Detection and #Isolation of #H9N2 Subtype of #Avian #Influenza Virus in House #Sparrows (Passer domesticus) of Ahvaz, #Iran (Arch Razi Inst., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Arch Razi Inst. 2019 Dec;74(4):439-444. doi: 10.22092/ari.2019.122504.1223. Epub 2019 Dec 1.

Detection and Isolation of H9N2 Subtype of Avian Influenza Virus in House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) of Ahvaz, Iran.

Broomand Z1,1, Mayahi M1, Hosseini H2, Valadbeigi S1.

Author information: 1 Department of avian health and diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran. 2 Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Alborz, Iran.

 

Abstract

Avian influenza (AI) is an acute infectious disease with worldwide significance causing extensive economic losses in the poultry industry. Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) belong to the family Orthomyxoviridae and categorized in the genus influenza virus A. These viruses have been isolated from more than 100 species of free-living birds. Migratory birds are considered as reservoirs for AIVs and are the major agents responsible for global outbreaks. The Passeriformes are found in most parts of the world and cover a variety of habitats from rural to urban areas. House sparrows are members of the family Passeridae and due to their free flying, are strongly associated with seabirds, indigenous, and industrial poultry. The aim of this study was to determine the role of house sparrows in AIV (H9N2) circulation in the Ahvaz region. The intestinal and tracheal samples were taken from 200 sparrows around Ahvaz during 2017. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed using specific primers in order to detect M and H9 genes of AIVs. The positive specimens in the PCR for the M gene were inoculated into 9-11-day-old embryonated chicken eggs via the allantoic fluid. The results showed that 11 out of 200 samples were positive for the two genes of M and H9. According to the findings of the present study, house sparrows are infected with H9N2 and pose a threat to commercial poultry. These birds may play a significant role in the transmission of AIV between wildlife and domestic animals. Therefore, this issue is important to be considered in preventive measurements.

Copyright © 2019, Archives of Razi Institute. Published by Kowsar.

KEYWORDS: Ahvaz; Avian influenza; House sparrows; Iran; Molecular detection

PMID: 31939262 DOI: 10.22092/ari.2019.122504.1223

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H9N2; Wild Birds; Poultry; Iran.

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#Serological prevalence of #avian #H9N2 #influenza virus in #dogs by hemagglutination inhibition assay in Kerman, southeast of #Iran (Vet Res Forum, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vet Res Forum. 2019 Summer;10(3):249-253. doi: 10.30466/vrf.2018.87879.2140. Epub 2019 Sep 15.

Serological prevalence of avian H9N2 influenza virus in dogs by hemagglutination inhibition assay in Kerman, southeast of Iran.

Saberi M1, Tavakkoli H1, Najmaddini A2, Rezaei M1.

Author information: 1 Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran. 2 DVM Graduate,Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran.

 

Abstract

Influenza is a highly contagious zoonotic disease in the world. Avian H9N2 influenza virus is a significant pandemic pathogen widely distributed throughout the world. Pet ownership has been documented as a risk factor for infection transmission to human. Considering major public health concern, the prevalence of antibodies against avian H9N2 influenza virus was evaluated in 170 serum samples of dogs by hemagglutination inhibition assay. This study is the first survey to assess the epidemiology of avian H9N2 influenza virus infection in dogs in Kerman, southeast of Iran. Out of 170 samples, 65 (38.23%) were positive for H9N2. Antibodies were higher in farm dogs that were kept with other animals and also in dogs were fed a raw diet. These findings emphasize the importance of close attention to these populations for control and prevention programs. It is important to reduce infection burden, especially in regions with widespread distribution of H9N2.

© 2019 Urmia University. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Avian H9N2 influenza virus; Dog; Hemagglutination inhibition; Iran; Seroprevalence

PMID: 31737235 PMCID: PMC6828164 DOI: 10.30466/vrf.2018.87879.2140

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H9N2; Serology; Seroprevalence; Dogs; Iran.

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#Serological #Survey of #Avian #Influenza (#H9N2) in Commercial #Ostrich #Farms in #Iran, 2015 (Arch Razi Inst., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Arch Razi Inst. 2018 Dec;73(4):325-330. doi: 10.22092/ari.2017.108110.1081. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Serological Survey of Avian Influenza (H9N2) in Commercial Ostrich Farms in Iran, 2015.

Fallah Mehrabadi MH1, Bahonar A2,2, Mirzaiee K3, Ghalyanchi Langeroudi A4, Ghafouri SA5, Tehrani F5, Hashemi A5.

Author information: 1 Department of Poultry Diseases, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran. 2 Department of Food Hygiene and Quality Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran. 3 Department of Health and Management of Poultry Diseases, Qazvin Veterinary Organization, Qazvin, Iran. 4 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran. 5 Department of Health and Management of Poultry Diseases, Iranian Veterinary Organization. Tehran, Iran.

 

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of avian influenza H9N2 subtype in the industrial ostrich farms and its geographical distribution. This cross-sectional study was conducted from January to June 2015. A total of 40 farms were selected from different provinces of Iran, from each of which 11 ostriches (n=440) were sampled. The sera samples were examined using 4 hemagglutination units of H9N2 antigens. A frequency distribution was used to describe the responses to the survey questions. The mean titers between provinces were compared using one-way analysis of variance. According to the results, 21 (47.5%) out of 40 farms and 108 (24.5%) out of 440 ostriches tested positive in the HI-H9N2 test. There were statistically significant differences between the mean titers of samples in different provinces (P<0.001). The current study was conducted on unvaccinated ostriches. The results showed that H9N2 had a high seroprevalence at both farm and bird levels. The findings of this study can be for the further investigation of infection in ostrich farms in order to consider this species in the surveillance programs of the Iranian Veterinary Organization. The detection and isolation of viruses and epidemiological investigation are necessary for the persistent use of H9N2 vaccines in some ostrich farms.

Copyright © 2018, Archives of Razi Institute. Published by Kowsar.

KEYWORDS: Avian Influenza; H9N2; Iran; Ostrich; Seroprevalence

PMID: 31077123 DOI: 10.22092/ari.2017.108110.1081 [Indexed for MEDLINE] Free full text

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H9N2; Poultry; Iran.

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Full- #genome characterization and genetic #analysis of a #H9N2 virus in commercial #broilers in #Iran, 2017 (Trop Anim Health Prod., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Trop Anim Health Prod. 2019 Jul;51(6):1737-1749. doi: 10.1007/s11250-019-01809-1. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Full-genome characterization and genetic analysis of a H9N2 virus in commercial broilers in Iran, 2017.

Fallah Mehrabadi MH1, Ghalyanchilangeroudi A2, Ghafouri SA3, Malekan M4, Ziafati Z4, Hosseini H5, Mousavi FS4, Jabbarifakhr M4, Aghaeean L4.

Author information: 1 Department of Poultry Diseases, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran. 2 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran. arashghalyanchi@gmail.com. 3 Iranian Veterinary Organization, Tehran, Iran. 4 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran. 5 Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Islamic Azad University, Karaj Branch, Alborz, Iran.

 

Abstract

Since 1998, Iran’s poultry industry has faced several outbreaks of low pathogenic avian influenza H9N2. Tissue samples were collected from a broiler flock with respiratory symptoms in autumn 2017. After that, virus isolation and confirmation of H9N2 using RT-PCR, sequencing, and bioinformatic analysis for all eight genes were performed. The phylogenic analysis revealed HA gene of recent Iranian isolate (A/chicken/Mashhad/UT-Barin/2017) which was clustered in G1 sublineage. In addition, all eight genes of the virus were placed with Pakistani isolates of 2015 in separate group. Based on amino acid motif KSSR in HA cleavage site, the UT-Barin is considered as low pathogenic avian influenza with eight HA and seven NA potential N-glycosylated sites. No evidence was detected regarding adamantane and neuraminidase inhibitors’ drug’s resistance. Multiple point mutations were observed in all genes that were responsible for increasing virulence of the virus for avian host and also increasing affinity to mammalian host cells.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza; Bioinformatic analysis; H9N2; Iran; Mammalian cells; Virulence

PMID: 30729386 DOI: 10.1007/s11250-019-01809-1 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H9N2; Poultry; Iran.

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Potential Fifth #Clade of #Candida auris, #Iran, 2018 (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 9—September 2019 / Research Letter

Potential Fifth Clade of Candida auris, Iran, 2018

Nancy A. Chow, Theun de Groot, Hamid Badali, Mahdi Abastabar, Tom M. Chiller, and Jacques F. Meis

Author affiliations: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (N.A. Chow, T.M. Chiller); Canisius Wilhelmina Hospital, Nijmegen, the Netherlands (T. de Groot, J.F. Meis); Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran (H. Badali, M. Abastabar)

 

Abstract

Four major clades of Candida auris have been described, and all infections have clustered in these 4 clades. We identified an isolate representative of a potential fifth clade, separated from the other clades by >200,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, in a patient in Iran who had never traveled outside the country.

Keywords: Candida auris; Iran.

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Full #genome characterization of #Iranian #H5N8 highly pathogenic #avian #influenza virus from Hooded #Crow (Corvus cornix), 2017: The first report (Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2019 Jun;64:73-80. doi: 10.1016/j.cimid.2019.03.005. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Full genome characterization of Iranian H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus from Hooded Crow (Corvus cornix), 2017: The first report.

Ghafouri SA1, Fallah Mehrabadi MH2, Talakesh SF3, Hosseini H4, Ziafati Z5, Malekan M5, Aghaeean L5, Ghalyanchilangeroudi A6.

Author information: 1 Iranian Veterinary Organization, Tehran, Iran. 2 Department of Poultry Diseases, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran. 3 Iranian Egg Farmers’ Federation, Secretory-General, Tehran, Iran. 4 Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Islamic Azad University, Karaj Branch, Karaj, Iran. 5 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran. 6 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address: arashghalyanchi@gmail.com.

 

Abstract

During 2014-2017 Clade 2.3.4.4 H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) have spread worldwide. In 2016, an epidemic of HPAIV H5N8 in Iran caused mass deaths among wild birds, and several commercial poultry farms and captive bird holdings were affected and continue to experience problems. Several outbreaks were reported in 2017. One of them is related to Hooded crow (Corvus cornix) in a national park in Esfahan province in 2017. Whole genome sequencing and characterization have been done on the detected H5N8 sample. Based on HA sequencing results, it belongs to 2.3.4.4 clade, and the cleavage site is (PLREKRRKR/G). Phylogenetic analysis of the HA gene showed that the Iran 2017 H5N8 virus clustered within subgroup Russia 2016 2.3.4.4 b of group B in H5 clade 2.3.4.4 HPAIV. On the other hand, the NA gene of the virus is placed in group C of Eurasian lineage. Complete genome characterization of this virus revealed probable reassortment of the virus with East-Asian low-pathogenic influenza viruses. Furthermore, the virus possessed some phenotypic markers related to the increased potential for transmission and pathogenicity to mammals at internal segments. This study is the first full genome characterization H5N8 HPAIV in Iran. The data complete the puzzle of molecular epidemiology of H5N8 HPAIV in Iran and the region. Our study provides evidence for fast and continuing reassortment of H5 clade 2.3.4.4 viruses, that might lead to changes in virus structural and functional characteristics such as the route and method of transmission of the virus and virus infective, pathogenic and zoonotic potential.

Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza; Characterization; Crow; Full genome; H5N8; Iran; Phylogenetic study

PMID: 31174704 DOI: 10.1016/j.cimid.2019.03.005

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N8; Reassortant strain; Wild Birds; Iran.

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Widespread #circulation of #WNV, but not #Zika virus in southern #Iran (PLoS Negl Trop Dis., abstract)

[Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Widespread circulation of West Nile virus, but not Zika virus in southern Iran

Mazyar Ziyaeyan , Mohammad Amin Behzadi, Victor Hugo Leyva-Grado, Kourosh Azizi, Gholamreza Pouladfar, Hedayat Dorzaban, Atoosa Ziyaeyan, Sanaz Salek, Aghyl Jaber Hashemi, Marzieh Jamalidoust

Published: December 17, 2018 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007022 / This is an uncorrected proof.

 

Abstract

West Nile virus (WNV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) are mosquito-borne viral infections. Over the past few decades, WNV has been associated with several outbreaks involving high numbers of neuroinvasive diseases among humans. The recent re-emergence of ZIKV has been associated with congenital malformation and also with Guillain–Barre syndrome in adults. The geographic range of arthropod-borne viruses has been rapidly increasing in recent years. The objectives of this study were to determine the presence of IgG specific antibodies and the genome of WNV and ZIKV in human samples, as well as WNV and ZIKV genomes in wild-caught mosquitoes in urban and rural areas of the Hormozgan province, in southern Iran. A total of 494 serum samples were tested for the presence of WNV and ZIKV IgG antibodies using ELISA assays. One hundred and two (20.6%) samples were reactive for WNV IgG antibodies. All serum samples were negative for ZIKV IgG antibodies. Using the multivariable logistic analysis, age (45+ vs. 1–25; OR = 3.4, 95% C.I.: 1.8–6.3), occupation (mostly outdoor vs. mostly indoor; OR = 2.4, 95% C.I.: 1.1–5.2), and skin type(type I/II vs. type III/IV and type V/VI; OR = 4.3, 95% C.I.: 1.7–10.8 and OR = 2.7, 95% C.I.: 1.3–5.5 respectively, skin types based on Fitzpatrick scale) showed significant association with WNV seroreactivity. We collected 2,015 mosquitoes in 136 pools belonging to 5 genera and 14 species. Three pools of Culex pipiens complex were positive for WNV RNA using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rtRT-PCR). ZIKV RNA was not detected in any of the pools. All WNV ELISA reactive serum samples were negative for WNV RNA. In conclusion, we provided evidence of the establishment of WNV in southern Iran and no proof of ZIKV in serum samples or in mosquito vectors. The establishment of an organized arbovirus surveillance system and active case finding strategies seems to be necessary.

 

Author summary

In recent decades mosquito-borne viruses have reached and adapted to new habitats, and now they can be found in nearly all continents. Facilitated goods transportation, live stock exchange, people travelling more easily, and most importantly world climate alterations, might be some of the reasons for this mosquito habitat spreading. Emergence of WNV in North America, Europe, and most Mediterranean countries like Turkey, Greece and Israel is evidence of this spreading. Furthermore, emergence and re-emergence of some of these mosquito borne viruses in new areas may be accompanied with changes in their pre-known pathogenesis. Re-emergence of ZIKV in the South Pacific and America from 2007 to 2016 was accompanied with an increase in neurovirulent diseases and congenital malformations. In this study, we evaluated the presence of WNV and ZIKV via serological and genome detection in human samples and mosquitoes (viral genome analysis) from southern Iran. This region is on the coast with a warm and tropical climate suitable for inhabitation and expansion of the vectors harboring these two viruses. We caught a large spectrum of mosquitoes from these areas. After classification, we analyzed the mosquitoes’ pools for WNV and ZIKV genomic RNA. Our results showed that 20.6% of the studied human samples were IgG reactive to WNV while no antibodies against ZIKV were detected. We found WNV RNA genome in three mosquitoes’ pools. The genomic analysis was negative for ZIKV in both human and mosquito samples. Based on the results WNV is notably circulating in southern Iran; while no evidence of ZIKV infection in people or circulation in any of the vectors was observed.

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Citation: Ziyaeyan M, Behzadi MA, Leyva-Grado VH, Azizi K, Pouladfar G, Dorzaban H, et al. (2018) Widespread circulation of West Nile virus, but not Zika virus in southern Iran. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 12(12): e0007022. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007022

Editor: Brett M. Forshey, DoD – AFHSB, UNITED STATES

Received: May 8, 2018; Accepted: November 26, 2018; Published: December 17, 2018

Copyright: © 2018 Ziyaeyan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information file.

Funding: The work was supported by the Clinical Microbiology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Namazi Hospital, Shiraz, Iran. The funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Arbovirus; Flavivirus; WNV; Zika Virus; Mosquitoes; Human; Iran.

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