#Genetic and #serologic #surveillance of #canine (CIV) and #equine (EIV) #influenza virus in Nuevo León State, #México (PeerJ., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

PeerJ. 2019 Dec 17;7:e8239. doi: 10.7717/peerj.8239. eCollection 2019.

Genetic and serologic surveillance of canine (CIV) and equine (EIV) influenza virus in Nuevo León State, México.

Plata-Hipólito CB1, Cedillo-Rosales S2, Obregón-Macías N3, Hernández-Luna CE4, Rodríguez-Padilla C1, Tamez-Guerra RS1, Contreras-Cordero JF1.

Author information: 1 Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Laboratorio de Inmunología y Virología, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, México. 2 Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Departamento de Virología, Escobedo, Nuevo León, México. 3 Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Departamento de Grandes Especies, Escobedo, Nuevo León, México. 4 Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Departamento de Química, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, México.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Despite the uncontrolled distribution of the Influenza A virus through wild birds, the detection of canine influenza virus and equine influenza virus in Mexico was absent until now. Recently, outbreaks of equine and canine influenza have been reported around the world; the virus spreads quickly among animals and there is potential for zoonotic transmission.

METHODS:

Amplification of the Influenza A virus matrix gene from necropsies, nasal and conjunctival swabs from trash service horses and pets/stray dogs was performed through RT-PCR. The seroprevalence was carried out through Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system using the M1 recombinant protein and polyclonal antibodies anti-M1.

RESULTS:

The matrix gene was amplified from 13 (19.11%) nasal swabs, two (2.94%) conjunctival swabs and five (7.35%) lung necropsies, giving a total of 20 (29.41%) positive samples in a pet dog population. A total of six (75%) positive samples of equine nasal swab were amplified. Sequence analysis showed 96-99% identity with sequences of Influenza A virus matrix gene present in H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes. The phylogenetic analysis of the sequences revealed higher identity with matrix gene sequences detected from zoonotic isolates of subtype H1N1/2009. The detection of anti-M1 antibodies in stray dogs showed a prevalence of 123 (100%) of the sampled population, whereas in horses, 114 (92.68%) positivity was obtained.

CONCLUSION:

The results unveil the prevalence of Influenza A virus in the population of horses and dogs in the state of Nuevo Leon, which could indicate a possible outbreak of equine and Canine Influenza in Mexico. We suggest that the prevalence of Influenza virus in companion animals be monitored to investigate its epizootic and zoonotic potential, in addition to encouraging the regulation of vaccination in these animal species in order to improve their quality of life.

© 2019 Plata-Hipólito et al.

KEYWORDS: Canine Influenza Virus (CIV); Equine Influenza Virus (EIV); Matrix gene (M); Polyclonal antibodies

PMID: 31871842 PMCID: PMC6924343 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.8239

Keywords: Influenza A; Equine Influenza; Canine Avian Influenza; H1N1pdm09; H1N2; H3N2; H1N1; Reassortant strains; Dogs; Horses; Mexico; Serology.

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Identification of a #mecA/mecC-positive #MRSA ST1-t127 isolate from a #racehorse in #Japan (J Antimicrob Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Identification of a mecA/mecC-positive MRSA ST1-t127 isolate from a racehorse in Japan

Tsuyoshi Sekizuka, Hidekazu Niwa, Yuta Kinoshita, Eri Uchida-Fujii, Yuba Inamine, Masanori Hashino, Makoto Kuroda

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, dkz459, https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz459

Published: 06 November 2019

 

Abstract

Objectives

MRSA is a known pathogen that affects horses. We investigated an equine MRSA isolate for potential antimicrobial resistance genes, classified the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) and identified the strain-specific dissemination in the horse community based on WGS.

Methods

WGS, using short-read sequencing, and subsequent long-read sequencing by hybrid assembly, was conducted to obtain a complete genome sequence. Pairwise sequence alignment of relative SCCmec sequences and core-genome phylogenetic analysis were performed to highlight transmission routes of the SCCmec and MRSA strain-specific lineages.

Results

In 2018, we isolated the MRSA JRA307 strain from the pus of a wound on a racehorse and the complete genome sequence suggests that it is a clinically relevant pvl-negative ST1-t127 MRSA that harbours both mecA and mecC on SCCmec-307. SCCmec-307 exhibited marked sequence identity to the previously reported SCCmec–mecC in the Staphylococcus sciuri GVGS2 strain isolated from cattle. The JRA307 mecC gene was classified as a mecC allotype of S. sciuri rather than that of Staphylococcus aureus.

Conclusions

We demonstrated the complete genome sequence of equine isolate JRA307, which is a clinically relevant MRSA harbouring mecA and mecC on SCCmec-307. The finding of mecC MRSA suggests a possible SCCmec transmission between distinct staphylococcal species. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of mecC detection in Japan.

Issue Section: ORIGINAL RESEARCH

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model)

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; MRSA; Staphylococcus aureus; Horses; Japan.

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#Equine #influenza virus in #Asia: phylogeographic pattern and molecular features revealed the circulation of an autochthonous lineage (J Virol., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Equine influenza virus in Asia: phylogeographic pattern and molecular features revealed the circulation of an autochthonous lineage

Samuel Miño, Laura Mojsiejczuk, Wei Guo, Haili Zhang, Ting Qi, Cheng Du, Xiang Zhang, Jingfei Wang, Rodolfo Campos, Xiaojun Wang

DOI: 10.1128/JVI.00116-19

 

ABSTRACT

Equine influenza virus (EIV) causes severe acute respiratory disease in horses. Currently, the strains belonging to the H3N8 genotype are divided into two clades, Florida clade 1 (FC1) and Florida clade 2 (FC2) which emerged in 2002. Both FC1and FC2 clades were reported in Asian and Middle East countries in the last decade. In this study, we described the evolution, epidemiology and molecular characteristic of the EIV lineages, with focus on those detected in Asia from 2007 to 2017. The full genome phylogeny showed that FC1 and FC2 constituted separated and divergent lineages, without evidence of reassortment between the clades. While FC1 evolved as a single lineage, the FC2 showed a divergent event around 2004 giving rise to two well supported and coexisting sub-lineages, European and Asian. Furthermore, two different spread patterns of EIV in Asian countries were identified. The FC1 outbreaks were caused by independent introductions of EIV from the Americas, being the Asian isolates genetically similar to the contemporary American lineages. On the other hand, the FC2 strains detected in Asian mainland countries conformed an autochthonous monophyletic group with a common ancestor dated in 2006 and showed evidence of an endemic circulation in local host. Characteristic aminoacidic signature patterns were detected in all viral proteins in both Asian-FC1 and FC2 populations. Several changes were located at the top of the HA1 protein, inside or near to antigenic sites. Further studies are needed to assess the potential impact of these antigenic changes in vaccination programs.

 

IMPORTANCE

The complex and continuous antigenic evolution of EIVs remains a major hurdle for vaccine development and the design of effective immunization programs. The present study provides a comprehensive analysis showing the EIV evolutionary dynamics, including the spread and circulation within the Asian continent and its relationship to global EIV populations over a 10-year period. Moreover, we provide a better understanding of EIV molecular evolution in Asian countries and its consequences on the antigenicity. The study underscores the association between the global horse movement and the circulation of EIV in this region. Understanding EIV evolution is imperative in order to mitigate the risk of outbreaks affecting horse industry and to help with the selection of the viral strains to be included in the formulation of future vaccines.

Copyright © 2019 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Keywords: Equine Influenza; Horses; Asia Region.

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#Equine #Influenza Virus—A #Neglected, Reemergent Disease #Threat (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 6—June 2019 / Historical Review

Equine Influenza Virus—A Neglected, Reemergent Disease Threat

Alexandra Sack, Ann Cullinane, Ulziimaa Daramragchaa, Maitsetseg Chuluunbaatar, Battsetseg Gonchigoo, and Gregory C. Gray

Author affiliations: Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia (A. Sack, U. Daramragchaa, M. Chuluunbaatar, B. Gonchigoo); Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA (A. Sack, G.C. Gray); Irish Equine Centre, Johnstown, Ireland (A. Cullinane); Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore, Singapore (G.C. Gray); Duke-Kunshan University, Kunshan, China (G.C. Gray)

 

Abstract

Equine influenza virus (EIV) is a common, highly contagious equid respiratory disease. Historically, EIV outbreaks have caused high levels of equine illness and economic damage. Outbreaks have occurred worldwide in the past decade. The risk for EIV infection is not limited to equids; dogs, cats, and humans are susceptible. In addition, equids are at risk from infection with avian influenza viruses, which can increase mortality rates. EIV is spread by direct and indirect contact, and recent epizootics also suggest wind-aided aerosol transmission. Increased international transport and commerce in horses, along with difficulties in controlling EIV with vaccination, could lead to emergent EIV strains and potential global spread. We review the history and epidemiology of EIV infections, describe neglected aspects of EIV surveillance, and discuss the potential for novel EIV strains to cause substantial disease burden and subsequent economic distress.

Keywords: Equine influenza; Horses; Influenza A.

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Absence of adaptive #evolution is the main #barrier against #influenza emergence in #horses in #Asia despite frequent virus interspecies transmission from #wildbirds (PLoS Pathog., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

PLoS Pathog. 2019 Feb 7;15(2):e1007531. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1007531. eCollection 2019 Feb.

Absence of adaptive evolution is the main barrier against influenza emergence in horses in Asia despite frequent virus interspecies transmission from wild birds.

Zhu H1, Damdinjav B2, Gonzalez G1, Patrono LV1,3, Ramirez-Mendoza H4, Amat JAR1, Crispell J1, Parr YA1, Hammond TA5, Shiilegdamba E6, Leung YHC7,8, Peiris M7, Marshall JF9, Hughes J1, Gilbert M6,10,11, Murcia PR1.

Author information: 1 MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, Glasgow, United Kingdom. 2 State Central Veterinary Laboratory, Transboundary Animal Disease Laboratory, Avian Influenza Section, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. 3 Project Group Epidemiology of Highly Pathogenic Microorganisms, Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany. 4 Departamento de Microbiología e Inmunología, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de Mexico, México. 5 Animal Health Trust, Lanwades Park, Kentford, Newmarket, Suffolk, United Kingdom. 6 Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, NY, United States of America. 7 School of Public Health, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China. 8 Laboratory Animal Unit, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China. 9 Weipers Centre Equine Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom. 10 Boyd Orr Centre for Population and Ecosystem Health, Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom.  11 Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, United States of America.

 

Abstract

Virus ecology and evolution play a central role in disease emergence. However, their relative roles will vary depending on the viruses and ecosystems involved. We combined field studies, phylogenetics and experimental infections to document with unprecedented detail the stages that precede initial outbreaks during viral emergence in nature. Using serological surveys we showed that in the absence of large-scale outbreaks, horses in Mongolia are routinely exposed to and infected by avian influenza viruses (AIVs) circulating among wild birds. Some of those AIVs are genetically related to an avian-origin virus that caused an epizootic in horses in 1989. Experimental infections showed that most AIVs replicate in the equine respiratory tract without causing lesions, explaining the absence of outbreaks of disease. Our results show that AIVs infect horses but do not spread, or they infect and spread but do not cause disease. Thus, the failure of AIVs to evolve greater transmissibility and to cause disease in horses is in this case the main barrier preventing disease emergence.

PMID: 30731004 DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1007531

Keywords: Avian Influenza; Equine Influenza; Horses; Wild Birds; Mongolia.

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#Serological evidence of #infection with #dengue and #Zika viruses in #horses on French #Pacific Islands (PLoS Negl Trop Dis., abstract)

[Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Serological evidence of infection with dengue and Zika viruses in horses on French Pacific Islands

Cécile Beck , Isabelle Leparc-Goffart, Denise Desoutter, Estelle Debergé, Hervé Bichet, Steeve Lowenski, Marine Dumarest, Gaelle Gonzalez, Camille Migné, Jessica Vanhomwegen, Stéphan Zientara, Benoit Durand , Sylvie Lecollinet

Published: February 7, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007162 / This is an uncorrected proof.

 

Abstract

New Caledonia and French Polynesia are areas in which arboviruses circulate extensively. A large serological survey among horses from New Caledonia and French Polynesia was carried out to investigate the seroprevalence of flaviviruses in the horse population. Here, 293 equine sera samples were screened for flaviviruses using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). The positive sera were then confirmed using a flavivirus-specific microsphere immunoassay (MIA) and seroneutralization tests. This serosurvey showed that 16.6% (27/163) and 30.8% (40/130) of horses were positive for cELISA tests in New Caledonia and French Polynesia, respectively, but the MIA technique, targeting only flaviviruses causing neuro-invasive infections in humans and horses (i.e. West Nile virus [WNV], Japanese encephalitis virus [JEV] and tick-borne encephalitis virus [TBEV]), showed negative results for more than 85% (57/67) of the cELISA-positive animals. Seroneutralization tests with the main flaviviruses circulating in the South Pacific revealed that 6.1% (10/163; confidence interval [95% CI] 3.0%-11.0%) of sera in New Caledonia and 7.7% (10/130; 95% CI 3.8%-13.7%) in French Polynesia were positive for dengue virus serotype 1 (DENV1) and 4.3% (7/163; 95% CI 1.7%-8.6%) in New Caledonia and 15.4% (20/130, 95% CI 9.7%-22.8%) in French Polynesia were found positive for Zika virus (ZIKV). Seroprevalence of the JEV and WNV flaviviruses on the 293 samples from both island groups were comparatively much lower (less than 2%). This seroprevalence study in the horse population shows that horses can be infected with dengue and Zika viruses and that these infections lead to seroconversions in horses. The consequences of these infections in horses and their role in ZIKV and DENV epidemiological cycles are two issues that deserve further investigation.

 

Author summary

New Caledonia and French Polynesia, located in the South Pacific, are facing circulation of dengue virus (DENV) for a long time and emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) since 2013. A large serosurvey among horses’ population from these two islands was carried out to investigate the seroprevalence of the main flaviviruses circulating in the South Pacific. We find out that 6 to 7% of equine sera tested were positive for DENV serotype 1 in the two islands and 4% and 15% were positive for ZIKV in New Caledonia and French Polynesia respectively. Our study highlighted serological evidence of DENV serotype 1 and ZIKV infections of horses leading to meaningful seroconversion. Seroprevalence of other mosquito-borne flaviviruses (i.e. Japanese encephalitis and West-Nile viruses) were comparatively much lower (less than 2%) in New Caledonia and French Polynesia groups suggesting the absence of past active circulation of these viruses in both islands. This finding emphasized the need to investigate the consequences of such infections in the horse population and to determine the role of domestic animals in ZIKV and DENV epidemiological cycles.

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Citation: Beck C, Leparc-Goffart I, Desoutter D, Debergé E, Bichet H, Lowenski S, et al. (2019) Serological evidence of infection with dengue and Zika viruses in horses on French Pacific Islands. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(2): e0007162. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007162

Editor: David W.C. Beasley, University of Texas Medical Branch, UNITED STATES

Received: July 24, 2018; Accepted: January 15, 2019; Published: February 7, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Beck et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper.

Funding: The authors received no specific funding for this work.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Flavivirus; Zika Virus; Dengue Fever; Horses; New Caledonia.

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Novel #mcr-5.3 variant in a CTX-M-8-producing #Escherichia coli ST711 isolated from an infected #horse (J Antimicrob Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Novel mcr-5.3 variant in a CTX-M-8-producing Escherichia coli ST711 isolated from an infected horse

Miriam R Fernandes, Louise Cerdeira, Meire M Silva, Fábio P Sellera, Maria Muñoz, Felicio G Junior, Sergio S Azevedo, Pablo Power, Gabriel Gutkind, Nilton Lincopan

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, dky341, https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dky341

Published: 07 September 2018

___

Sir,

Following the first description of the mobile phosphoethanolamine transferase gene mcr-1, responsible for transferable colistin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae of human and animal origin, a rapid dissemination and emergence of novel mcr variants has been globally described.1–5 

In this regard, two recent reports published in JAC have documented the identification of novel mcr-5 and mcr-5.2 gene variants in d-tartrate fermenting Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Paratyphi B and Escherichia coli from food and food-producing animals, respectively, in Germany.3,4

Interestingly, mcr-5 has also been identified in E. coli isolates from diseased pigs in Japan6 and from animals…

(…)

Issue Section: Research letter

© The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model)

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Colistin; MCR5; Horses.

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