#Uptake and #effectiveness of #facemask against #respiratory #infections at #mass #gatherings: a systematic review (SD, abstract)

[Source: Science Direct, full PDF file: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Accepted Manuscript

Title: Uptake and effectiveness of facemask against respiratory infections at mass gatherings: a systematic review

Author: Osamah Barasheed Mohammad Alfelali Sami Mushta Hamid Bokhary Jassir Alshihry Ammar A Attar Robert Booy Harunor Rashid

PII: S1201-9712(16)31010-4 / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2016.03.023

Reference: IJID 2577

To appear in: International Journal of Infectious Diseases

Received date: 16-2-2016 – Revised date: 18-3-2016 – Accepted date: 24-3-2016

Please cite this article as: Barasheed O, Alfelali M, Mushta S, Bokhary H, Alshihry J, Attar AA, Booy R, Rashid H, Uptake and effectiveness of facemask against respiratory infections at mass gatherings: a systematic review, International Journal of Infectious Diseases (2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2016.03.023

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Uptake and effectiveness of facemask against respiratory infections at mass gatherings: a systematic review

Osamah Barasheed1, 2*, Mohammad Alfelali2, 3, Sami Mushta4 , Hamid Bokhary5 , Jassir Alshihry1 , Ammar A Attar6, 7, 8, Robert Booy2, 9 and Harunor Rashid2, 9

1. Research Center, King Abdullah Medical City (KAMC), Makkah, Saudi Arabia; 2. National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance of Vaccine Preventable Diseases (NCIRS), The Children’s Hospital at Westmead, NSW, Australia; 3. Department of Family and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Rabigh, Saudi Arabia; 4. Ministry of Health, Abha, Saudi Arabia; 5. Umm Al-Qura University Medical Center, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia; 6. Department of Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia; 7. Science and technology Unit, General Presidency for the Holy Mosque & Prophet Holy Mosque affairs, Makkah, Saudi Arabia; 8. Department of Innovation & Corporate Integration, King Abdullah Medical City (KAMC), Makkah, Saudi Arabia; 9. Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, School of Biological Sciences and Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Australia

*Corresponding author: Dr Osamah Barasheed Research Center, King Abdullah Medical City (KAMC), Makkah, Saudi Arabia. P.O. Box: 57657 Phone: +966 503 362 068 Email: barasheed.o@kamc.med.sa

Word count: abstract 204, text 3055

 

Abstract

Objectives:

The risk of acquisition and transmission of respiratory infections is high among attendees of mass gatherings (MGs). Currently used interventions have limitations yet the role of facemask in preventing those infections at MG has not been systematically reviewed. We have conducted a systematic review to synthesise evidence about the uptake and effectiveness of facemask against respiratory infections in MGs.

Methods:

A comprehensive literature search was conducted according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines using major electronic databases such as, Medline, EMBASE, SCOPUS and CINAHL.

Results:

Of 25 studies included, the pooled sample size was 12710 participants from 55 countries aged 11 to 89 years, 37% were female. The overall uptake of facemask ranged from 0.02% to 92.8% with an average of about 50%. Only 13 studies examined the effectiveness of facemask, and their pooled estimate revealed significant protectiveness against respiratory infections (relative risk [RR] = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.84-0.94, p <0.01), but the study end points varied widely.

Conclusion:

A modest proportion of attendees of MGs use facemask, the practice is more widespread among health care workers. Facemask use seems to be beneficial against certain respiratory infections at MGs but its effectiveness against specific infection remains unproven.

Key words: Facemask; Hajj; Influenza-like illness; Mass gathering; Pilgrim; Respiratory infections.

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Mass Gathering Events; Facemasks.

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Unexpected and #Rapid #Spread of #Zika #Virus in The #Americas–#Implications for Public Health #Preparedness for Mass #Gatherings at the 2016 #Brazil #Olympic #Games (Int J Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Int J Infect Dis. 2016 Feb 4. pii: S1201-9712(16)00021-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2016.02.001. [Epub ahead of print]

Unexpected and Rapid Spread of Zika Virus in The Americas – Implications for Public Health Preparedness for Mass Gatherings at the 2016 Brazil Olympic Games. [      ]

Petersen E1, Wilson ME2, Touch S3, McCloskey B4, Mwaba P5, Bates M5, Dar O4, Mattes F6, Kidd M6, Ippolito G7, Azhar EI8, Zumla A9.

Author information: 1The Royal Hospital, Muscat, Oman, and Insititute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark. Electronic address: eskildp@dadlnet.dk. 2School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, USA; Harvard T.H.Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. 3Communicable Disease Control Department, Ministry of Health, Cambodia. 4Global Health Department, Public Health England, London, United Kingdom. 5UNZA-UCLMS Project, University Teaching Hospital, and Ministry of Health, Lusaka, Zambia. 6Dept of Virology, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK. 7National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani, Rome, Italy. 8Special Infectious Agents Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Centre, and Medical Laboratory Technology Department, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. 9Special Infectious Agents Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Centre, and Medical Laboratory Technology Department, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, and NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, UCL Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom.

 

Abstract

Mass gatherings at major international sporting events put millions of international travelers and local host-country residents at risk of acquiring infectious diseases, including locally endemic infectious diseases. The mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently aroused global attention due to its rapid spread since its first detection in May 2015 in Brazil to 22 other countries and other territories in the Americas. The ZIKV outbreak in Brazil, has also been associated with a significant rise in the number of babies born with microcephaly and neurological disorders, and has been declared a ‘Global Emergency by the World Health Organization. This explosive spread of ZIKV in Brazil poses challenges for public health preparedness and surveillance for the Olympics and Paralympics which are due to be held in Rio De Janeiro in August, 2016. We review the epidemiology and clinical features of the current ZIKV outbreak in Brazil, highlight knowledge gaps, and review the public health implications of the current ZIKV outbreak in the Americas. We highlight the urgent need for a coordinated collaborative response for prevention and spread of infectious diseases with epidemic potential at mass gatherings events.

Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

KEYWORDS: Arboviruses; Brazil; Mass Gatherings; Olympics; Sporting events; Zika virus

PMID: 26854199 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Zika Virus; Mass Gathering Events.

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A crucial #time for #public #health #preparedness: #Zika virus and the 2016 #Olympics, #Umrah, and #Hajj (The Lancet, extract)

[Source: The Lancet, full page: (LINK). Extract.]

Comment

A crucial time for public health preparedness: Zika virus and the 2016 Olympics, Umrah, and Hajj [      ]

Habida Elachola, Ernesto Gozzer, Jiatong Zhuo, Ziad A Memish

Published Online: 06 February 2016 / Publication stage: In Press Corrected Proof / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)00274-9

© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

 

Summary

The 138th session of WHO’s Executive Board on Jan 25, 2016, noted both the end of the 2014 Ebola crisis and the beginning of a global public health threat, the outbreak of Zika virus infection in the Americas.1 On Jan 15, 2016, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention advised pregnant women to refrain from travelling to countries affected by Zika, given a possible association between Zika virus infection with microcephaly and other neurological disorders.2 On Feb 1, 2016, WHO’s International Health Regulations Emergency Committee declared the possible association between Zika virus infection and clusters of microcephaly and other neurological disorders as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.

(…)

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Zika Virus; Public Health; Mass Gathering Events.

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