#Risk of #pneumonia among #residents living near #goat and #poultry #farms during 2014-2016 (PLoS One, abstract)

[Source: PLoS One, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]


Risk of pneumonia among residents living near goat and poultry farms during 2014-2016

Pim M. Post , Lenny Hogerwerf, Anke Huss, Ronald Petie, Gert Jan Boender, Christos Baliatsas, Erik Lebret, Dick Heederik, Thomas J. Hagenaars, C. Joris IJzermans, Lidwien A. M. Smit

Published: October 14, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0223601



In the Netherlands, an association was found between the prevalence of pneumonia and living near goat and poultry farms in 2007–2013. This association then led to regulatory decisions to restrict the building of new goat farms and to reduce emissions of poultry farms. Confirmation of these results, however, is required because the period of previous analyses overlapped a Q-fever epidemic in 2007–2010. To confirm the association, we performed a population-based study during 2014–2016 based on general practitioner (GP) data. Electronic medical records of 90,183 persons were used to analyze the association between pneumonia and the population living in the proximity (within 500–2000 m distance) of goat and poultry farms. Data were analyzed with three types of logistic regression (with and without GP practice as a random intercept and with stratified analyses per GP practice) and a kernel model to discern the influence of different statistical methods on the outcomes. In all regression analyses involving adults, a statistically significant association between pneumonia and residence within 500 meters of goat farms was found (odds ratio [OR] range over all analyses types: 1.33–1.60), with a decreasing OR for increasing distances. In kernel analyses (including all ages), a population-attributable risk between 6.0 and 7.8% was found for a distance of 2000 meters in 2014–2016. The associations were consistent across all years and robust for mutual adjustment for proximity to other animals and for several other sensitivity analyses. However, associations with proximity to poultry farms are not supported by the present study. As the causes of the elevated pneumonia incidence in persons living close to goat farms remain unknown, further research into potential mechanisms is required for adequate prevention.


Citation: Post PM, Hogerwerf L, Huss A, Petie R, Boender GJ, Baliatsas C, et al. (2019) Risk of pneumonia among residents living near goat and poultry farms during 2014-2016. PLoS ONE 14(10): e0223601. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0223601

Editor: Eric HY Lau, The University of Hong Kong, CHINA

Received: May 22, 2019; Accepted: September 24, 2019; Published: October 14, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Post et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: In consultation with the Medical Ethical Committee of the University Medical Centre of Utrecht that approved the study protocol (number 13/533), data are not publicly available due to privacy protection of participants. Sharing an anonymized and de-identified dataset is not possible as it would still contain Electronic Health Records and address data of GP patients, which could potentially lead to the identification of subjects. The data for this study are derived from the NIVEL Primary Care Database. More information about the NIVEL Primary Care Database can be found at https://www.nivel.nl/en/nivel-primary-care-database. Requests for data can be sent to zorgregistraties@nivel.nl. Because of the granularity of the data and the requirements for data protection according to the Dutch Data Protection Act and the General Data Protection Regulation, access to the data is limited. The governance structure (data access committee) of the NIVEL Primary Care Database assesses data requests on data protection, scientific soundness of the request and public interest. Part of the governance structure is the privacy committee of the NIVEL Primary Care Database. For questions on data access, R. Coppen, member of this privacy committee and Data Protection Officer of NIVEL, may be contacted. He is registered as Data Protection Officer at the Dutch Data Protection Authority, see https://autoriteitpersoonsgegevens.nl/nl/onderwerpen/algemene-informatie-avg/functionaris-gegevensbescherming-fg

Funding: The work in this paper was commissioned to the Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research (NIVEL), in collaboration with the Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, and Wageningen University and Research, The Netherlands. It was funded by the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport and the Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality of The Netherlands [through grant number BO-43-013.01-007]. PMP analyzed the data as part of his PhD-project, which is supervised by Lenny Hogerwerf and funded by the Strategic Programme (SPR) of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), The Netherlands. The funding sources had no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Goat; Poultry; Pneumonia; Human; Netherlands.


Molecular #Detection of #Toxoplasma gondii in the #Slaughter #Sheep and #Goats from #Shandong Province, Eastern #China (Vector Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Molecular Detection of Toxoplasma gondii in the Slaughter Sheep and Goats from Shandong Province, Eastern China

Kang Ai, Cui-Qin Huang, Jing-Jing Guo, Hua Cong, Shen-Yi He, Chun-Xue Zhou, and Wei Cong

Published Online: 23 Sep 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2019.2488



It is generally recognized that sheep are susceptible to Toxoplasma gondii and play a very important role in the transmission of toxoplasmosis to humans. In China, sheep toxoplasmosis has been reported in some regions based on serological investigations. However, little is known about sheep toxoplasmosis in Shandong province, eastern China. Thus, this study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of T. gondii infection in the slaughter sheep and goats from three cities (Weihai, Yantai, and Rizhao) of Shandong province, eastern China. From November 2016 to March 2018, a total of 692 meat samples (438 sheep and 254 goats) were collected and detected by a seminested PCR-targeted T. gondii B1 gene. The overall prevalence of T. gondii in sheep and goats were 9.84% and 10.73%, respectively. Meat collected from rural markets (16.04%) had a significantly higher T. gondii prevalence than those collected from supermarkets (6.84%) (p < 0.001). Moreover, sheep and goats raised in backyard were more easily to be infected by T. gondii compared with those raised in farms (p < 0.001). This is the first report of the molecular prevalence of T. gondii infection in sheep and goats in Shandong province, eastern China, which would provide effective data for prevention and control of sheep and human toxoplasmosis in China.

Keywords: Toxoplasmosis; Food Safety; Goats; Sheeps; Shandong; China.


#MERS #coronavirus infection in non-camelid domestic #mammals (Emerg Microbes Infect., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Emerg Microbes Infect. 2019;8(1):103-108. doi: 10.1080/22221751.2018.1560235.

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in non-camelid domestic mammals.

Kandeil A1, Gomaa M1, Shehata M1, El-Taweel A1, Kayed AE1, Abiadh A2, Jrijer J2, Moatasim Y1, Kutkat O1, Bagato O1, Mahmoud S1, Mostafa A1,3, El-Shesheny R1,4, Perera RA5, Ko RL5, Hassan N6, Elsokary B6, Allal L7, Saad A7, Sobhy H7, McKenzie PP4, Webby RJ4, Peiris M5, Ali MA1, Kayali G8,9.

Author information: 1 a Center of Scientific Excellence for Influenza Virus , National Research Centre , Giza , Egypt. 2 b Nature Link , Sfax , Tunisia. 3 c Institute of Medical Virology , Justus Liebig University Giessen , Giessen , Germany. 4 d St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital , Memphis , TN , USA. 5 e School of Public Health , University of Hong Kong , Sandy Bay , Hong Kong. 6 f General Organizations of Veterinary Services , Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation , Giza , Egypt. 7 g Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations , Emergency Center for Transboundary Animal Diseases , Giza , Egypt. 8 h Human Link , Baabda , Lebanon. 9 i University of Texas Health Sciences Center , Houston , TX , USA.



Dromedary camels are natural host of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). However, there are limited studies of MERS-CoV infection of other domestic mammals exposed to infected dromedaries. We expanded our surveillance among camels in Egypt, Tunisia, and Senegal to include other domestic mammalian species in contact with infected camels. A total of 820 sera and 823 nasal swabs from cattle, sheep, goats, donkeys, buffaloes, mules, and horses were collected. Swabs were tested using RT-PCR and virus RNA-positive samples were genetically sequenced and phylogenetically analysed. Sera were screened using virus microneutralization tests and positive sera (where available) were confirmed using plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNT). We detected 90% PRNT confirmed MERS-CoV antibody in 35 (55.6%) of 63 sera from sheep collected from Senegal, two sheep (1.8%) of 114 in Tunisia and a goat (0.9%) of 107 in Egypt, with titres ranging from 1:80 to ≥1:320. We detected MERS-CoV RNA in swabs from three sheep (1.2%) of 254 and five goats (4.1%) of 121 from Egypt and Senegal, as well as one cow (1.9%) of 53 and three donkeys (7.1%) of 42 from Egypt. Partial sequences of the RT-PCR amplicons confirmed specificity of the results. This study showed that domestic livestock in contact with MERS-CoV infected camels may be at risk of infection. We recommend expanding current MERS-CoV surveillance in animals to include other livestock in close contact with dromedary camels. The segregation of camels from other livestock in farms and live animal markets may need to be considered.

KEYWORDS: Egypt; MERS-CoV; Senegal; Tunisia; serology; sheep; surveillance

PMID: 30866764 DOI: 10.1080/22221751.2018.1560235

Keywords: MERS-CoV; Sheeps; Goats; Senegal; Tusinia; Egypt.


The #EU #summary #report on #surveillance for the presence of transmissible spongiform #encephalopathies (#TSEs) in 2017 (EFSA, abstract)

[Source: European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Scientific Report  / Open Access

The European Union summary report on surveillance for the presence of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) in 2017

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) / First published: 28 November 2018 / DOI:  https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2018.5492

Correspondence: zoonoses@efsa.europa.eu

Requestor: European Commission

Question number: EFSA‐Q‐2017‐00753

Acknowledgements: EFSA wishes to thank for the support provided to this scientific output to the EFSA staff members: Yves Van der Stede, Angel Ortiz Pelaez, Valentina Rizzi, Pietro Stella and Frank Boelaert, and to the EFSA contractor: Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte, Liguria e Valle d’Aosta (Unit BEAR – Biostatistica Epidemiologia e Analisi del Rischio and staff: Giuseppe Ru, Francesco Ingravalle, Cristina Bona, Rosanna Desiato, Cristiana Maurella and Eleonora Aiassa).

Approved: 6 November 2018



This report presents the results of surveillance on transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) in bovine animals, sheep, goats, cervids and other animal species, as well as genotyping in sheep, carried out in 2017 in the European Union (EU) according to Regulation (EC) 999/2001, and in Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. In total, 1,312,714 cattle were tested by the 28 EU Member States (MSs) which is a decrease of 3% compared with 2016; 18,526 were tested by the three non‐MSs. For the first time since bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has been reported, no cases of classical BSE were reported in 2017. Six atypical BSE cases were reported by three different MSs: Spain 1 H‐BSE/2 L‐BSE; France 1 H‐BSE/1 L‐BSE; and Ireland 1 L‐BSE. Over the year, 314,547 sheep and 117,268 goats were tested in the EU. In sheep, 933 cases of scrapie were reported: 839 classical and unknown (145 index cases) by eight MSs and 94 atypical (89 index cases) by 13 MSs. Fourteen ovine scrapie cases were reported by Iceland and Norway. Of all classical scrapie cases, 98.2% occurred in sheep with genotypes of susceptible groups. The genotyping of a random sample in 21 MSs showed that 26.5% of the genotyped sheep carried genotypes of the susceptible groups. In goats 567 cases of scrapie were reported: 558 classical (42 index cases) by seven MSs and nine atypical (seven index cases) by five MSs. In total, 3,585 cervids were tested for TSE by ten MSs, mostly by Romania. All results were negative. Eleven cases of chronic wasting disease (CWD) cases were reported in cervids by Norway: nine wild reindeer, one moose and, for the first time ever, one red deer. In total, 185 animals from five species other than cattle, small ruminants and cervids were tested by three MSs, with negative results.

Keywords: Prions; TSE; Mad Cow; Scrapie; Chronic Wasting Disease; Cattle; Cervids; Sheeps; EU.


#Influenza D Virus in #Animal #Species in #Guangdong Province, Southern #China (@CDC_EIDjournal, abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 23, Number 8—August 2017 / Dispatch

Influenza D Virus in Animal Species in Guangdong Province, Southern China

Shao-Lun Zhai1, He Zhang1, Sheng-Nan Chen1, Xia Zhou, Tao Lin, Runxia Liu, Dian-Hong Lv, Xiao-Hui Wen, Wen-Kang Wei1, Dan Wang, and Feng Li

Author affiliations: South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota, USA (S.-L. Zhai, S.-N. Chen, T. Lin, R. Liu, D. Wang, F. Li); Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangzhou, China (S.-L. Zhai, D.-H. Lv, X.-H. Wen, W.-K. Wei); South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou (H. Zhang, X. Zhou)



Molecular tests revealed influenza D viruses of D/OK lineage widely circulating in farmed animal species in Guangdong Province, southern China. In particular, we found high levels of influenza D virus infection in goats and pigs. We also detected viral RNA in serum specimens and feces of animals with certain severe diseases.

Keywords: Influenza D virus; Pigs; Goats; China; Guangdong.


#Inoculation of #Goats, #Sheep, and #Horses with #MERS-CoV Does Not Result in Productive Viral Shedding (Viruses, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Viruses. 2016 Aug 19;8(8). pii: E230.

Inoculation of Goats, Sheep, and Horses with MERS-CoV Does Not Result in Productive Viral Shedding.

Adney DR1, Brown VR2, Porter SM3, Bielefeldt-Ohmann H4, Hartwig AE5, Bowen RA6,7.

Author information: 1Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80521, USA. danielle.adney@colostate.edu. 2Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80521, USA. vienna.brown@colostate.edu. 3Department of Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. stephanie.porter@colostate.edu. 4School of Veterinary Science, University of Queensland, Gatton, QLD 4343, Australia. h.bielefeldtohmann1@uq.edu.au. 5Department of Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. airn.hartwig@colostate.edu. 6Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80521, USA. Richard.Bowen@colostate.edu. 7Department of Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. Richard.Bowen@colostate.edu.



The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was first recognized in 2012 and can cause severe disease in infected humans. Dromedary camels are the reservoir for the virus, although, other than nasal discharge, these animals do not display any overt clinical disease. Data from in vitro experiments suggest that other livestock such as sheep, goats, and horses might also contribute to viral transmission, although field data has not identified any seropositive animals. In order to understand if these animals could be infected, we challenged young goats and horses and adult sheep with MERS-CoV by intranasal inoculation. Minimal or no virus shedding was detected in all of the animals. During the four weeks following inoculation, neutralizing antibodies were detected in the young goats, but not in sheep or horses.

KEYWORDS: MERS; goat; horse; reservoir host; sheep

PMID: 27548203 DOI: 10.3390/v8080230

[PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; MERS-CoV; Horses; Goats; Sheeps.