[Source: PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]
OPEN ACCESS / PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE
An observational prospective cohort study of the epidemiology of hospitalized patients with acute febrile illness in Indonesia
Muhammad Hussein Gasem , Herman Kosasih , Emiliana Tjitra, Bachti Alisjahbana, Muhammad Karyana, Dewi Lokida, Aaron Neal, Jason Liang, Abu Tholib Aman, Mansyur Arif, Pratiwi Sudarmono, Suharto, Tuti Parwati Merati, [ … ], for INA-RESPOND
Published: January 10, 2020 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007927 / This is an uncorrected proof.
The epidemiology of acute febrile illness, a common cause of hospitalization in Indonesia, has not been systematically studied.
This prospective observational study enrolled febrile patients (temperature ≥38°C) aged ≥1 year from July 2013 until June 2016 at eight government referral teaching hospitals in seven provincial capitals in Indonesia. Patients were managed according to the hospital standard-of-care (SOC), and blood samples were drawn for molecular and serological assays. Clinical data, laboratory results, and specimens for additional tests were collected at enrollment, days 14–28, and at three months. Regular follow-up visits were then scheduled for every three months either until symptoms resolved or until one year. In total, this study included 1,486 adult and pediatric patients presenting with multi-organ (768, 51.7%), gastrointestinal (497, 33.0%), respiratory (114, 7.7%), constitutional (62, 4.2%), skin and soft-tissue (24, 1.6%), central nervous system (17, 1.1%), or genitourinary (4, 0.3%) manifestations. Microbiological diagnoses were found in 1,003/1,486 (67.5%) participants, of which 351/1,003 (35.0%) were not diagnosed during hospitalization using SOC diagnostic tests. Missed diagnoses included all cases caused by Rickettsia spp., chikungunya, influenza, and Seoul virus. The most common etiologic agents identified were dengue virus (467, 46.6%), Salmonella spp. (103, 10.3%), and Rickettsia spp. (103, 10.3%). The overall mortality was 89 (5.9%).
Febrile illness in Indonesia has various microbiologic etiologies and substantial overall mortality. Diagnostic limitations and lack of epidemiologic data resulted in potentially treatable, and at times fatal, diseases being missed.
In tropical countries like Indonesia, fever due to infectious disease is the most common reason for hospitalization. However, diagnoses are mostly unconfirmed, as diagnostic tests are not available or are not performed due to budget constraints. Consequently, many patients are only treated based on clinical syndromes. To gain a better understanding of the epidemiology of acute fever in Indonesia, we conducted a study at eight hospitals in the seven largest cities from 2013–2016. We enrolled 1,486 subjects aged ≥1 year with acute fever ≥38°C. Blood cultures were mandatory for all subjects, while cultures of other biological specimens, microscopic examinations, and rapid tests for specific pathogens were based on clinical judgment and availability. Retrospectively, we performed molecular and serological testing for a panel of bacterial and viral pathogens for systemic, respiratory, and diarrheal diseases. We found six pathogens to be the most prevalent: dengue virus (47%), Salmonella Typhi/Paratyphi (10%), Rickettsia typhi (10%), influenza virus (7%), Leptospira spp. (5%), and chikungunya virus (4%). Rickettsia typhi, influenza, and chikungunya had not been considered in the differential diagnosis of any subject at the hospitals. Thus, multiple pathogens were associated with acute febrile illnesses, and a subset of treatable cases were missed. This may have resulted in increased overall mortality.
Citation: Gasem MH, Kosasih H, Tjitra E, Alisjahbana B, Karyana M, Lokida D, et al. (2020) An observational prospective cohort study of the epidemiology of hospitalized patients with acute febrile illness in Indonesia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 14(1): e0007927. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007927
Editor: Florian Marks, International Vaccine Institute, REPUBLIC OF KOREA
Received: December 5, 2018; Accepted: November 14, 2019; Published: January 10, 2020
This is an open access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.
Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files.
Funding: This project has been funded in whole or in part with Federal funds from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, under contract Nos. HHSN261200800001E and HHSN261201500003I. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
Keywords: Infectious Diseases; Indonesia.