tests in New Caledonia and French Polynesia, respectively, but the MIA technique, targeting only flaviviruses causing neuro-invasive infections in humans and horses (i.e. West Nile virus [WNV], Japanese encephalitis virus [JEV] and tick-borne encephalitis virus [TBEV]), showed negative results for more than 85% (57/67) of the cELISA-positive animals. Seroneutralization tests with the main flaviviruses circulating in the South Pacific revealed that 6.1% (10/163; confidence interval [95% CI] 3.0%-11.0%) of sera in New Caledonia and 7.7% (10/130; 95% CI 3.8%-13.7%) in French Polynesia were positive for dengue virus serotype 1 (DENV1) and 4.3% (7/163; 95% CI 1.7%-8.6%) in New Caledonia and 15.4% (20/130, 95% CI 9.7%-22.8%) in French Polynesia were found positive for Zika virus (ZIKV). Seroprevalence of the JEV and WNV flaviviruses on the 293 samples from both island groups were comparatively much lower (less than 2%). This seroprevalence study in the horse population shows that horses can be infected with dengue and Zika viruses and that these infections lead to seroconversions in horses. The consequences of these infections in horses and their role in ZIKV and DENV epidemiological cycles are two issues that deserve further investigation.


Author summary

New Caledonia and French Polynesia, located in the South Pacific, are facing circulation of dengue virus (DENV) for a long time and emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) since 2013. A large serosurvey among horses’ population from these two islands was carried out to investigate the seroprevalence of the main flaviviruses circulating in the South Pacific. We find out that 6 to 7% of equine sera tested were positive for DENV serotype 1 in the two islands and 4% and 15% were positive for ZIKV in New Caledonia and French Polynesia respectively. Our study highlighted serological evidence of DENV serotype 1 and ZIKV infections of horses leading to meaningful seroconversion. Seroprevalence of other mosquito-borne flaviviruses (i.e. Japanese encephalitis and West-Nile viruses) were comparatively much lower (less than 2%) in New Caledonia and French Polynesia groups suggesting the absence of past active circulation of these viruses in both islands. This finding emphasized the need to investigate the consequences of such infections in the horse population and to determine the role of domestic animals in ZIKV and DENV epidemiological cycles.


Citation: Beck C, Leparc-Goffart I, Desoutter D, Debergé E, Bichet H, Lowenski S, et al. (2019) Serological evidence of infection with dengue and Zika viruses in horses on French Pacific Islands. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(2): e0007162. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007162

Editor: David W.C. Beasley, University of Texas Medical Branch, UNITED STATES

Received: July 24, 2018; Accepted: January 15, 2019; Published: February 7, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Beck et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper.

Funding: The authors received no specific funding for this work.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Flavivirus; Zika Virus; Dengue Fever; Horses; New Caledonia.


#Zika virus #outbreak in #NewCaledonia and #GBS: a case-control study (J Neurovirol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Neurovirol. 2018 Mar 28. doi: 10.1007/s13365-018-0621-9. [Epub ahead of print]

Zika virus outbreak in New Caledonia and Guillain-Barré syndrome: a case-control study.

Simon O1, Acket B2, Forfait C3, Girault D4, Gourinat AC5, Millon P6, Daures M3, Vanhomwegen J7, Billot S6, Biron A5, Hoinard D7, Descloux E8, Guyon D6, Manuguerra JC7, Laumond S3, Molko N6, Dupont-Rouzeyrol M4.

Author information: 1 Department of Neurology, Gaston Bourret Territorial Hospital, Noumea, New Caledonia. olivier.simon@cht.nc. 2 Department of Neurophysiology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Toulouse, France. 3 New Caledonia Health Department, Noumea, New Caledonia. 4 Dengue and Arboviruses Expertise and Research Unit, Institut Pasteur International Network, Institut Pasteur in New Caledonia, Nouméa, New Caledonia. 5 Immuno-Serology and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Institut Pasteur International Network, Institut Pasteur in New Caledonia, Noumea, New Caledonia. 6 Department of Neurology, Gaston Bourret Territorial Hospital, Noumea, New Caledonia. 7 Environment and Infectious Risks Unit, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France. 8 Department of Infectious Diseases, Gaston Bourret Territorial Hospital, Noumea, New Caledonia.



Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been associated with neurologic disorders including Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). In New Caledonia during the ZIKV outbreak (2014-2015), case-control and retrospective studies have been performed to assess the link between ZIKV and GBS. Among the 15 cases included, 33% had evidence of a recent ZIKV infection compared to only 3.3% in the 30 controls involved. All patients were Melanesian, had facial diplegia and similar neurophysiological pattern consistent with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, and recovered well. Furthermore, during the peak of ZIKV transmission, we observed a number of GBS cases higher than the calculated upper limit, emphasizing the fact that ZIKV is now a major trigger of GBS.

KEYWORDS: Case control study; Guillain-Barré syndrome; New Caledonia; Zika virus

PMID: 29594985 DOI: 10.1007/s13365-018-0621-9

Keywords: Zika Virus; GBS; New Caledonia.


#Zika virus #infection and #myasthenia gravis: Report of 2 cases (Neurol., abstract)

[Source: Neurology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Clinical/Scientific Notes

Zika virus infection and myasthenia gravis: Report of 2 cases

Nicolas Molko, MD, PhD, Olivier Simon, MD, David Guyon, MD, Antoine Biron, PharmD, Myrielle Dupont-Rouzeyrol, PhD and Ann-Claire Gourinat, PharmD

From Territorial Hospital (N.M., O.S., D.G.); and Institut Pasteur in New Caledonia (A.B., M.D.-R., A.-C.G.), Institut Pasteur International Network, Noumea, New Caledonia.

Correspondence to Dr. Molko: n.molko@cht.nc

Published online before print February 10, 2017, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000003697 / Neurology 10.1212/WNL.0000000000003697



Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is known as a benign infection usually presenting as an influenza-like illness.1 However, clusters of microcephaly cases and other neurologic disorders following ZIKV outbreaks in Brazil, as well as a cluster of Guillain-Barré syndrome following an outbreak in French Polynesia in 2014, constitute a Public Health Emergency of International Concern according to WHO.2,3 An outbreak of ZIKV infection in New Caledonia occurred in 2014 with 1,380 confirmed cases within a population of 263,000.4 We report 2 cases of myasthenia gravis (MG) with prior ZIKV infection.

Received August 9, 2016. Accepted in final form December 19, 2016.

© 2017 American Academy of Neurology

Keywords: Zika Virus; Myasthenia Gravis.


A Novel #HTLV Type 1c Molecular Variant in an Indigenous Individual from #NewCaledonia, #Melanesia (PLoS Pathogens, abstract)

[Source: PLoS Pathogens, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]


A Novel Human T-lymphotropic Virus Type 1c Molecular Variant in an Indigenous Individual from New Caledonia, Melanesia

Olivier Cassar, Françoise Charavay, Frédéric Touzain, Patricia Jeannin, Jean-Paul Grangeon, Sylvie Laumond, Eliane Chungue, Paul M. V. Martin, Antoine Gessain

Published: January 6, 2017 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0005278 / This is an uncorrected proof.




Human T-Lymphotropic Virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is endemic among people of Melanesian descent in Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu, and in Indigenous populations from Central Australia. Molecular studies revealed that these Australo-Melanesian strains constitute the highly divergent HTLV-1c subtype. New Caledonia is a French overseas territory located in the Southwest Pacific Ocean. HTLV-1 situation is poorly documented in New Caledonia and the molecular epidemiology of HTLV-1 infection remains unknown.


Studying 500 older adults Melanesian natives from New Caledonia, we aim to evaluate the HTLV-1 seroprevalence and to molecularly characterize HTLV-1 proviral strains.

Study design

Plasma from 262 men and 238 females (age range: 60–96 years old, mean age: 70.5) were screened for anti-HTLV-1 antibodies by particle agglutination (PA) and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Serological confirmation was obtained using Western blot assay. DNAs were extracted from peripheral blood buffy coat of HTLV-1 seropositive individuals, and subjected to four series of PCR (LTR-gag; pro-pol; pol-env and tax-LTR). Primers were designed from highly common conserved regions of the major HTLV-1 subtypes to characterize the entire HTLV-1 proviral genome.


Among 500 samples, 3 were PA and IFA positive. The overall seroprevalence was 0.6%. The DNA sample from 1 New Caledonian woman (NCP201) was found positive by PCR and the complete HTLV-1 proviral genome (9,033-bp) was obtained. The full-length HTLV-1 genomic sequence from a native woman from Vanuatu (EM5), obtained in the frame of our previous studies, was also characterized. Both sequences belonged to the HTLV-1c Australo-Melanesian subtype. The NCP201 strain exhibited 0.3% nucleotide divergence with the EM5 strain from Vanuatu. Furthermore, divergence reached 1.1% to 2.9% with the Solomon and Australian sequences respectively. Phylogenetic analyses on a 522-bp-long fragment of the gp21-env gene showed the existence of two major clades. The first is composed of strains from Papua New Guinea; the second includes strains from all neighboring archipelagos (Solomon, Vanuatu, New Caledonia), and Australia. Interestingly, this second clade itself is divided into two sub-clades: strains from Australia on one hand, and strains from Solomon, Vanuatu and New Caledonia on the other hand.


The HTLV-1 seroprevalence (0.6%) in the studied adult population from New Caledonia appears to be low. This seroprevalence is quite similar to the situation observed in Vanuatu and Solomon Islands. However it is very different to the one encountered in Central Australia. Taken together, these results demonstrated that Australo-Melanesia is endemic for HTLV-1 infection with a high diversity of HTLV-1c strains and a clear geographic clustering according to the island of origin of HTLV-1 infected persons.


Author Summary

The human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infects at least 5 to 10 million individuals worldwide. In Australo-Melanesia, a south Pacific region including Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu archipelago and Australia, previous studies have shown that HTLV-1 is present in limited remote areas among few ancient Aboriginal populations. The molecular characterization of the HTLV-1 viruses present in such Indigenous individuals indicates that they belong to a specific HTLV-1 genotype called the Australo-Melanesian subtype c. In the present study, we provide evidence that the HTLV-1 endemicity among elderly individuals from New Caledonia is low and quite similar to Vanuatu and Solomon Islands, yet very different to the situation encountered in Central Australia. Furthermore, the newly described full-length HTLV-1 genomic sequences, from two Melanesian natives from New Caledonia and Vanuatu, both belong to the HTLV-1c genotype but are distinct from those of Aboriginal individuals living in neighboring countries. These results suggest that HTLV-1 viral strains were probably introduced among Melanesian native populations during multiple ancient human migration events to these archipelagos.


Citation: Cassar O, Charavay F, Touzain F, Jeannin P, Grangeon J-P, Laumond S, et al. (2017) A Novel Human T-lymphotropic Virus Type 1c Molecular Variant in an Indigenous Individual from New Caledonia, Melanesia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 11(1): e0005278. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0005278

Editor: Fatah Kashanchi, George Mason University, UNITED STATES

Received: November 7, 2016; Accepted: December 21, 2016; Published: January 6, 2017

Copyright: © 2017 Cassar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files. All full-length HTLV-1 proviral sequences files are available from the Genbank database (accession numbers KX905202 and KX905203).

Funding: This study received funding from the CNRS (UMR 3569) (AG); the Institut Pasteur, France (AG), and through the Investissement d’Avenir as part of a Laboratoire d’Excellence (LabEx) French research program: Integrative Biology of Emerging Infectious Diseases (ANR10-LBX-62 IBEID) (AG). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: HTLV1; Retrovirus; New Caledonia.


#MCR1 in #ESBL-producing #Escherichia coli responsible for #human #infections in #NewCaledonia (J Antimicrob Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

MCR-1 in ESBL-producing Escherichia coli responsible for human infections in New Caledonia

Frederic Robin1,2,†, Racha Beyrouthy1,2,†, Julien Colot3, Pierre Saint-Sardos1, Anne Berger-Carbonne4, Guillaume Dalmasso1, Julien Delmas1 and Richard Bonnet1,2,*

Author Affiliations: 1 Clermont Université, Université d’Auvergne, Inserm U1071, INRA USC2018, Clermont-Ferrand, France; 2 French National Reference Centre for Antibiotic Resistance, Bacteriology Laboratory, University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand, Clermont-Ferrand, France; 3 Institut Pasteur in New Caledonia, Nouméa, New Caledonia; 4 Santé Public, Saint-Maurice, France

*Corresponding author. Tel: +33-(0)4-73-754-920; Fax: +33-(0)4-73-754-921; E-mail: rbonnet@chu-clermontferrand.fr



Following the report on the plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene mcr-1 in Enterobacteriaceae in China from multiple sources,1 this gene has been observed in Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. isolates, mostly of animal origin.1–6 It has also been detected in humans in Asia, South-East Asia, Europe, the Middle East, North Africa and North and South America.6

In order to study the plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene mcr-1 in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from clinical specimens in France, we performed retrospective screening in a database of 610 whole-genome sequences of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates collected in French hospitals.

The bacterial collection included consecutive and non-repetitive strains representative of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae observed in clinical samples collected in French hospitals in different geographic areas (Metropolitan France n = 210, Guadeloupe n = 100, Guyana n = 100, Reunion Island n = 100 and New Caledonia n = 100). The whole-genome sequences were assembled de novo at a ≥ 60× coverage level from 2 × 150 bp paired-end reads produced by the NextSeq facility (Illumina, San Diego, CA, …


Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; MCR1; Colistin; E. Coli; New Caledonia.


#Zika virus #infection as an unexpected finding in a #Leptospirosis #patient (JMM., abstract)

[Source: Microbiology Society, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Zika virus infection as an unexpected finding in a Leptospirosis patient

Authors: Antoine Biron1,†,  Cécile Cazorla2,†,  Julien Amar3,  Anne Pfannstiel4,  Myrielle Dupont-Rouzeyrol5, Cyrille Goarant6

Affiliations:  1 Institut Pasteur de Nouvelle-Caledonie, Medical Virology Laboratory, Nouméa, New Caledonia; 2 Centre Hospitalier Territorial de Nouvelle-Caledonie, Infectious Disease Department, Nouméa, New Caledonia; 3 Centre Hospitalier Territorial de Nouvelle-Caledonie, Intensive Care Unit, Nouméa, New Caledonia; 4 Gouvernement de la Nouvelle-Caledonie, Direction des Affaires Sanitaires et Sociales, Nouméa, New Caledonia; 5 Institut Pasteur de Nouvelle-Caledonie, Arbovirus Research and Expertise Unit, Nouméa, New Caledonia; 6 Institut Pasteur de Nouvelle-Caledonie, Leptospirosis Research and Expertise Unit, Nouméa, New Caledonia

Correspondence Cyrille Goarant cgoarant@pasteur.nc

JMM Case Rep, 2016 3. doi: 10.1099/jmmcr.0.005033

Subject: Case Report – Blood/heart and lymphatics

Received: 02/03/2016 Accepted: 23/03/2016 Published Online: 28/06/2016

This is an open access article published by the Microbiology Society under the Creative Commons Attribution License




Areas where leptospirosis and arboviruses are endemic largely overlap in the tropics. However, the number of arbovirus infections is usually much higher. The initial clinical presentation can be highly confusing; therefore, laboratory confirmation is key to an accurate diagnosis.

Case Presentation:

A 19–year–old man presented to a peripheral health centre with an acute febrile illness. Dengue was initially suspected, but the patient deteriorated to a shock syndrome. Leptospirosis as well as a co-infection with Zika virus were both confirmed in the laboratory, the latter being clinically masked in this dual infection.


This case highlights the importance of not only considering the differential diagnosis of acute febrile syndromes, but also to consider the possibility of dual infections in the context of global spread of arboviruses. The specific context of travellers returning from endemic areas and pregnant women is also highlighted and discussed.


† These authors contributed equally to this work

Keyword(s): dual infection, zika virus, amoxycillin, leptospirosis, shock syndrome, differential diagnosis

Abbreviations:  CRP – C-Reactive Protein   – PCR  – Polymerase chain reaction  – PCT  – Procalcitonin

© 2016 The Authors | Published by the Microbiology Society

Keywords: Zika Virus; Leptospirosis; New Caledonia.