#Influenza-like illness #outbreaks in #China during 2017-2018 surveillance season (Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2019 Oct 6;53(10):982-986. doi: 10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2019.10.006.

[Influenza-like illness outbreaks in China during 2017-2018 surveillance season].

[Article in Chinese; Abstract available in Chinese from the publisher]

Liu LJ1, Yang J, Zhu F, Wang LJ, Guo Q, Tang J, Fang QQ, Wang DY, Chen T.

Author information: 1 Chinese National Influenza Center, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Key Laboratory for Medical Virology, National Health, Beijing 102206, China.

 

Abstract in English, Chinese

Objective:

To analyze epidemiological characteristics of influenza-like illness outbreaks in mainland China during 2017-2018 surveillance season, and to provide scientific evidence for developing influenza prevention and control strategies.

Methods:

We collected the data on reported influenza outbreaks in 2017-2018 surveillance season from China Influenza Surveillance Information System and China Public Health Emergency Management Information System and analyzed the data of laboratory-confirmed influenza-like illness outbreaks by descriptive epidemiological methods.

Results:

During the surveillance season, a total of 2 398 influenza-like illness outbreaks (with 10 or more incidences in an outbreak) in mainland China were reported, involving 87 084 patients, of which 2 323 were influenza outbreaks, involving 85 531 patients. The reported influenza-like illness outbreaks occurred most frequently from November 2017 to January 2018 in both the southern and northern regions and the highest peaks were in December 2017. During the period 1 850 influenza-like illness outbreaks (77.15%) were reported in the southern region, and 548 influenza-like illness outbreaks (22.85%) were reported in the northern region. The most of the outbreaks occurred in primary, secondary schools and nursery care schools, with a total of 2 210 reports (92.16%). And the majority of the outbreaks involved 10-29 incident cases. The dominant isolated virus strains for the outbreaks were influenza B (1 505 outbreaks, 62.76% of all the outbreaks).

Conclusion:

Seasonality of influenza outbreaks were observed in mainland China during 2017-2018 surveillance season and the reported influenza outbreaks were most frequently occurred in autumn-winter season and in southern China. Primary, secondary schools and nursery care schools are high-risk places for outbreaks, and the dominant isolated virus strains for the outbreaks were influenza B.

KEYWORDS: Disease attributes; Influenza, human; Pandemics

PMID: 31607042 DOI: 10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2019.10.006

Keywords: Seasonal Influenza; Influenza B; Institutional outbreaks; China.

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High rate of #transmission in a pulmonary #tuberculosis #outbreak in a primary #school, north-eastern #Italy, 2019 (Euro Surveill., abstract)

[Source: Eurosurveillance, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

High rate of transmission in a pulmonary tuberculosis outbreak in a primary school, north-eastern Italy, 2019

Sandro Cinquetti1, Maria Dalmanzio1, Elisa Ros1, Davide Gentili1,2, Mauro Ramigni3, Adriano Grossi4,5, Xanthi D Andrianou5,6, Leonardo Ermanno La Torre7, Roberto Rigoli8, Pier Giorgio Scotton9, Angela Taraschi10, Vincenzo Baldo11, Giuseppina Napoletano12, Francesca Russo12, Patrizio Pezzotti5, Giovanni Rezza5, Antonietta Filia5

Affiliations: 1 Public Health Office , Local Health Unit 2 Marca Trevigiana, Treviso, Italy; 2 Department of Medical, Surgical and Experimental Sciences, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy; 3 Epidemiology Office, Local Health Unit 2 Marca Trevigiana, Treviso, Italy; 4 University Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy; 5 Department of Infectious Diseases, National Health Institute (Istituto Superiore di Sanità), Rome, Italy; 6 European Programme for Intervention Epidemiology Training (EPIET), European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), Stockholm, Sweden; 7 Department of Radiology, Oderzo Hospital, Local Health Unit 2 Marca Trevigiana, Treviso, Italy; 8 Department of Microbiology, Treviso Hospital, Local Health Unit 2 Marca Trevigiana, Treviso, Italy; 9 Department of Infectious Diseases, Treviso Hospital, Local Health Unit 2 Marca Trevigiana, Treviso, Italy; 10 Department of Pediatrics, Oderzo Hospital, Local Health Unit 2 Marca Trevigiana, Treviso, Italy; 11 Hygiene and Public Health Unit, University of Padua, Padua, Italy; 12 Prevention Department, Veneto Regional Health Authority, Venice, Italy

Correspondence: Antonietta Filiaantonietta.filiaiss.it

Citation style for this article: Cinquetti Sandro, Dalmanzio Maria, Ros Elisa, Gentili Davide, Ramigni Mauro, Grossi Adriano, Andrianou Xanthi D, La Torre Leonardo Ermanno, Rigoli Roberto, Scotton Pier Giorgio, Taraschi Angela, Baldo Vincenzo, Napoletano Giuseppina, Russo Francesca, Pezzotti Patrizio, Rezza Giovanni, Filia Antonietta. High rate of transmission in a pulmonary tuberculosis outbreak in a primary school, north-eastern Italy, 2019. Euro Surveill. 2019;24(24):pii=1900332. https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.24.1900332

Received: 24 May 2019;   Accepted: 13 Jun 2019

 

Abstract

Italy is a low-incidence country for tuberculosis (TB). We describe a TB outbreak in a primary school in north-eastern Italy, involving 10 cases of active pulmonary disease and 42 cases of latent infection. The index case was detected in March 2019, while the primary case, an Italian-born schoolteacher, was likely infectious since January 2018. Administration of a pre-employment health questionnaire to school staff with sustained contact with children should be considered in low-incidence countries.

© This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Keywords: TB; Institutional outbreaks; Italy.

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Comparative #effectiveness of high-dose versus standard-dose #influenza #vaccination on numbers of #US nursing home residents admitted to hospital: a cluster-randomised trial (Lancet Resp Med., abstract)

[Source: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Comparative effectiveness of high-dose versus standard-dose influenza vaccination on numbers of US nursing home residents admitted to hospital: a cluster-randomised trial

Prof Stefan Gravenstein, MD, H Edward Davidson, PharmD, Monica Taljaard, PhD, Jessica Ogarek, MS, Pedro Gozalo, PhD, Lisa Han, MPH, Prof Vincent Mor, PhD

Published: 20 July 2017 / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(17)30235-7

© 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

 

Summary

Background

Immune responses to influenza vaccines decline with age, reducing clinical effectiveness. We compared the effect of the more immunogenic high-dose trivalent influenza vaccine with a standard-dose vaccine to identify the effect on reducing hospital admissions of nursing home residents in the USA.

Methods

We did a single-blind, pragmatic, comparative effectiveness, cluster-randomised trial with a 2 × 2 factorial design. Medicare-certified nursing homes in the USA located within 50 miles of a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention influenza reporting city were recruited, so long as the facilities were not located in a hospital, had more than 50 long-stay residents, had less than 20% of the population aged under 65 years, and were not already planning to administer the high-dose influenza vaccine to residents. Enrolled nursing homes were randomised to a facility-wide standard of care for the residents of either high dose or standard dose as the vaccine for the 2013–14 influenza season and half of each group were randomly allocated to free vaccines for staff. Individual residents were included in the analysis group if they were aged 65 years or older and were long-stay residents (ie, had been in the facility 90 days or more before commencing the influenza vaccination programme). The analysts and investigators with access to the raw data were masked to study group by coding the groups until after the analyses were complete. The primary outcome was hospital admissions related to pulmonary and influenza-like illness between Nov 1, 2013, and May 31, 2014, identified from Medicare hospital claims available for residents who were without private health insurance (ie, those who were considered Medicare fee-for-service). We obtained data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) and enrolled facilities. The analyses used marginal Poisson and Cox proportional hazards regression, accounting for clustering of residents within homes, on an intention-to-treat basis, adjusting for facility clustering and prespecified covariates. Safety data were voluntarily reported according to the standard of care. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01815268.

Findings

823 facilities were recruited to the study between March and August, 2013, to participate in the trial, of which 409 facilities were randomised for residents to receive high-dose vaccine, and 414 facilities for residents to receive standard-dose vaccine. The facilities housed 92 269, of whom 75 917 were aged 65 years or older and 53 008 were also long-stay residents, and 38 256 were matched to Medicare hospital claims as of Nov 1, 2013. Staff vaccination rates did not differ between groups, so analyses focused on the high-dose versus standard-dose vaccine comparison. On the basis of Medicare fee-for-service claims, the incidence of respiratory-related hospital admissions was significantly lower in facilities where residents received high-dose influenza vaccines than in those that received standard-dose influenza vaccines (0·185 per 1000 resident-days or 3·4% over 6 months vs 0·211 per 1000 resident-days or 3·9% over 6 months; unadjusted relative risk of 0·888, 95% CI 0·785–1·005, 0=0·061, and adjusted relative risk 0·873, 0·776–0·982, p=0·023).

Interpretation

When compared with standard-dose vaccine, high-dose influenza vaccine can reduce risk of respiratory-related hospital admissions from nursing home residents aged 65 years and older.

Funding

Sanofi Pasteur, Swiftwater, PA, USA.

Keywords: Seasonal Influenza; Vaccines; Institutional Outbreaks.

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Febrile #Respiratory #Illness Associated with #Human #Adenovirus Type 55 in South #Korea #Military, 2014–2016 (@CDC_EIDjournal, abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 23, Number 6—June 2017 / Dispatch

Febrile Respiratory Illness Associated with Human Adenovirus Type 55 in South Korea Military, 2014–2016

Hongseok Yoo, Se Hun Gu, Jaehun Jung, Dong Hyun Song, Changgyo Yoon, Duck Jin Hong, Eun Young Lee, Woong Seog, Il-Ung Hwang, Daesang Lee, Seong Tae Jeong2 , and Kyungmin Huh2

Author affiliations: Armed Forces Capital Hospital, Seongnam, South Korea (H. Yoo, D.J. Hong, E.Y. Lee, K. Huh); Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon, South Korea (S.H. Gu, D.H. Song, D. Lee, S.T. Jeong); Armed Forces Medical Command, Seongnam (J. Jung, C. Yoon, W. Seog, I.-U. Hwang)

 

Abstract

An outbreak of febrile respiratory illness associated with human adenovirus (HAdV) occurred in the South Korea military during the 2014–15 influenza season and thereafter. Molecular typing and phylogenetic analysis of patient samples identified HAdV type 55 as the causative agent. Emergence of this novel HAdV necessitates continued surveillance in military and civilian populations.

Keywords: Adenovirus; Institutional Outbreaks; Adenovirus 55; South Korea.

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