Emergence of #Madariaga virus as a cause of acute febrile #illness in #children, #Haiti, 2015-2016 (PLoS Negl Trop Dis., abstract)

[Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Emergence of Madariaga virus as a cause of acute febrile illness in children, Haiti, 2015-2016

John A. Lednicky, Sarah K. White, Carla N. Mavian, Maha A. El Badry, Taina Telisma, Marco Salemi, Bernard A. OKech, V. Madsen Beau De Rochars, J. Glenn Morris Jr.

Published: January 10, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006972

 

Abstract

Madariaga virus (MADV), also known as South American eastern equine encephalitis virus, has been identified in animals and humans in South and Central America, but not previously in Hispaniola or the northern Caribbean. MADV was isolated from virus cultures of plasma from an 8-year-old child in a school cohort in the Gressier/Leogane region of Haiti, who was seen in April, 2015, with acute febrile illness (AFI). The virus was subsequently cultured from an additional seven AFI case patients from this same cohort in February, April, and May 2016. Symptoms most closely resembled those seen with confirmed dengue virus infection. Sequence data were available for four isolates: all were within the same clade, with phylogenetic and molecular clock data suggesting recent introduction of the virus into Haiti from Panama sometime in the period from October 2012-January 2015. Our data document the movement of MADV into Haiti, and raise questions about the potential for further spread in the Caribbean or North America.

 

Author summary

Madariaga virus (MADV) is the name given to what used to be called South American eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), based on recent studies suggesting that MADV is distinct genetically from the EEEV circulating in North America. Until now, MADV has been found primarily in animals in South and Central America, with a limited number of human cases reported (most of whom had encephalitis). Our group has been responsible for a series of studies assessing the etiology of acute febrile illness (AFI) among children in a school cohort in Haiti. Unexpectedly, in April, 2015, we identified MADV on viral culture of plasma from a student with AFI in this cohort; an additional seven cases were identified on culture of samples from children with AFI in this same cohort in February, April, and May 2016. On sequence analysis, all strains were very similar genetically, and appear to have come from a strain introduced into Haiti from Panama sometime in the period from October 2012- January 2015. Symptoms of children were similar to those seen with dengue; none had encephalitis. Our data indicate that this virus, which has the potential for causing serious illness, has been recently introduced into Haiti, and raises the possibility that it might move into other parts of the Caribbean or North America.

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Citation: Lednicky JA, White SK, Mavian CN, El Badry MA, Telisma T, Salemi M, et al. (2019) Emergence of Madariaga virus as a cause of acute febrile illness in children, Haiti, 2015-2016. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(1): e0006972. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006972

Editor: Michael J. Turell, INDEPENDENT RESEARCHER, UNITED STATES

Received: August 7, 2018; Accepted: November 3, 2018; Published: January 10, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Lednicky et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript and its supporting information files. Private health information for patients is excluded, and cannot be provided due to IRB restrictions.

Funding: Work was supported in part by NIH grant R01 AI126357-01S1, awarded to JGM. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus; Madariaga Virus; Haiti.

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#Madariaga Virus: Identification of a Lineage III Strain in a Venezuelan Child With Acute Undifferentiated Febrile Illness, in the Setting of a Possible Equine Epizootic (Clin Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Apr 27. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciy224. [Epub ahead of print]

Madariaga Virus: Identification of a Lineage III Strain in a Venezuelan Child With Acute Undifferentiated Febrile Illness, in the Setting of a Possible Equine Epizootic.

Blohm GM1,2,3,4, Lednicky JA1,2, White SK1,2, Mavian CN1,5, Márquez MC3,4,6, González-García KP6, Salemi M1,5, Morris JG Jr1,7, Paniz-Mondolfi AE3,4,8.

Author information: 1 Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville. 2 Department of Environmental and Global Health, College of Public Health and Health Professions, University of Florida, Gainesville. 3 Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Instituto Diagnóstico Barquisimeto (IDB)/ Biomedical Research Institute/IDB Hospital, Barquisimeto, Lara. 4 Zoonosis and Emerging Pathogens Collaborative Network, Venezuelan Science Research Incubator, Barquisimeto, Lara. 5 Department of Pathology, Immunology, and Laboratory Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville. 6 Health Sciences Department, College of Medicine, Universidad Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado, Barquisimeto, Lara, Venezuela. 7 Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville. 8 Directorate of Health, Department of Research and Academic Affairs, Instituto Venezolano de los Seguros Sociales (IVSS), Caracas, Venezuela.

 

Abstract

We report identification of Madariaga virus (MADV) in plasma and urine samples from a child with acute undifferentiated febrile illness in Venezuela. Our data document the occurrence of milder MADV infections (ie, without encephalitis), with a symptom complex that resembles that seen with other arboviral infections, including dengue and zika.

PMID: 29718127 DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciy224

Keywords: Madariaga Virus; Venezuela.

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