#Extraordinary increase in #WNV cases and first confirmed #human #Usutu virus #infection in #Hungary, 2018 (Euro Surveill., abstract)

[Source: Eurosurveillance, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Extraordinary increase in West Nile virus cases and first confirmed human Usutu virus infection in Hungary, 2018

Anna Nagy1,2, Eszter Mezei2,3, Orsolya Nagy1,4, Tamás Bakonyi5,6, Nikolett Csonka1, Magdolna Kaposi1, Anita Koroknai1, Katalin Szomor7, Zita Rigó7, Zsuzsanna Molnár3, Ágnes Dánielisz3, Mária Takács1,4

Affiliations: 1 National Reference Laboratory for Viral Zoonoses; National Public Health Center, Budapest, Hungary; 2 These authors contributed equally to this work; 3 Department of Communicable Diseases Epidemiology and Infection Control; National Public Health Center, Budapest, Hungary; 4 Institute of Medical Microbiology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary; 5 Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Veterinary Medicine, Budapest, Hungary; 6 Viral Zoonoses, Emerging and Vector-borne Infections Group, Institute of Virology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Austria; 7 National Reference Laboratory for Viral Exanthematous Diseases; National Public Health Center, Budapest, Hungary

Correspondence: Anna Nagynagy.annannk.gov.hu

Citation style for this article: Nagy Anna, Mezei Eszter, Nagy Orsolya, Bakonyi Tamás, Csonka Nikolett, Kaposi Magdolna, Koroknai Anita, Szomor Katalin, Rigó Zita, Molnár Zsuzsanna, Dánielisz Ágnes, Takács Mária. Extraordinary increase in West Nile virus cases and first confirmed human Usutu virus infection in Hungary, 2018. Euro Surveill. 2019;24(28):pii=1900038. https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.28.1900038

Received: 07 Jan 2019;   Accepted: 02 Apr 2019

 

Abstract

Background

During the 2018 WNV transmission season, similarly to other endemic areas in Europe, a large number of human West Nile virus (WNV) infections were reported in Hungary.

Aims

We summarise the epidemiological and laboratory findings of the 2018 transmission season and expand experiences in flavivirus differential diagnostics.

Methods

Every patient with clinical suspicion of acute WNV infection was in parallel tested for WNV, tick-borne encephalitis virus and Usutu virus (USUV) by serological methods. Sera, whole blood and urine samples were also tested for the presence of viral nucleic acid.

Results

Until the end of December 2018, 215 locally acquired and 10 imported human WNV infections were notified in Hungary. All reported cases were symptomatic; most of them exhibited neurological symptoms. In a large proportion of tested individuals, whole blood was the most appropriate sample type for viral nucleic acid detection, but because whole blood samples were not always available, testing of urine samples also extended diagnostic possibilities. In addition, the first human USUV infection was confirmed in 2018 in a patient with aseptic meningitis. Serological cross-reactions with WNV in different serological assays were experienced, but subsequent molecular biological testing and sequence analysis identified Europe lineage 2 USUV infection.

Conclusion

Careful interpretation and simultaneous application of different laboratory methods are necessary to avoid misdiagnosis of human USUV cases. Expansion of the laboratory-confirmed case definition criteria for detection of viral RNA in any clinical specimens to include urine samples could increase diagnostic sensitivity.

© This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Keywords: WNV; Usutu virus; Hungary.

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#WNV #Seroprevalence Among #Blood #Donors in #Hungary (Vector Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

West Nile Virus Seroprevalence Among Blood Donors in Hungary

Anna Nagy, Tímea Szöllősi, Mária Takács, Nóra Magyar, and Éva Barabás

Published Online: 11 Jun 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2018.2401

 

Abstract

Background and Objectives:

West Nile virus (WNV) is one of the most important viral zoonotic infections in Hungary; however, no transfusion-transmitted WNV infections have been confirmed so far. In 2016, the number of clinical cases of WNV reported was 44, but the seasonal WNV screening of whole-blood donors has not yet been implemented. Our aims were to assess the WNV RNA reactivity and the prevalence of WNV-specific antibodies in the samples of blood donors collected in 2016.

Materials and Methods:

WNV RNA with Cobas TaqScreen and anti-WNV antibody determination from plasma samples of 2112 donors was performed. Cross-reactivity to tick-borne encephalitis virus was excluded. WNV neutralization test was used for the confirmation of anti-WNV IgG reactive results, and the presence of anti-WNV IgM antibodies was also determined.

Results:

None of the samples showed WNV RNA reactivity. The total weighted anti-WNV IgG prevalence was 2.34% (95% confidence interval 1.65–3.03), and in addition, three donors were found to be IgM positive. There was a comparable tendency between the data of WNV seroprevalence and cumulative incidence in six out of seven statistical regions in Hungary.

Conclusion:

Our results show a comparable data with publications that estimated the WNV seroprevalence in some other European endemic areas. As protective measures, both the 30-day deferral of blood donors who spent at least 24 h in WNV-exposed areas and the exclusion of affected Hungarian territories from blood donation are enforced by the Hungarian National Blood Transfusion Service. Our study is the first comprehensive serological survey to obtain actual data about WNV seroprevalence in the Hungarian human population.

Keywords: WNV; Serology; Seroprevalence; Blood safety; Hungary.

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#Assessment of the #function and intergenus-compatibility of #Ebola and #Lloviu virus #proteins (J Gen Virol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Gen Virol. 2019 Apr 24. doi: 10.1099/jgv.0.001261. [Epub ahead of print]

Assessment of the function and intergenus-compatibility of Ebola and Lloviu virus proteins.

Kämper L1, Zierke L1, Schmidt ML1, Müller A1, Wendt L1, Brandt J1, Hartmann E1, Braun S1, Holzerland J2, Groseth A2, Hoenen T1.

Author information: 1 Institute for Molecular Virology and Cell Biology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Greifswald – Insel Riems, Germany. 2 Junior Research Group Arenavirus Biology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Greifswald – Insel Riems, Germany.

 

Abstract

Sequences for Lloviu virus (LLOV), a putative novel filovirus, were first identified in Miniopterus schreibersii bats in Spain following a massive bat die-off in 2002, and also recently found in bats in Hungary. However, until now it is unclear if these sequences correspond to a fully functional, infectious virus, and whether it will show a pathogenic phenotype like African filoviruses, such as ebola- and marburgviruses, or be apathogenic for humans, like the Asian filovirus Reston virus. Since no infectious virus has been recovered, the only opportunity to study infectious LLOV is to use a reverse genetics-based full-length clone system to de novo generate LLOV. As a first step in this process, and to investigate whether the identified sequences indeed correspond to functional viral proteins, we have developed life cycle modelling systems for LLOV, which allow us to study genome replication and transcription as well as entry of this virus. We show that all LLOV proteins fulfill their canonical role in the virus life cycle as expected based on the well-studied related filovirus Ebola virus. Further, we have analysed the intergenus-compatibility of proteins that have to act in concert to facilitate the virus life cycle. We show that some but not all proteins from LLOV and Ebola virus are compatible with each other, emphasizing the close relationship of these viruses, and informing future studies of filovirus biology with respect to the generation of genus-chimeric proteins in order to probe virus protein-protein interactions on a functional level.

PMID: 31017565 DOI: 10.1099/jgv.0.001261

Keywords: Filovirus; Bats; Lloviu virus; Spain; Hungary; Ebola.

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