Emergence of #NDM1-producing #Klebsiella pneumoniae in #Greece: evidence of a #widespread clonal #outbreak (J Antimicrob Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Emergence of NDM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Greece: evidence of a widespread clonal outbreak

Lida Politi, Konstantina Gartzonika, Nicholas Spanakis, Olympia Zarkotou, Aggeliki Poulou, Lemonia Skoura, Georgia Vrioni, Athanasios Tsakris

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, dkz176, https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz176

Published: 07 May 2019

 

Abstract

Objectives

NDM-producing Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates remain uncommon in the European region. We describe the emergence and broad dissemination of one successful NDM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae clone in Greek hospitals.

Methods

During a 4 year survey (January 2013–December 2016), 480 single-patient carbapenem non-susceptible K. pneumoniae isolates, phenotypically MBL positive, were consecutively recovered in eight Greek hospitals from different locations and subjected to further investigation. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, combined-disc test, identification of resistance genes by PCR and sequencing, molecular fingerprinting by PFGE, plasmid profiling, replicon typing, conjugation experiments and MLST were performed.

Results

Molecular analysis confirmed the presence of the blaNDM-1 gene in 341 (71%) K. pneumoniae isolates. A substantially increasing trend of NDM-1-producing K. pneumoniae was noticed during the survey (R2 = 0.9724). Most blaNDM-1-carrying isolates contained blaCTX-M-15, blaOXA-1, blaOXA-2 and blaTEM-1genes. PFGE analysis clustered NDM-1 producers into five distinct clonal types, with five distinct STs related to each PFGE clone. The predominant ST11 PFGE clonal type was detected in all eight participating hospitals, despite adherence to the national infection control programme; it was identical to that observed in the original NDM-1 outbreak in Greece in 2011, as well as in a less-extensive NDM-1 outbreak in Bulgaria in 2015. The remaining four ST clonal types (ST15, ST70, ST258 and ST1883) were sporadically detected. blaNDM-1 was located in IncFII-type plasmids in all five clonal types.

Conclusions

This study gives evidence of possibly the largest NDM-1-producing K. pneumoniae outbreak in Europe; it may also reinforce the hypothesis of an NDM-1 clone circulating in the Balkans.

Topic: polymerase chain reaction – plasmids – carbapenem – bulgaria – clone cells – disease outbreaks – electrophoresis, gel, pulsed-field – enterobacteriaceae – genes – greece – ichthyosis, x-linked – infectious disease prevention / control – klebsiella pneumoniae  – replicon – sequence tagged sites – sodium thiosulfate – antimicrobial susceptibility test – beta-lactamase ndm-1 – resistance genes – molecular profiling

Issue Section: ORIGINAL RESEARCH

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model)

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Carbapene; NDM1; Klebsiella pneumoniae; Greece; Nosocomial outbreaks.

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#Detection in #Greece of a #clinical #Enterococcus faecium isolate carrying the novel #oxazolidinone #resistance gene poxtA (J Antimicrob Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Detection in Greece of a clinical Enterococcus faeciumisolate carrying the novel oxazolidinone resistance gene poxtA

Costas C Papagiannitsis, Katerina Tsilipounidaki, Ergina Malli, Efi Petinaki

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, dkz155, https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz155

Published: 22 April 2019

___

Sir,

Oxazolidinones possess potent activity against Gram-positive pathogens such as VRE. Soon after their introduction into clinical practice, linezolid-resistant enterococcal isolates were reported.1 Resistance of enterococci to oxazolidines is mainly associated with mutations in 23S rRNA genes and L3 and L4 ribosomal proteins.2 Additionally, transferable resistance determinants including the cfr, optrAand poxtA genes have also emerged.3–5 Here we report, to the best of our knowledge, the first detection of a poxtA-positive Enterococcus faecium strain isolated in Greece.

…E. faecium isolate (Efa-955) was recovered, in 2018, from a urine sample of a patient treated in the University Hospital…

(…)

____

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model)

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Linezolid; Enterococcus faecium; Greece.

——

#Reversal of #carbapenemase-producing #Klebsiella pneumoniae #epidemiology from blaKPC- to blaVIM-harbouring isolates in a #Greek #ICU after introduction of #ceftazidime/avibactam (J Antimicrob Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Reversal of carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae epidemiology from blaKPC- to blaVIM-harbouring isolates in a Greek ICU after introduction of ceftazidime/avibactam

Matthaios Papadimitriou-Olivgeris, Christina Bartzavali, Anastasia Lambropoulou, Anastasia Solomou, Ekaterini Tsiata, Evangelos D Anastassiou, Fotini Fligou, Markos Marangos, Iris Spiliopoulou, Myrto Christofidou

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, dkz125, https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz125

Published: 19 April 2019

 

Abstract

Objectives

Our aim was to determine the epidemiology of bloodstream infections (BSIs) by carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (CP-Kp) after the introduction of ceftazidime/avibactam in January 2018 among ICU patients.

Patients and methods

All patients hospitalized at the ICU of the University General Hospital of Patras, Greece with CP-Kp BSI during 2015–18 were included. MICs of meropenem, fosfomycin, tigecycline and ceftazidime/avibactam (only for isolates from 2018) were determined by Etest, whereas for colistin, the broth microdilution method was applied. All isolates were tested by PCR for the presence of blaKPC, blaVIM, blaNDM and blaOXA-48 genes.

Results

Among 170 BSIs due to CP-Kp (2015–18), 132 (78%) were caused by isolates carrying blaKPC (4 ceftazidime/avibactam-resistant), 17 blaVIM (10%), 16 blaNDM (9%) and 5 carrying both blaKPC and blaVIM (3%). From 2015 to 2017 (125 BSIs), KPC-producing strains (110; 88%) predominated, followed by NDM-producing strains (15; 12%), whereas no VIM-producing strain was isolated. Among the 45 BSIs in 2018, 22 (49%) were due to isolates carrying blaKPC (4 ceftazidime/avibactam resistant), followed by 17 (38%) carrying blaVIM, 5 (11%) carrying both blaKPC and blaVIM, and 1 isolate carrying blaNDM (2%). MBLs were more frequent in 2018 compared with 2015–17 (51% versus 12%; P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis found that prior administration of ceftazidime/avibactam (P = 0.014; OR 16.7, 95% CI 1.8–158.6) was independently associated with the development of BSI due to ceftazidime/avibactam-resistant isolates.

Conclusions

Widespread ceftazidime/avibactam use may lead to a change in the palette of carbapenemases by replacing KPC with MBL-producing isolates.

Issue Section: ORIGINAL RESEARCH

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model)

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Ceftazidime; Avibactam; NDM; ICU; Greece; Klebsiella pneumoniae.

——

#Report on two #hypervirulent #Klebsiella pneumoniae producing a #blaKPC-2 carbapenemase from a #Canadian patient (Antimicrob Agents Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Report on two hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae producing a blaKPC-2carbapenemase from a Canadian patient

Laura F. Mataseje [(M.Sc)], David A. Boyd [(M.Sc)], Michael R. Mulvey [(Ph.D)], Yves Longtin [(MD, FRCPC)]

DOI: 10.1128/AAC.00517-19

 

ABSTRACT

This report describes two hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae producing KPC identified from a rectal swab and urine culture upon hospital admission. The patient had recent travel to Greece where he was hospitalized. The isolates were sequence type 86, contained an IncHI1B, IncFIB(K) hypervirulent plasmid and an IncFII(K) plasmid harbouring KPC.

Copyright © 2019 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Carbapenem; Klebsiella pneumoniae; Canada; Greece.

——

#Mortality attributable to seasonal #influenza in #Greece, 2013 to 2017: variation by type/subtype and age, and a possible harvesting effect (Euro Surveill., abstract)

[Source: Eurosurveillance, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Mortality attributable to seasonal influenza in Greece, 2013 to 2017: variation by type/subtype and age, and a possible harvesting effect

Theodore Lytras1, Katerina Pantavou2, Elisavet Mouratidou1, Sotirios Tsiodras1,3
Affiliations: 1 Hellenic Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Athens, Greece; 2 Medical School, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus; 3 4th Department of Internal Medicine, Attikon University Hospital, University of Athens Medical School, Athens, Greece

Correspondence:  Theodore Lytras

Citation style for this article: Lytras Theodore, Pantavou Katerina, Mouratidou Elisavet, Tsiodras Sotirios. Mortality attributable to seasonal influenza in Greece, 2013 to 2017: variation by type/subtype and age, and a possible harvesting effect. Euro Surveill. 2019;24(14):pii=1800118. https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.14.1800118

Received: 14 Mar 2018;   Accepted: 21 Mar 2019

 

Abstract

Introduction

Estimating the contribution of influenza to excess mortality in the population presents substantial methodological challenges.

Aim

In a modelling study we combined environmental, epidemiological and laboratory surveillance data to estimate influenza-attributable mortality in Greece, over four seasons (2013/14 to 2016/17), specifically addressing the lag dimension and the confounding effect of temperature.

Methods

Associations of influenza type/subtype-specific incidence proxies and of daily mean temperature with mortality were estimated with a distributed-lag nonlinear model with 30 days of maximum lag, separately by age group (all ages, 15–64 and ≥ 65 years old). Total and weekly deaths attributable to influenza and cold temperatures were calculated.

Results

Overall influenza-attributable mortality was 23.6 deaths per 100,000 population per year (95% confidence interval (CI): 17.8 to 29.2), and varied greatly between seasons, by influenza type/subtype and by age group, with the vast majority occurring in persons aged ≥ 65 years. Most deaths were attributable to A(H3N2), followed by influenza B. During periods of A(H1N1)pdm09 circulation, weekly attributable mortality to this subtype among people ≥ 65 years old increased rapidly at first, but then fell to zero and even negative, suggesting a mortality displacement (harvesting) effect. Mortality attributable to cold temperatures was much higher than that attributable to influenza.

Conclusions

Studies of influenza-attributable mortality need to consider distributed-lag effects, stratify by age group and adjust both for circulating influenza virus types/subtypes and daily mean temperatures, in order to produce reliable estimates. Our approach addresses these issues, is readily applicable in the context of influenza surveillance, and can be useful for other countries.

©  This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Keywords: Seasonal Influenza; Greece.

——

High #incidence of #MDR and #XDR #Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates obtained from #patients with #ventilator-associated #pneumonia in #Greece, #Italy and #Spain as part of the MagicBullet clinical trial (J Antimicrob Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

High incidence of MDR and XDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates obtained from patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia in Greece, Italy and Spain as part of the MagicBullet clinical trial

Astrid Pérez, Eva Gato, José Pérez-Llarena, Felipe Fernández-Cuenca, María José Gude, Marina Oviaño, María Eugenia Pachón, José Garnacho, Verónica González, Álvaro Pascual, José Miguel Cisneros, Germán Bou

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, dkz030, https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz030

Published: 08 February 2019

 

Abstract

Objectives

To characterize the antimicrobial susceptibility, molecular epidemiology and carbapenem resistance mechanisms in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates recovered from respiratory tract samples from patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia enrolled in the MagicBullet clinical trial.

Methods

Isolates were collected from 53 patients from 12 hospitals in Spain, Italy and Greece. Susceptibility was determined using broth microdilution and Etest. MALDI-TOF MS was used to detect carbapenemase activity and carbapenemases were identified by PCR and sequencing. Molecular epidemiology was investigated using PFGE and MLST.

Results

Of the 53 isolates, 2 (3.8%) were considered pandrug resistant (PDR), 19 (35.8%) were XDR and 16 (30.2%) were MDR. Most (88.9%) of the isolates from Greece were MDR, XDR or PDR, whereas fewer of the isolates from Spain (33.3%) and Italy (43.5%) showed antibiotic resistance. Three Greek isolates were resistant to colistin. Overall, the rates of resistance of P. aeruginosa isolates to imipenem, ciprofloxacin, ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidime/avibactam were 64.1%, 54.7%, 22.6% and 24.5%, respectively. All isolates resistant to ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidime/avibactam (Greece, n = 10; and Italy, n = 2) carried blaVIM-2. Spanish isolates were susceptible to the new drug combinations. Forty-eight restriction patterns and 27 STs were documented. Sixty percent of isolates belonged to six STs, including the high-risk clones ST-111, ST-175 and ST-235.

Conclusions

MDR/XDR isolates were highly prevalent, particularly in Greece. The most effective antibiotic against P. aeruginosa was colistin, followed by ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidime/avibactam. blaVIM-2 is associated with resistance to ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidime/avibactam, and related to highly resistant phenotypes. ST-111 was the most frequent and disseminated clone and the clonal diversity was lower in XDR and PDR strains.

Topic: antibiotics – phenotype – polymerase chain reaction – pseudomonas aeruginosa – antibiotic resistance, bacterial – colistin – ciprofloxacin – ceftazidime – clone cells – drug combinations – electrophoresis, gel, pulsed-field – epidemiology, molecular – greece – ichthyosis, x-linked – imipenem – italy – respiratory system – sequence tagged sites – spain – spectrometry, mass, matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization – sodium thiosulfate – antimicrobial susceptibility – tazobactam – ventilator-associated pneumonia – ceftolozane – avibactam – carbapenem resistance

Issue Section:

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model)

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Pneumonia; Italy; Spain; Greece; Colistin; Ciprofloxacin; Ceftazidime; Iminpenem; Tazobactam; Ceftolozane; Avibactam.

—–

Attributable #deaths and #disability-adjusted life-years caused by #infections with #antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the #EU and the #EEA in 2015: a population-level modelling analysis (Lancet Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Attributable deaths and disability-adjusted life-years caused by infections with antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the EU and the European Economic Area in 2015: a population-level modelling analysis

Alessandro Cassini, MD,  Liselotte Diaz Högberg, PhD, Diamantis Plachouras, PhD, Annalisa Quattrocchi, PhD, Ana Hoxha, MSc, Gunnar Skov Simonsen, PhD, Mélanie Colomb-Cotinat, PhD, Mirjam E Kretzschmar, PhD, Brecht Devleesschauwer, PhD, Michele Cecchini, PhD, Driss Ait Ouakrim, PhD, Tiago Cravo Oliveira, PhD, Marc J Struelens, PhD, Carl Suetens, MD, Dominique L Monnet, PhD, theBurden of AMR Collaborative Group †

Open Access / Published: November 05, 2018 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30605-4

 

Summary

Background

Infections due to antibiotic-resistant bacteria are threatening modern health care. However, estimating their incidence, complications, and attributable mortality is challenging. We aimed to estimate the burden of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria of public health concern in countries of the EU and European Economic Area (EEA) in 2015, measured in number of cases, attributable deaths, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs).

Methods

We estimated the incidence of infections with 16 antibiotic resistance–bacterium combinations from European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network (EARS-Net) 2015 data that was country-corrected for population coverage. We multiplied the number of bloodstream infections (BSIs) by a conversion factor derived from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control point prevalence survey of health-care-associated infections in European acute care hospitals in 2011–12 to estimate the number of non-BSIs. We developed disease outcome models for five types of infection on the basis of systematic reviews of the literature.

Findings

From EARS-Net data collected between Jan 1, 2015, and Dec 31, 2015, we estimated 671 689 (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 583 148–763 966) infections with antibiotic-resistant bacteria, of which 63·5% (426 277 of 671 689) were associated with health care. These infections accounted for an estimated 33 110 (28 480–38 430) attributable deaths and 874 541 (768 837–989 068) DALYs. The burden for the EU and EEA was highest in infants (aged <1 year) and people aged 65 years or older, had increased since 2007, and was highest in Italy and Greece.

Interpretation

Our results present the health burden of five types of infection with antibiotic-resistant bacteria expressed, for the first time, in DALYs. The estimated burden of infections with antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the EU and EEA is substantial compared with that of other infectious diseases, and has increased since 2007. Our burden estimates provide useful information for public health decision-makers prioritising interventions for infectious diseases.

Funding

European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; EU; Excess mortality.

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