Reduced #ceftazidime and #ertapenem susceptibility due to production of #OXA-2 in #Klebsiella pneumoniae ST258 (J Antimicrob Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Reduced ceftazidime and ertapenem susceptibility due to production of OXA-2 in Klebsiella pneumoniaeST258

Alina Iovleva, Roberta T Mettus, Christi L McElheny, Mustapha M Mustapha, Daria Van Tyne, Ryan K Shields, A William Pasculle, Vaughn S Cooper, Yohei Doi

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, dkz183, https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz183

Published: 24 May 2019

 

Abstract

Background

OXA-2 is a class D β-lactamase that confers resistance to penicillins, as well as narrow-spectrum cephalosporins. OXA-2 was recently reported to also possess carbapenem-hydrolysing activity. Here, we describe a KPC-2-encoding Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate that demonstrated reduced susceptibility to ceftazidime and ertapenem due to production of OXA-2.

Objectives

To elucidate the role of OXA-2 production in reduced ceftazidime and ertapenem susceptibility in a K. pneumoniae ST258 clinical isolate.

Methods

MICs were determined by the agar dilution method. WGS was conducted to identify and compare resistance genes between isolates. Expression of KPC-2 was quantified by quantitative RT–PCR and immunoblotting. OXA-2 was expressed in Escherichia coli TOP10, as well as in K. pneumoniae ATCC 13883, to define the relative contribution of OXA-2 in β-lactam resistance. Kinetic studies were conducted using purified OXA-2 enzyme.

Results

K. pneumoniae 1761 belonged to ST258 and carried both blaKPC-2 and blaOXA-2. However, expression of blaKPC-2 was substantially reduced due to an IS1294insertion in the promoter region. K. pneumoniae 1761, K. pneumoniae ATCC 13883 and E. coli TOP10 carrying blaOXA-2-harbouring plasmids showed reduced susceptibility to ertapenem and ceftazidime, but meropenem, imipenem and cefepime were unaffected. blaOXA-2 was carried on a 2910 bp partial class 1 integron containing aacA4-blaOXA-2-qacEΔ1-sul1 on an IncA/C2plasmid, which was not present in the earlier ST258 isolates possessing blaKPC-2 with intact promoters. Hydrolysis of ertapenem by OXA-2 was confirmed using purified enzyme.

Conclusions

Production of OXA-2 was associated with reduced ceftazidime and ertapenem susceptibility in a K. pneumoniae ST258 isolate.

Issue Section: ORIGINAL RESEARCH

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model)

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Beta-lactams; Carbapenem; Ceftazidime; Ertapenem; Meropenem; Imipenem; Cefepime.

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Activity of # imipenem / #relebactam against #MDR #Pseudomonas aeruginosa in #Europe: SMART 2015–17 (J Antimicrob Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Activity of imipenem/relebactam against MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Europe: SMART 2015–17

Sibylle H Lob, James A Karlowsky, Katherine Young, Mary R Motyl, Stephen Hawser, Nimmi D Kothari, Melinda E Gueny, Daniel F Sahm

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, dkz191, https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz191

Published: 13 May 2019

 

Abstract

Objectives

Relebactam is a diazabicyclooctane non-β-lactam inhibitor of Ambler class A and C β-lactamases that is in clinical development in combination with imipenem/cilastatin. The current study evaluated the in vitro activity of imipenem/relebactam against 5447 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosasubmitted to the SMART global surveillance programme in 2015–17 by 67 clinical laboratories in 22 European countries.

Methods

MICs were determined using the CLSI broth microdilution reference method (Eleventh Edition: M07, 2018). Relebactam was tested at a fixed concentration of 4 mg/L in combination with doubling dilutions of imipenem. MICs were interpreted using EUCAST clinical breakpoints (version 8.1); imipenem breakpoints were applied to imipenem/relebactam.

Results

Rates of susceptibility to imipenem and imipenem/relebactam (MIC ≤4 mg/L) were 69.4% and 92.4%, respectively, for all isolates of P. aeruginosa. Over one-third of all isolates (34.9%, 1902/5447) were MDR; lower respiratory tract isolates (38.3%, 1327/3461) were more frequently MDR than were intraabdominal (28.5%, 355/1245) or urinary tract (29.7%, 212/714) isolates. Of all MDR isolates, 78.2% were susceptible to imipenem/relebactam, a rate that was 50–77 percentage points higher than the rate of susceptibility to imipenem or any other β-lactam tested; rates of susceptibility to imipenem/relebactam were similar for MDR isolates from lower respiratory tract (77.8% susceptible), intraabdominal (80.3%) and urinary tract (76.4%) infections. Overall, relebactam restored imipenem susceptibility to 75.2% (1254/1668) of imipenem-non-susceptible isolates of P. aeruginosa and to 69.6% (947/1361) of imipenem-non-susceptible isolates with an MDR phenotype.

Conclusions

Relebactam restored in vitro susceptibility to imipenem for most imipenem-non-susceptible and MDR clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa from European patients.

Topic: phenotype – pseudomonas aeruginosa – imipenem – lactams – respiratory system – urinary tract – infection

Issue Section: ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Relebactam; Imipenem; European Region.

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Potentiation of #imipenem by #relebactam for #Pseudomonas aeruginosa from #bacteraemia and respiratory infections (J Antimicrob Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Potentiation of imipenem by relebactam for Pseudomonas aeruginosa from bacteraemia and respiratory infections

Carolyne Horner, Shazad Mushtaq, David M Livermore, BSAC Resistance Surveillance Standing Committee

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, dkz133, https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz133

Published: 29 April 2019

 

Abstract

Background

Imipenem resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa most often entails loss of the ‘carbapenem-specific’ porin OprD; more rarely it reflects acquired carbapenemases. Loss of OprD only confers resistance to imipenem if AmpC β-lactamase is expressed, and we investigated whether this mechanism was overcome by relebactam, a developmental diazabicyclooctane β-lactamase inhibitor.

Methods

Consecutive P. aeruginosa isolates causing bacteraemia or hospital-onset lower respiratory tract infections were collected between 2014 and 2016 under the aegis of the BSAC Resistance Surveillance Programme. Imipenem MICs were determined centrally by BSAC agar dilution, with relebactam at a fixed concentration (4 mg/L).

Results

For most imipenem-susceptible P. aeruginosa (726/759, 95.7%), the MICs of imipenem alone were 0.5–2 mg/L and were decreased 3- to 4-fold by addition of relebactam, as based on geometric means or modes. For most imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa (82/92, 89%), imipenem MICs were 8–16 mg/L, and were reduced to 1–2 mg/L by relebactam. These patterns applied regardless of whether the isolates were susceptible to penicillins and cephalosporins or had phenotypes suggesting derepressed AmpC or up-regulated efflux. Imipenem MICs for five P. aeruginosa with MBLs remained high (≥16 mg/L) regardless of relebactam.

Conclusions

Potentiation of imipenem by relebactam was almost universal, in accordance with the view that endogenous pseudomonal AmpC ordinarily protects against this carbapenem to a small degree. Imipenem MICs were reduced to the current breakpoint, or lower, except for MBL producers. Potentiation was not compromised by derepression of AmpC or up-regulation of efflux.

Issue Section: ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Imipenem; Relebactam.

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The first #isolation of #Clostridium difficile RT078/ST11 from #pigs in #China (PLoS One, abstract)

[Source: PLoS One, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

The first isolation of Clostridium difficile RT078/ST11 from pigs in China

Li-Juan Zhang, Ling Yang, Xi-Xi Gu, Pin-Xian Chen, Jia-Li Fu, Hong-Xia Jiang

Published: February 26, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0212965

 

Abstract

We investigated the molecular characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium difficile isolated from animals in China. We obtained 538 rectal swabs from pigs, chickens and ducks in 5 provinces during 2015 and 2016. C. difficile isolates were characterized by detection of toxin genes, multilocus sequence typing and ribotyping. And antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the agar dilution method. Out of 538 samples, 44 (8.2%) were C. difficile positive with high prevalence in pigs (n = 31). Among these, 39 (88.6%) were toxigenic including 14 (31.8%) that were A+B+CDT+ and 13 (29.5%) A+B+. The remaining 12 (27.3%) were A-B+. We identified 7 ST types and 6 PCR ribotypes. The most predominant type was ST11/RT078 with toxin profile A+B+CDT+ and all were isolated from piglets with diarrhea. ST109 isolates possessed two different toxigenic profiles (A-B-CDT- and A-B+CDT-) and although it was not the most prevalent sequence type, but it was widely distributed between chickens, ducks and pigs in the 5 provinces. All C. difficile isolates were fully susceptible to vancomycin, metronidazole, fidaxomicin, amoxicillin/clavulanate and meropenem but retained resistance to 4 or 5 of the remaining antibiotics, especially cefotaxime, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, cefoxitin. The RT078/ST11 isolates were simultaneously resistant to cefotaxime, tetracycline, cefoxitin, ciprofloxacin and imipenem. This is the first report of the molecular epidemiology of C. difficile isolated from food animals in China. We identified the epidemic strain RT078/ST11 as the predominate isolate among the animals we screened in our study.

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Citation: Zhang L-J, Yang L, Gu X-X, Chen P-X, Fu J-L, Jiang H-X (2019) The first isolation of Clostridium difficile RT078/ST11 from pigs in China. PLoS ONE 14(2): e0212965. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0212965

Editor: Pradeep Dudeja, University of Illinois at Chicago, UNITED STATES

Received: November 2, 2018; Accepted: February 12, 2019; Published: February 26, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Zhang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper.

Funding: This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31272602) (H-XJ) and Graduate Student Oversea Study Program of South China Agriculture University (2017LHPY029) (LY). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Clostridium difficile; Pigs; China.

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High #incidence of #MDR and #XDR #Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates obtained from #patients with #ventilator-associated #pneumonia in #Greece, #Italy and #Spain as part of the MagicBullet clinical trial (J Antimicrob Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

High incidence of MDR and XDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates obtained from patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia in Greece, Italy and Spain as part of the MagicBullet clinical trial

Astrid Pérez, Eva Gato, José Pérez-Llarena, Felipe Fernández-Cuenca, María José Gude, Marina Oviaño, María Eugenia Pachón, José Garnacho, Verónica González, Álvaro Pascual, José Miguel Cisneros, Germán Bou

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, dkz030, https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz030

Published: 08 February 2019

 

Abstract

Objectives

To characterize the antimicrobial susceptibility, molecular epidemiology and carbapenem resistance mechanisms in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates recovered from respiratory tract samples from patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia enrolled in the MagicBullet clinical trial.

Methods

Isolates were collected from 53 patients from 12 hospitals in Spain, Italy and Greece. Susceptibility was determined using broth microdilution and Etest. MALDI-TOF MS was used to detect carbapenemase activity and carbapenemases were identified by PCR and sequencing. Molecular epidemiology was investigated using PFGE and MLST.

Results

Of the 53 isolates, 2 (3.8%) were considered pandrug resistant (PDR), 19 (35.8%) were XDR and 16 (30.2%) were MDR. Most (88.9%) of the isolates from Greece were MDR, XDR or PDR, whereas fewer of the isolates from Spain (33.3%) and Italy (43.5%) showed antibiotic resistance. Three Greek isolates were resistant to colistin. Overall, the rates of resistance of P. aeruginosa isolates to imipenem, ciprofloxacin, ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidime/avibactam were 64.1%, 54.7%, 22.6% and 24.5%, respectively. All isolates resistant to ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidime/avibactam (Greece, n = 10; and Italy, n = 2) carried blaVIM-2. Spanish isolates were susceptible to the new drug combinations. Forty-eight restriction patterns and 27 STs were documented. Sixty percent of isolates belonged to six STs, including the high-risk clones ST-111, ST-175 and ST-235.

Conclusions

MDR/XDR isolates were highly prevalent, particularly in Greece. The most effective antibiotic against P. aeruginosa was colistin, followed by ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidime/avibactam. blaVIM-2 is associated with resistance to ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidime/avibactam, and related to highly resistant phenotypes. ST-111 was the most frequent and disseminated clone and the clonal diversity was lower in XDR and PDR strains.

Topic: antibiotics – phenotype – polymerase chain reaction – pseudomonas aeruginosa – antibiotic resistance, bacterial – colistin – ciprofloxacin – ceftazidime – clone cells – drug combinations – electrophoresis, gel, pulsed-field – epidemiology, molecular – greece – ichthyosis, x-linked – imipenem – italy – respiratory system – sequence tagged sites – spain – spectrometry, mass, matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization – sodium thiosulfate – antimicrobial susceptibility – tazobactam – ventilator-associated pneumonia – ceftolozane – avibactam – carbapenem resistance

Issue Section:

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model)

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Pneumonia; Italy; Spain; Greece; Colistin; Ciprofloxacin; Ceftazidime; Iminpenem; Tazobactam; Ceftolozane; Avibactam.

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Y229W substitution in #NDM-1/L209F variant restores the hydrolytic activity of the enzyme towards #penicillins, #cephalosporins and #carbapenems: kinetic profile and molecular dynamic studies (Antimicrob Agents Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Y229W substitution in NDM-1/L209F variant restores the hydrolytic activity of the enzyme towards penicillins, cephalosporins and carbapenems: kinetic profile and molecular dynamic studies

Alessandra Piccirilli, Fabrizia Brisdelli, Massimiliano Aschi, Giuseppe Celenza, Gianfranco Amicosante, Mariagrazia Perilli

DOI: 10.1128/AAC.02270-18

 

ABSTRACT

NDM-1 enzyme is the most common metallo-β-lactamase identified in many Gram-negative bacteria causing severe nosocomial infections. The aim of this study was to focus the attention on non-active site residues, L209 and Y229, of NDM-1 and to investigate their role in the catalytic mechanism. Specifically, the effect of Y229W substitution in L209F variant was evaluated by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, kinetic and molecular dynamic (MD) studies. The Y229W single mutant and L209F/Y229W double mutant were generated by site-directed mutagenesis. The Km, kcat and kcat/Km kinetic constants, calculated for the two mutants, were compared with those of NDM-1 and L209F variants. Compared to L209F single mutant, L209F/Y229W mutant showed a remarkable increase of kcat values of 100-, 240-, 250- and 420-fold for imipenem, meropenem, benzylpenicillin and cefepime, respectively. In L209F/Y229W enzyme we observed a remarkable increase of kcat/Km of 370-, 140- and 80-fold for cefepime, meropenem and cefazolin, respectively. The same behavior was stated by antimicrobial susceptibility test. MD simulations were carried out on both L209F and L209F/Y229W enzymes complexed with benzylpenicillin focusing the attention on the overall mechanical features and on the differences between the two systems. With respect to L209F variant, the L209F/Y229W double mutant showed a mechanical stabilization of Loop 10 and N-terminal region but a destabilization of C-terminal and 149-154 regions. The epistatic effect of Y229W mutation jointly with stabilization of Loop 10 lead to a better catalytic efficiency of β-lactams. NDM numbering is used in order to facilitate the comparison with other NDM-1 studies.

Copyright © 2019 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Carbapenem; Beta-lactams; NDM1; Imipenem; Meropenem; Penicillins.

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#Cefiderocol versus #imipenem-cilastatin for the #treatment of complicated #UTIs caused by Gram-negative #uropathogens: a phase 2, randomised, double-blind, non-inferiority trial (Lancet Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Cefiderocol versus imipenem-cilastatin for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections caused by Gram-negative uropathogens: a phase 2, randomised, double-blind, non-inferiority trial

Simon Portsmouth, MD,  David van Veenhuyzen, MBChB, Roger Echols, MD, Mitsuaki Machida, MS, Juan Camilo Arjona Ferreira, MD, Mari Ariyasu, BPharm, Prof Peter Tenke, MD, Tsutae Den Nagata, MD

Published: October 25, 2018 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30554-1

 

Summary

Background

Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria represent the highest priority for addressing global antibiotic resistance. Cefiderocol (S-649266), a new siderophore cephalosporin, has broad activity against Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermenting bacteria, such asPseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii, including carbapenem-resistant strains. We assessed the efficacy and safety of cefiderocol versus imipenem-cilastatin for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infection in patients at risk of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections.

Methods

We did a phase 2, multicentre, double-blind, parallel-group non-inferiority trial at 67 hospitals in 15 countries. Adults (≥18 years) admitted to hospital with a clinical diagnosis of complicated urinary tract infection with or without pyelonephritis or those with acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis were randomly assigned (2:1) by an interactive web or voice response system to receive 1 h intravenous infusions of cefiderocol (2 g) or imipenem-cilastatin (1 g each) three times daily, every 8 h for 7–14 days. Patients were excluded if they had a baseline urine culture with more than two uropathogens, a fungal urinary tract infection, or pathogens known to be carbapenem resistant. The primary endpoint was the composite of clinical and microbiological outcomes at test of cure (ie, 7 days after treatment cessation), which was used to establish non-inferiority (15% and 20% margins) of cefiderocol versus imipenem-cilastatin. The primary efficacy analysis was done on a modified intention-to-treat population, which included all randomly assigned individuals who received at least one dose of study drug and had a qualifying Gram-negative uropathogen (≥1 × 10 5 colony-forming units [CFU]/mL). Safety was assessed in all randomly assigned individuals who received at least one dose of study drug, according to the treatment they received. This study is registered withClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02321800.

Findings

Between Feb 5, 2015, and Aug 16, 2016, 452 patients were randomly assigned to cefiderocol (n=303) or imipenem-cilastatin (n=149), of whom 448 patients (n=300 in the cefiderocol group; n=148 in the imipenem-cilastatin group) received treatment. 371 patients (n=252 patients in the cefiderocol group; n=119 patients in the imipenem-cilastatin group) had qualifying Gram-negative uropathogen (≥1 × 105 CFU/mL) and were included in the primary efficacy analysis. At test of cure, the primary efficacy endpoint was achieved by 183 (73%) of 252 patients in the cefiderocol group and 65 (55%) of 119 patients in the imipenem-cilastatin group, with an adjusted treatment difference of 18·58% (95% CI 8·23–28·92; p=0·0004), establishing the non-inferiority of cefiderocol. Cefiderocol was well tolerated. Adverse events occurred in 122 (41%) of 300 patients in the cefiderocol group and 76 (51%) of 148 patients in the imipenem-cilastatin group, with gastrointestinal disorders (ie, diarrhoea, constipation, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain) the most common adverse events for both treatment groups (35 [12%] patients in the cefiderocol group and 27 [18%] patients in the imipenem-cilastatin group).

Interpretation

Intravenous infusion of cefiderocol (2 g) three times daily was non-inferior compared with imipenem-cilastatin (1 g each) for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infection in people with multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections. The results of this study will provide the basis for submission of a New Drug Application to the US Food and Drug Administration. Clinical trials of hospital-acquired pneumonia and carbapenem-resistant infections are ongoing.

Funding

Shionogi & Co Ltd, Shionogi Inc.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Carbapenem; Imipenem-Cilastatin; Cefiderocol.

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