#Equine #influenza virus in #Asia: phylogeographic pattern and molecular features revealed the circulation of an autochthonous lineage (J Virol., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Equine influenza virus in Asia: phylogeographic pattern and molecular features revealed the circulation of an autochthonous lineage

Samuel Miño, Laura Mojsiejczuk, Wei Guo, Haili Zhang, Ting Qi, Cheng Du, Xiang Zhang, Jingfei Wang, Rodolfo Campos, Xiaojun Wang

DOI: 10.1128/JVI.00116-19



Equine influenza virus (EIV) causes severe acute respiratory disease in horses. Currently, the strains belonging to the H3N8 genotype are divided into two clades, Florida clade 1 (FC1) and Florida clade 2 (FC2) which emerged in 2002. Both FC1and FC2 clades were reported in Asian and Middle East countries in the last decade. In this study, we described the evolution, epidemiology and molecular characteristic of the EIV lineages, with focus on those detected in Asia from 2007 to 2017. The full genome phylogeny showed that FC1 and FC2 constituted separated and divergent lineages, without evidence of reassortment between the clades. While FC1 evolved as a single lineage, the FC2 showed a divergent event around 2004 giving rise to two well supported and coexisting sub-lineages, European and Asian. Furthermore, two different spread patterns of EIV in Asian countries were identified. The FC1 outbreaks were caused by independent introductions of EIV from the Americas, being the Asian isolates genetically similar to the contemporary American lineages. On the other hand, the FC2 strains detected in Asian mainland countries conformed an autochthonous monophyletic group with a common ancestor dated in 2006 and showed evidence of an endemic circulation in local host. Characteristic aminoacidic signature patterns were detected in all viral proteins in both Asian-FC1 and FC2 populations. Several changes were located at the top of the HA1 protein, inside or near to antigenic sites. Further studies are needed to assess the potential impact of these antigenic changes in vaccination programs.



The complex and continuous antigenic evolution of EIVs remains a major hurdle for vaccine development and the design of effective immunization programs. The present study provides a comprehensive analysis showing the EIV evolutionary dynamics, including the spread and circulation within the Asian continent and its relationship to global EIV populations over a 10-year period. Moreover, we provide a better understanding of EIV molecular evolution in Asian countries and its consequences on the antigenicity. The study underscores the association between the global horse movement and the circulation of EIV in this region. Understanding EIV evolution is imperative in order to mitigate the risk of outbreaks affecting horse industry and to help with the selection of the viral strains to be included in the formulation of future vaccines.

Copyright © 2019 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Keywords: Equine Influenza; Horses; Asia Region.



#Equine #Influenza Virus—A #Neglected, Reemergent Disease #Threat (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 6—June 2019 / Historical Review

Equine Influenza Virus—A Neglected, Reemergent Disease Threat

Alexandra Sack, Ann Cullinane, Ulziimaa Daramragchaa, Maitsetseg Chuluunbaatar, Battsetseg Gonchigoo, and Gregory C. Gray

Author affiliations: Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia (A. Sack, U. Daramragchaa, M. Chuluunbaatar, B. Gonchigoo); Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA (A. Sack, G.C. Gray); Irish Equine Centre, Johnstown, Ireland (A. Cullinane); Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore, Singapore (G.C. Gray); Duke-Kunshan University, Kunshan, China (G.C. Gray)



Equine influenza virus (EIV) is a common, highly contagious equid respiratory disease. Historically, EIV outbreaks have caused high levels of equine illness and economic damage. Outbreaks have occurred worldwide in the past decade. The risk for EIV infection is not limited to equids; dogs, cats, and humans are susceptible. In addition, equids are at risk from infection with avian influenza viruses, which can increase mortality rates. EIV is spread by direct and indirect contact, and recent epizootics also suggest wind-aided aerosol transmission. Increased international transport and commerce in horses, along with difficulties in controlling EIV with vaccination, could lead to emergent EIV strains and potential global spread. We review the history and epidemiology of EIV infections, describe neglected aspects of EIV surveillance, and discuss the potential for novel EIV strains to cause substantial disease burden and subsequent economic distress.

Keywords: Equine influenza; Horses; Influenza A.


Absence of adaptive #evolution is the main #barrier against #influenza emergence in #horses in #Asia despite frequent virus interspecies transmission from #wildbirds (PLoS Pathog., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

PLoS Pathog. 2019 Feb 7;15(2):e1007531. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1007531. eCollection 2019 Feb.

Absence of adaptive evolution is the main barrier against influenza emergence in horses in Asia despite frequent virus interspecies transmission from wild birds.

Zhu H1, Damdinjav B2, Gonzalez G1, Patrono LV1,3, Ramirez-Mendoza H4, Amat JAR1, Crispell J1, Parr YA1, Hammond TA5, Shiilegdamba E6, Leung YHC7,8, Peiris M7, Marshall JF9, Hughes J1, Gilbert M6,10,11, Murcia PR1.

Author information: 1 MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, Glasgow, United Kingdom. 2 State Central Veterinary Laboratory, Transboundary Animal Disease Laboratory, Avian Influenza Section, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. 3 Project Group Epidemiology of Highly Pathogenic Microorganisms, Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany. 4 Departamento de Microbiología e Inmunología, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de Mexico, México. 5 Animal Health Trust, Lanwades Park, Kentford, Newmarket, Suffolk, United Kingdom. 6 Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, NY, United States of America. 7 School of Public Health, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China. 8 Laboratory Animal Unit, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China. 9 Weipers Centre Equine Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom. 10 Boyd Orr Centre for Population and Ecosystem Health, Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom.  11 Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, United States of America.



Virus ecology and evolution play a central role in disease emergence. However, their relative roles will vary depending on the viruses and ecosystems involved. We combined field studies, phylogenetics and experimental infections to document with unprecedented detail the stages that precede initial outbreaks during viral emergence in nature. Using serological surveys we showed that in the absence of large-scale outbreaks, horses in Mongolia are routinely exposed to and infected by avian influenza viruses (AIVs) circulating among wild birds. Some of those AIVs are genetically related to an avian-origin virus that caused an epizootic in horses in 1989. Experimental infections showed that most AIVs replicate in the equine respiratory tract without causing lesions, explaining the absence of outbreaks of disease. Our results show that AIVs infect horses but do not spread, or they infect and spread but do not cause disease. Thus, the failure of AIVs to evolve greater transmissibility and to cause disease in horses is in this case the main barrier preventing disease emergence.

PMID: 30731004 DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1007531

Keywords: Avian Influenza; Equine Influenza; Horses; Wild Birds; Mongolia.


#Serological evidence of #infection with #dengue and #Zika viruses in #horses on French #Pacific Islands (PLoS Negl Trop Dis., abstract)

[Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]


Serological evidence of infection with dengue and Zika viruses in horses on French Pacific Islands

Cécile Beck , Isabelle Leparc-Goffart, Denise Desoutter, Estelle Debergé, Hervé Bichet, Steeve Lowenski, Marine Dumarest, Gaelle Gonzalez, Camille Migné, Jessica Vanhomwegen, Stéphan Zientara, Benoit Durand , Sylvie Lecollinet

Published: February 7, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007162 / This is an uncorrected proof.



New Caledonia and French Polynesia are areas in which arboviruses circulate extensively. A large serological survey among horses from New Caledonia and French Polynesia was carried out to investigate the seroprevalence of flaviviruses in the horse population. Here, 293 equine sera samples were screened for flaviviruses using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). The positive sera were then confirmed using a flavivirus-specific microsphere immunoassay (MIA) and seroneutralization tests. This serosurvey showed that 16.6% (27/163) and 30.8% (40/130) of horses were positive for cELISA tests in New Caledonia and French Polynesia, respectively, but the MIA technique, targeting only flaviviruses causing neuro-invasive infections in humans and horses (i.e. West Nile virus [WNV], Japanese encephalitis virus [JEV] and tick-borne encephalitis virus [TBEV]), showed negative results for more than 85% (57/67) of the cELISA-positive animals. Seroneutralization tests with the main flaviviruses circulating in the South Pacific revealed that 6.1% (10/163; confidence interval [95% CI] 3.0%-11.0%) of sera in New Caledonia and 7.7% (10/130; 95% CI 3.8%-13.7%) in French Polynesia were positive for dengue virus serotype 1 (DENV1) and 4.3% (7/163; 95% CI 1.7%-8.6%) in New Caledonia and 15.4% (20/130, 95% CI 9.7%-22.8%) in French Polynesia were found positive for Zika virus (ZIKV). Seroprevalence of the JEV and WNV flaviviruses on the 293 samples from both island groups were comparatively much lower (less than 2%). This seroprevalence study in the horse population shows that horses can be infected with dengue and Zika viruses and that these infections lead to seroconversions in horses. The consequences of these infections in horses and their role in ZIKV and DENV epidemiological cycles are two issues that deserve further investigation.


Author summary

New Caledonia and French Polynesia, located in the South Pacific, are facing circulation of dengue virus (DENV) for a long time and emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) since 2013. A large serosurvey among horses’ population from these two islands was carried out to investigate the seroprevalence of the main flaviviruses circulating in the South Pacific. We find out that 6 to 7% of equine sera tested were positive for DENV serotype 1 in the two islands and 4% and 15% were positive for ZIKV in New Caledonia and French Polynesia respectively. Our study highlighted serological evidence of DENV serotype 1 and ZIKV infections of horses leading to meaningful seroconversion. Seroprevalence of other mosquito-borne flaviviruses (i.e. Japanese encephalitis and West-Nile viruses) were comparatively much lower (less than 2%) in New Caledonia and French Polynesia groups suggesting the absence of past active circulation of these viruses in both islands. This finding emphasized the need to investigate the consequences of such infections in the horse population and to determine the role of domestic animals in ZIKV and DENV epidemiological cycles.


Citation: Beck C, Leparc-Goffart I, Desoutter D, Debergé E, Bichet H, Lowenski S, et al. (2019) Serological evidence of infection with dengue and Zika viruses in horses on French Pacific Islands. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(2): e0007162. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007162

Editor: David W.C. Beasley, University of Texas Medical Branch, UNITED STATES

Received: July 24, 2018; Accepted: January 15, 2019; Published: February 7, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Beck et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper.

Funding: The authors received no specific funding for this work.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Flavivirus; Zika Virus; Dengue Fever; Horses; New Caledonia.


Novel #mcr-5.3 variant in a CTX-M-8-producing #Escherichia coli ST711 isolated from an infected #horse (J Antimicrob Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Novel mcr-5.3 variant in a CTX-M-8-producing Escherichia coli ST711 isolated from an infected horse

Miriam R Fernandes, Louise Cerdeira, Meire M Silva, Fábio P Sellera, Maria Muñoz, Felicio G Junior, Sergio S Azevedo, Pablo Power, Gabriel Gutkind, Nilton Lincopan

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, dky341, https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dky341

Published: 07 September 2018



Following the first description of the mobile phosphoethanolamine transferase gene mcr-1, responsible for transferable colistin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae of human and animal origin, a rapid dissemination and emergence of novel mcr variants has been globally described.1–5 

In this regard, two recent reports published in JAC have documented the identification of novel mcr-5 and mcr-5.2 gene variants in d-tartrate fermenting Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Paratyphi B and Escherichia coli from food and food-producing animals, respectively, in Germany.3,4

Interestingly, mcr-5 has also been identified in E. coli isolates from diseased pigs in Japan6 and from animals…


Issue Section: Research letter

© The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model)

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Colistin; MCR5; Horses.


A #Serosurvey of #Flavivirus #Infection in #Horses and #Birds in #Slovakia (Vector Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases

A Serosurvey of Flavivirus Infection in Horses and Birds in Slovakia

To cite this article: Csank Tomáš, Drzewnioková Petra, Korytár Ľuboš, Major Peter, Gyuranecz Miklós, Pistl Juraj, and Bakonyi Tamás. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. February 2018, ahead of print. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2017.2216

Online Ahead of Print: February 13, 2018

Author information: Tomáš Csank,1 Petra Drzewnioková,1 Ľuboš Korytár,2 Peter Major,3 Miklós Gyuranecz,4 Juraj Pistl,1 and Tamás Bakonyi5,6

1 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy (UVMP) in Košice, Košice, Slovakia. 2 Department of Environment, Veterinary Legislation and Economy, University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy (UVMP) in Košice, Košice, Slovakia. 3 Department of Clinic for Birds and Exotic Animals, University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy (UVMP) in Košice, Košice, Slovakia. 4 Institute for Veterinary Medical Research, MTA Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary. 5 Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Veterinary Medicine, Budapest, Hungary. 6 Viral Zoonoses, Emerging and Vector-Borne Infections Group, Institute of Virology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Address correspondence to: Tomáš Csank, PhD, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy (UVMP) in Košice, Komenského 73, Košice 04181, Slovakia, E-mail: tomas.csank@uvlf.sk



In central Europe, at least three flaviviruses circulate among vectors and vertebrate hosts. West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) are mosquito-borne viruses maintained in the nature by enzootic cycle between mosquitoes and birds. Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a flavivirus causing annual human cases in Slovakia. The aim of this study is the prevalence assessment of flavivirus infections in horses (n = 145) and birds (n = 109) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and confirmation by neutralization test (VNT). WNV antibodies have been detected in 11.7% of tested horses and 11.9% of tested birds and confirmed in 6.9% of horse and 9.2% of bird samples. None of the WNV seropositive or dubious horses had WNV IgM (ELISA), and none of the tested horses had USUV neutralizing antibodies. Autochthonous WNV infections have been confirmed in 16.7% of horses without international travelling history. Most of them were from western Slovakia with known endemic WNV transmission. An autochthonous WNV infection in a horse from highland area of Kremnické vrchy (central Slovakia) with unknown data of WNV circulation and without travelling history was detected. TBEV antibody was detected in 6.2% of horses and in 3.4% has been confirmed. In two horses, WNV and TBEV infection could not be distinguished. Confirmed WNV seropositive were eight raptors showing nonspecific signs or suffering from trauma, one white stork, and one house sparrow. The sparrow was caught in a locality in eastern Slovakia, where WNV RNA had been previously detected in sparrows. USUV neutralizing antibodies were present in pooled sample from four Eurasian great tits. Because of insufficient volume, TBEV VNT was not carried out in birds. Results further prove the endemicity of WNV and other vector-borne flaviviruses in natural and accidental hosts in Slovakia, giving better insight in flavivirus epidemiology in European countries in general.

Keywords: Slovakia; Flavivirus; WNV; Usutu Virus; TBEV; Horses; Wild birds.


#Coronavirus #infections in #horses in #Saudi Arabia and #Oman (Transbound Emerg Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Transbound Emerg Dis. 2017 Mar 13. doi: 10.1111/tbed.12630. [Epub ahead of print]

Coronavirus infections in horses in Saudi Arabia and Oman.

Hemida MG1,2, Chu DK3, Perera RA3, Ko RL3, So RT3, Ng BC3, Chan SM3, Chu S3, Alnaeem AA4, Alhammadi MA1, Webby RJ5, Poon LL3, Balasuriya UB6,7, Peiris M3.

Author information: 1 Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Veterinary Medicine, King Faisal University, Al-Hasa, Saudi Arabia. 2 Department of Virology Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kaferelsheik University, Kaferelsheik, Egypt. 3 School of Public Health, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. 4 Department of Clinical Studies, College of Veterinary Medicine, King Faisal University, Al-Hasa, Saudi Arabia. 5 Division of Virology, Department of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, USA. 6 Maxwell H. Gluck Equine Research Center, Department of Veterinary Science, College of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA. 7 Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA.



Equine coronaviruses (ECoV) are the only coronavirus known to infect horses. So far, data on ECoV infection in horses remain limited to the USA, France and Japan and its geographic distribution is not well understood. We carried out RT-PCR on 306 nasal and 315 rectal swabs and tested 243 sera for antibodies to detect coronavirus infections in apparently healthy horses in Saudi Arabia and Oman. We document evidence of infection with ECoV and HKU23 coronavirus by RT-PCR. There was no conclusive evidence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in horses. Serological data suggest that lineage A betacoronavirus infections are commonly infecting horses in Saudi Arabia and Oman but antibody cross-reactivities between these viruses do not permit us to use serological data alone to identify which coronaviruses are causing these infections.

© 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

KEYWORDS: HKU23; cross-neutralization; equine coronavirus; middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus; polymerase chain reaction; serology

PMID: 28296228 DOI: 10.1111/tbed.12630

Keywords: Coronavirus; Betacoronavirus; Equine; Oman; Saudi Arabia.