[Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]
Pneumococcal susceptibility to antibiotics in carriage: a 17 year time series analysis of the adaptive evolution of non-vaccine emerging serotypes to a new selective pressure environment
Naim Ouldali, Robert Cohen, Corinne Levy, Nathalie Gelbert-Baudino, Elisa Seror. François Corrard, François Vie Le Sage, Anne-Sylvestre Michot, Olivier Romain, Stéphane Bechet, Stéphane Bonacorsi, François Angoulvant, Emmanuelle Varon
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, dkz281, https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz281
Published: 06 July 2019
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) implementations led to major changes in serotype distribution and antibiotic resistance in carriage, accompanied by changes in antibiotic consumption.
To assess the dynamic patterns of antimicrobial non-susceptibility across non-PCV13 serotypes following PCV implementations.
We conducted a quasi-experimental interrupted time series analysis based on a 17 year French nationwide prospective cohort. From 2001 to 2018, 121 paediatricians obtained nasopharyngeal swabs from children with acute otitis media who were aged 6 months to 2 years. The main outcome was the rate of penicillin-non-susceptible pneumococci (PNSP), analysed by segmented regression.
We enrolled 10 204 children. After PCV13 implementation, the PNSP rate decreased (−0.5% per month; 95% CI −0.9 to −0.1), then, after 2014, the rate slightly increased (+0.7% per month; 95% CI +0.2 to +1.2). Global antibiotic use within the previous 3 months decreased over the study period (−22.2%; 95% CI −33.0 to −11.3), but aminopenicillin use remained high. Among the main non-PCV13 serotypes, four dynamic patterns of penicillin susceptibility evolution were observed, including unexpected patterns of serotypes emerging while remaining or even becoming penicillin susceptible. In contrast to PNSP strains, for these latter patterns, the rate of co-colonization with Haemophilus influenzae increased concomitant with their emergence.
In a context of continuing high antibiotic selective pressure, a progressive increase in PNSP rate was observed after 2014. However, we highlighted an unexpected variability in dynamic patterns of penicillin susceptibility among emerging non-PCV13 serotypes. Antibiotic resistance may not be the only adaptive mechanism to antimicrobial selective pressure, and co-colonization with H. influenzae may be involved.
Issue Section: ORIGINAL RESEARCH
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Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Penicillin; Streptococcus pneumoniae; Vaccines; Haemophilus Influenzae.